Olympic sports

Olympic sports are contested in the Summer Olympic Games and Winter Olympic Games. The 2016 Summer Olympics included 28 sports, with five additional sports due to be added to the 2020 Summer Olympics program; the 2014 Winter Olympics included seven sports.[1] The number and types of events may change slightly from one Olympiad to another. Each Olympic sport is represented by an international governing body, namely an International Federation (IF).[2] The International Olympic Committee (IOC) establishes a hierarchy of sports, disciplines, and events.[2] According to this hierarchy, each Olympic sport can be subdivided into multiple disciplines, which are often mistaken as distinct sports. Examples include swimming and water polo, which are in fact disciplines of the sport of aquatics (represented by the International Swimming Federation),[3] and figure skating and speed skating, which are both disciplines of the sport of ice skating (represented by the International Skating Union).[4] In turn, disciplines are subdivided into events, for which Olympic medals are awarded.[2] A sport or discipline is included in the Olympic program if the IOC determines it to be widely practised around the world, that is, the popularity of a given sport or discipline is indicated by the number of countries that compete in it. The IOC's requirements also reflect participation in the Olympic Games – more stringent conditions are applied to men's sports/disciplines (as men are represented at the Games in higher numbers than women) and to summer sports/disciplines (as more nations compete in the Summer Olympics than in the Winter Olympics).

Previous Olympic Games included sports that are no longer included in the current program, such as polo and tug of war.[5] Known as "discontinued sports", these have been removed due to either a lack of interest or the absence of an appropriate governing body for the sport.[2] Some sports that were competed at the early Games and later dropped by the IOC, have managed to return to the Olympic program, for example Archery, which made a come-back in 1972, and tennis, which was reintroduced in 1988. The Olympics have often included one or more demonstration sports, normally to promote a local sport from the host country or to gauge interest in an entirely new sport.[6] Some such sports, like baseball and curling, were added to the official Olympic program (in 1992 and 1998, respectively). Baseball was discontinued after the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, only to be revived again for the forthcoming 2020 Olympics in Tokyo, which will see the introduction of new disciplines within a number of existing Summer Olympics sports as well as several new sports, such as karate and skateboarding, making their Olympic debuts.

Athens archery
Archery competition held during the Athens 2004 Summer Olympics. Dropped from the Olympic program after the 1920 Antwerp games, it was reinstated in 1972.

Olympic sports definitions

The term "sport" in Olympic terminology refers to all events sanctioned by an international sport federation, a definition that may differ from the common meaning of the word "sport". One sport, by Olympic definition, may comprise several disciplines, which would often be regarded as separate sports in common usage.

For example, aquatics is a summer Olympic sport that includes six disciplines: swimming, synchronized swimming, diving, water polo, open water swimming, and high diving (the last of which is a non-Olympic discipline), since all these disciplines are governed at international level by the International Swimming Federation.[1] Skating is a winter Olympic sport represented by the International Skating Union, and includes four disciplines: figure skating, speed skating (on a traditional long track), short track speed skating, and synchronized skating (the latter is a non-Olympic discipline).[1] The sport with the largest number of Olympic disciplines is skiing, with six: alpine skiing, cross-country skiing, ski jumping, nordic combined, snowboarding, and freestyle skiing.

Other notable multi-discipline sports are gymnastics (artistic, rhythmic, and trampoline), cycling (road, track, mountain, and BMX), volleyball (indoors and beach), wrestling (freestyle and Greco-Roman), canoeing (flatwater and slalom), and bobsleigh (includes skeleton). The disciplines listed here are only those contested in the Olympics—gymnastics has two non-Olympic disciplines, while cycling and wrestling have three each.

It should also be noted that the IOC definition of a "discipline" may differ from that used by an international federation. For example, the IOC considers artistic gymnastics a single discipline, but the International Federation of Gymnastics (FIG) classifies men's and women's artistic gymnastics as separate disciplines.[7] Similarly, the IOC considers freestyle wrestling to be a single discipline, but United World Wrestling uses "freestyle wrestling" strictly for the men's version, classifying women's freestyle wrestling as the separate discipline of "female wrestling".[8]

On some occasions, notably in the case of snowboarding, the IOC agreed to add a sport that previously had a separate international federation to the Olympics on condition that they dissolve their governing body and instead affiliate with an existing Olympic sport federation, therefore not increasing the number of Olympic sports.

An event, by IOC definition, is a competition that leads to the award of medals. Therefore, the sport of aquatics includes a total of 46 Olympic events, of which 32 are in the discipline of swimming, eight in diving, and two each in synchronized swimming, water polo, and open water swimming. The number of events per sport ranges from a minimum of two (until 2008, there were sports with only one event) to a maximum of 47 in athletics, which despite its large number of events and its diversity is not divided into disciplines.

Changes in Olympic sports

Curling Torino 2006 Pinerolo Palaghiaccio scena1
Curling was promoted to official Olympic sport at the Nagano 1998 Winter Olympics.

The list of Olympic sports has changed considerably during the course of Olympic history, and has gradually increased until the early 2000s, when the IOC decided to cap the number of sports in the Summer Olympics at 28.

The only summer sports that have never been absent from the Olympic program are athletics, aquatics (the discipline of swimming has been in every Olympics), cycling, fencing, and gymnastics (the discipline of artistic gymnastics has been in every Olympics).

The only winter sports that were included in all Winter Olympic Games are skiing (only nordic skiing), skating (figure skating and speed skating), and ice hockey. Figure skating and ice hockey were also included in the Summer Olympics before the Winter Olympics were introduced in 1924.

For most of the 20th century, demonstration sports were included in many Olympic Games, usually to promote a non-Olympic sport popular in the host country, or to gauge interest and support for the sport.[6] The competitions and ceremonies in these sports were identical to official Olympic sports, except that the medals were not counted in the official record. Some demonstration sports, like baseball and curling, were later added to the official Olympic program. This changed when the International Olympic Committee decided in 1989 to eliminate demonstration sports from Olympics Games after 1992.[9] An exception was made in 2008, when the Beijing Organizing Committee received permission to organize a wushu tournament.[10][11]

A sport or discipline may be included in the Olympic program if the IOC determines that it is widely practiced around the world, that is, the number of countries and continents that regularly compete in a given sport is the indicator of the sport's prevalence. The requirements for winter sports are considerably lower than for summer sports since many fewer nations compete in winter sports. The IOC also has lower requirements for inclusion of sports and disciplines for women for the same reason. Women are still barred from several disciplines; but on the other hand, there are women-only disciplines, such as rhythmic gymnastics and synchronized swimming.

Sports that depend primarily on mechanical propulsion, such as motor sports, may not be considered for recognition as Olympic sports, though there were power-boating events in the early days of the Olympics before this rule was enacted by the IOC.[2][12] Part of the story of the founding of aviation sports' international governing body, the FAI, originated from an IOC meeting in Brussels, Belgium on June 10, 1905.[13]

These criteria are only a threshold for consideration as Olympic sport. In order to be admitted to the Olympic program, the IOC Session has to approve its inclusion. There are many sports that easily make the required numbers but are not recognized as Olympic sports, mainly because the IOC has decided to put a limit on the number of sports, as well as events and athletes, in the Summer Olympics in order not to increase them from the 28 sports, 300 events, and 10,000 athletes of the 2000 Summer Olympics.

No such limits exist in the Winter Olympics and the number of events and athletes continue to increase, but no sport has been added since 1998. The latest winter sport added to the Winter Olympics was curling in 1998.

Previous Olympic Games included sports which are no longer present on the current program, like polo and tug of war.[1] In the early days of the modern Olympics, the organizers were able to decide which sports or disciplines were included on the program, until the IOC took control of the program in 1924. As a result, a number of sports were on the Olympic program for relatively brief periods before 1924.[2] These sports, known as discontinued sports, were removed because of lack of interest or absence of an appropriate governing body, or because they became fully professional at the time that the Olympic Games were strictly for amateurs, as in the case of tennis.[2] Several discontinued sports, such as archery and tennis, were later readmitted to the Olympic program (in 1972 and 1984, respectively). Curling, which was an official sport in 1924 and then discontinued, was reinstated as Olympic sport in 1998.

The Olympic Charter decrees that Olympic sports for each edition of the Olympic Games should be decided at an IOC Session no later than seven years prior to the Games.

Changes since 2000

The only sports that have been dropped from the Olympics since 1936 are baseball and softball, which were both voted out by the IOC Session in Singapore on July 11, 2005,[14] a decision that was reaffirmed on February 9, 2006.[15] These sports were last included in 2008, although officially they remain recognized in the Olympic Charter as a single sport, since both are now governed internationally by the World Baseball Softball Confederation. Therefore, the number of sports in the 2012 Summer Olympics was dropped from 28 to 26.

Following the addition of women's boxing in 2012, and women's ski jumping in 2014, there are only Greco-Roman wrestling and nordic combined, respectively, that are only for men in those games.

Two previously discontinued sports, golf and rugby, returned for the 2016 Summer Olympics. On August 13, 2009, the IOC Executive Board proposed that golf and rugby sevens be added to the Olympic program for the 2016 Games.[16] On 9 October 2009, during the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, the IOC voted to admit both sports as official Olympic sports and to include them in the 2016 Summer Olympics.[17] The IOC voted 81–8 in favor of including rugby sevens and 63–27 in favor of reinstating golf, thus bringing the number of sports back to 28.[17]

In February 2013, the IOC considered dropping a sport from the 2020 Summer Olympics to make way for a new sport. Modern pentathlon and taekwondo were thought to be vulnerable, but instead the IOC recommended dismissing wrestling.[18] On September 8, 2013, the IOC added wrestling to the 2020 and 2024 Summer Games.[19]

On August 3, 2016, the IOC voted to add baseball/softball, karate, sport climbing, surfing, and skateboarding for the 2020 Summer Olympics.[20]

Summer Olympics

At the first Olympic Games, nine sports were contested.[21] Since then, the number of sports contested at the Summer Olympic Games has gradually risen to twenty-eight on the program for 2000–2008. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, however, the number of sports fell back to twenty-six following an IOC decision in 2005 to remove baseball and softball from the Olympic program. These sports retain their status as Olympic sports with the possibility of a return to the Olympic program in future games.[14] At the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen on 9 October 2009, the IOC voted to reinstate both golf and rugby to the Olympic program, meaning that the number of sports to be contested in 2016 was once again 28.[22]

In order for a sport or discipline to be considered for inclusion in the list of Summer Olympics sports, it must be widely practiced in at least 75 countries, spread over four continents.

Current and discontinued summer program

The following sports (or disciplines of a sport) make up the current and discontinued Summer Olympic Games official program and are listed alphabetically according to the name used by the IOC. The discontinued sports were previously part of the Summer Olympic Games program as official sports, but are no longer on the current program. The figures in each cell indicate the number of events for each sport contested at the respective Games; a bullet () denotes that the sport was contested as a demonstration sport.

Eight of the 34 sports consist of multiple disciplines. Disciplines from the same sport are grouped under the same color:

     Aquatics     Basketball     Canoeing/Kayaking     Cycling     Gymnastics     Volleyball     Equestrian     Wrestling

  1. ^ a b The World Baseball Softball Confederation, which currently governs both baseball and softball, was created by a 2013 merger of two former governing bodies—the International Baseball Federation and the International Softball Federation.
  2. ^ At the time skateboarding was announced as part of the 2020 Summer Games, the sport was governed by the International Skateboarding Federation. That body merged with Fédération Internationale de Roller Sports in September 2017 to form the current World Skate.

Demonstration summer sports

The following sports or disciplines have been demonstrated at the Summer Olympic Games for the years shown, but have never been included on the official Olympic program:

Gliding was promoted from demonstration sport to an official Olympic sport in 1936 in time for the 1940 Summer Olympics, but the Games were cancelled due to the outbreak of World War II.[23][24]

Tenpin bowling, demonstrated separately from the Olympics in 1936 in Germany (alongside forms of ninepin bowling), but part of the demonstration sports at Seoul in 1988, has been a regular medal sport of the Pan American Games since 1991.

Classification of Olympic sports for revenue share

Summer Olympic sports are divided into categories based on popularity, gauged by: television viewing figures (40%), Internet popularity (20%), public surveys (15%), ticket requests (10%), press coverage (10%), and number of national federations (5%). The category determines the share the sport's International Federation receives of Olympic revenue.[25][26]

The current categories, as of 2013, are as follows, with the pre-2013 categorizations also being available.[27] Category A represents the most popular sports; category E lists either the sports that are the least popular or that are new to the Olympics (golf and rugby).

Category Individual Sport Team Sport
A athletics, aquatics, gymnastics ——
B cycling, tennis basketball, football, volleyball
C archery, badminton, boxing, judo, rowing
shooting, table tennis, weightlifting
——
D canoe/kayaking, equestrian, fencing,
sailing, taekwondo, triathlon, wrestling
handball, field hockey
E modern pentathlon, golf rugby

Winter Olympics

Before 1924, when the first Winter Olympic Games were celebrated, sports held on ice, like figure skating and ice hockey, were held at the Summer Olympics.[28] These two sports made their debuts at the 1908 and the 1920 Summer Olympics, respectively, but were permanently integrated in the Winter Olympics program as of the first edition. The International Winter Sports Week, later dubbed the I Olympic Winter Games and retroactively recognized as such by the IOC, consisted of nine sports. The number of sports contested at the Winter Olympics has since been decreased to seven, comprising a total of fifteen disciplines.[29]

A sport or discipline must be widely practiced in at least 25 countries on three continents in order to be included on the Winter Olympics program.[2]

Current winter program

The following sports (or disciplines of a sport) make up the current Winter Olympic Games official program and are listed alphabetically, according to the name used by the IOC. The figures in each cell indicate the number of events for each sport that were contested at the respective Games (the red cells indicate that those sports were held at the Summer Games); a bullet denotes that the sport was contested as a demonstration sport. On some occasions, both official medal events and demonstration events were contested in the same sport at the same Games.

Three out of the seven sports consist of multiple disciplines. Disciplines from the same sport are grouped under the same color:

     Skating     Skiing     Bobsleigh

Military patrol was an official skiing event in 1924 but the IOC currently considers it an event of biathlon in those games, and not as a separate sport.

Demonstration winter sports

The following sports have been demonstrated at the Winter Olympic Games for the years shown, but have never been included on the official Olympic program:

Ice climbing was showcased in 2014, and will be demonstrated at the 2018 Winter Olympics, with a plan to be included official competition sport for the 2022 Winter Olympics.[30] Ski ballet, similarly to Military Patrol, was simply a demonstration event falling under the scope of freestyle skiing. Disabled sports are now part of the Winter Paralympic Games.

Recognized international federations

1904 tug of war
Tug of war was contested at the 1904 Summer Olympics. It was later dropped from the Olympic program but remains a recognized sport.

Many sports are not recognized as Olympic sports although their governing bodies are recognized by the IOC.[31] Such sports, if eligible under the terms of the Olympic Charter, may apply for inclusion in the program of future Games, through a recommendation by the IOC Olympic Programme Commission, followed by a decision of the IOC Executive Board and a vote of the IOC Session. When Olympic demonstration sports were allowed, a sport usually appeared as such before being officially admitted.[6] An International Sport Federation (IF) is responsible for ensuring that the sport's activities follow the Olympic Charter. When a sport is recognized the IF become an official Olympic sport federation and can assemble with other Olympic IFs in the Association of Summer Olympic International Federations (ASOIF, for summer sports contested in the Olympic Games), Association of International Olympic Winter Sports Federations (AIOWS, for winter sports contested in the Olympic Games) or Association of IOC Recognised International Sports Federations (ARISF, for sports not contested in the Olympic Games).[1] A number of recognized sports are included in the program of the World Games, a multi-sport event run by the International World Games Association, an organization that operates under the patronage of the IOC. Since the start of the World Games in 1981, a number of sports, including badminton, taekwondo, and triathlon have all subsequently been incorporated into the Olympic program.

In 2020, the IOC altered the way it plans the Olympic Games from one based around a maximum number of sports, to taking total events into account, opening the schedule up for the inclusion on a Games by Games basis of additional sports to the 25 "core" sports. For the 2020 Summer Olympics, the local organizing committee was thus permitted to add a total of five sports to the programme in addition to the existing 28, taking the total to 33.[20][32]

The governing bodies of the following sports, though not contested in the Olympic Games, are recognized by the IOC:[33]


1 Official sport at the World Games
2 Discontinued Olympic sport
3 Ineligible to be included because the Olympic Charter bans sports with motorization elements
4 The governing bodies for baseball and softball merged into a single international federation in 2013.
5 Included at the 2020 Summer Olympics
6 Skateboarding, now a discipline within roller sports, is Included at the 2020 Summer Olympics.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "Olympic Sports". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2010-03-13.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Olympic Sports, Disciplines & Events". HickokSports.com. 2005-02-04. Archived from the original on 2007-04-18. Retrieved 2007-03-18.
  3. ^ "Aquatics". Sports. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
  4. ^ "Skating". Sports. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
  5. ^ "Olympic sports of the past". Sports. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
  6. ^ a b c "Demonstration Sports at the Olympic Games". Top End Sports. 2007-01-26. Retrieved 2007-03-18.
  7. ^ "Disciplines". International Federation of Gymnastics. Retrieved 3 October 2015. Clicking on the "Disciplines" tab in the main menu bar brings up a list of FIG disciplines; men's and women's artistic gymnastics are listed separately.
  8. ^ "Disciplines". United World Wrestling. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
  9. ^ "Albertville 1992". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2008-07-08.
  10. ^ "Wushu to be part of Beijing Olympic Games". News Guangdong. 2005-10-14. Retrieved 2007-03-18.
  11. ^ "Rogge says wushu no "Olympic sport" in 2008". Xinhua News Agency. 2005-10-16. Archived from the original on 2006-11-28. Retrieved 2007-03-18.
  12. ^ What Events are Olympic? Olympics at SportsReference.com. Accessed on 15 Aug 2008.
  13. ^ "The Postal History of ICAO". Icao.int. Retrieved 2014-02-09.
  14. ^ a b "They'rrre out! Olympics drop baseball, softball". NBC Sports. Associated Press. 9 July 2005. Retrieved 15 August 2008. Rogge has basically conspired against the sports to get them removed
  15. ^ de Vries, Lloyd (9 February 2006). "Strike 3 for Olympic Baseball". CBS News. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
  16. ^ Wilson, Stephen (August 13, 2009). "Golf, rugby backed by IOC board for 2016 Games". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 2009-08-14.
  17. ^ a b "Golf & rugby voted into Olympics". BBC. October 9, 2009. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
  18. ^ "Wrestling to be dropped from 2020 Olympic Games", BBC Sport, 12 February 2013.
  19. ^ "Wrestling added to Olympic programme for 2020 and 2024 Games". Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  20. ^ a b "IOC approves five new sports for Olympic Games Tokyo 2020". Olympic.org. 2016-08-03. Retrieved 2016-08-03.
  21. ^ "Athens 1896". Olympic Games. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2010-03-13.
  22. ^ Klein, Jeff Z. (August 14, 2009). "IOC Decision Draws Cheers and Complaints From Athletes". New York Times.
  23. ^ Welch, Ann (1980). The Story of Gliding 2nd edition. John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-3659-6.
  24. ^ "DFS-Olympia-Meise". Deutsches Museum. Retrieved 2008-03-25.
  25. ^ "Athletics to share limelight as one of top Olympic sports". The Queensland Times. 2013-05-31. Retrieved 2013-07-18.
  26. ^ "Winners Include Gymnastics, Swimming - and Wrestling - as IOC Announces New Funding Distribution Groupings". The Association of Summer Olympic International Federations. Retrieved 2013-07-18.
  27. ^ Editorial, Reuters. "Olympics-IOC sports revenue rankings". reuters.com. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  28. ^ "A History of Winter Olympic Games: Celebration and Contrariety". WorldWeb Travel Guide. 2000. Retrieved 2008-08-01.
  29. ^ "Charmonix 1924". Olympic Games. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2010-03-13.
  30. ^ http://theuiaa.org/ice-climbing/the-uiaa-and-its-olympic-goal/
  31. ^ www.immagica.it, Immagica -. "ARISF Association of IOC Recognised International Sport Federation". www.arisf.org. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  32. ^ "You're in! Baseball/softball, 4 other sports make Tokyo cut". USA Today. 2016-08-03. Retrieved 2016-08-18.
  33. ^ "International Sports Federations (IFs)". Olympic.org. Retrieved 2014-07-07.
  34. ^ "IFAF Earns Recognition by the International Olympic Committee". IFAF.org. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
  35. ^ "Get Horizontal | Ultimate & WFDF Receive Recognition By IOC !!!!". Gethorizontal.be. 2013-01-24. Archived from the original on 2013-06-13. Retrieved 2014-02-09.

External links

Alpine skiing

Alpine skiing, or downhill skiing, is the pastime of sliding down snow-covered slopes on skis with fixed-heel bindings, unlike other types of skiing (cross-country, Telemark, or ski jumping), which use skis with free-heel bindings. Whether for recreation or sport, it is typically practised at ski resorts, which provide such services as ski lifts, artificial snow making, snow grooming, restaurants, and ski patrol.

"Off-piste" skiers—those skiing outside ski area boundaries—may employ snowmobiles, helicopters or snowcats to deliver them to the top of a slope. Back-country skiers may use specialized equipment with a free-heel mode for hiking up slopes and a locked-heel mode for descents.

Alpine skiing has been an event at the Winter Olympic Games since 1936.

Athens Olympic Sports Complex

The Athens Olympic Park (formerly known as Olympic Athletic Center of Athens "Spiros Louis" (Greek: Ολυμπιακό Αθλητικό Κέντρο Αθηνών "Σπύρος Λούης", Olympiakó Athlitikó Kéntro Athinón "Spýros Loúis") or OACA (OAKA)), is a sport facilities complex located at Marousi, northeast Athens, Greece. The complex consists of five major venues as well as other supplementary sport facilities.

The Olympic Athletic Center of Athens has hosted the Mediterranean Games in 1991, the World Championship in Athletics in 1997 as well as other important athletic and cultural events. The most significant event the Athens Olympic Sports Complex has hosted, was the Olympic Games. OACA was the main venue for the Athens Olympic Games in 2004. The complex was revamped for the games under a design produced by the Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava.

Canoeing

Canoeing is an activity which involves paddling a canoe with a single-bladed paddle. Common meanings of the term are limited to when the canoeing is the central purpose of the activity. Broader meanings include when it is combined with other activities such as canoe camping, or where canoeing is merely a transportation method used to accomplish other activities. Most present-day canoeing is done as or as a part of a sport or recreational activity. In some parts of Europe canoeing refers to both canoeing and kayaking, with a canoe being called an Open canoe.

A few of the recreational forms of canoeing are canoe camping and canoe racing. Other forms include a wide range of canoeing on lakes, rivers, oceans, ponds and streams.

Chongqing Olympic Sports Center

The Chongqing Olympic Sports Center (simplified Chinese: 重庆奥林匹克体育中心; traditional Chinese: 重慶奧林匹克體育中心) is a sports venue featuring a 58,680-seat multi-purpose stadium in Chongqing, China.The sports center is the home stadium of Chongqing Lifan F.C. of Chinese Football Association Super League. It was built in 2004.

The stadium is also a popular venue for concerts. Mariah Carey began her The Elusive Chanteuse Show tour in China at the stadium on October 15, 2014.

Freestyle skiing

Freestyle skiing is a skiing discipline comprising aerials, moguls, cross, half-pipe and slopestyle as part of the Winter Olympics. It can consist of a skier performing aerial flips and spins, and can include skiers sliding rails and boxes on their skis. It is also commonly referred to as freeskiing, jibbing, as well as many other names around the world.

German Olympic Sports Confederation

The German Olympic Sports Confederation (German: Deutscher Olympischer Sportbund or DOSB) was founded on 20 May 2006 by a merger of the Deutscher Sportbund (DSB), and the Nationales Olympisches Komitee für Deutschland (NOK) which dates back to 1895, the year it was founded and recognized as NOC by the IOC.

Seated in Frankfurt am Main, it represents 89,000 clubs and 27,000,000 members, about a third of the population of Germany.

Handball at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's tournament

The men's handball tournament at the 2008 Summer Olympics was held from August 10 to August 24, at the Olympic Sports Centre Gymnasium and National Indoor Stadium in Beijing. Twelve nations are represented in the men's tournament.

The four best teams from each group advanced to the quarterfinal round, 5th and 6th teams in each group are classified 9th-12th by the results of their group matches. The losers of quarterfinal matches competed in the 5th-8th place matches by the same elimination system as the winners of the quarterfinals.

This event was the last to be completed in the 2008 Summer Olympics.

Handball at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Women's tournament

The women's handball tournament at the 2008 Summer Olympics is being held from August 9 to August 23, at the Olympic Sports Centre Gymnasium and National Indoor Stadium in Beijing. Twelve nations are represented in the women's tournament.

The four best teams from each group will advance to the quarterfinal round, 5th and 6th teams in each group are classified 9th-12th by the results of their group matches. The losers of quarterfinal matches will compete in the 5th-8th classification matches by the same elimination system as the winners of the quarterfinals.

Three time consecutive defending Champion Denmark were not part of the 2008 Olympics Handball Tournament, as they did not qualify from the 2007 World Women's Handball Championship.

Ice stock sport

Ice stock sport (also known as Bavarian Curling) is a winter sport, somewhat similar to curling. In German, it is known as Eisstockschießen. Competitors slide ice stocks over an ice surface, aiming for a target, or to cover the longest distance. Ice stocks have a gliding surface, to which a stick (ca 30 cm) is attached. The sport, mostly practised in southern Germany, Austria and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol in Italy, has been demonstrated at the Winter Olympic Games on two occasions. Although the sport is traditionally played on an ice surface, events are also held on tarmac in summer.

Nanjing Olympic Sports Centre

The Nanjing Olympic Sports Centre (Chinese: 南京奥林匹克体育中心) is used mostly for association football and also for athletics. It is located in Nanjing Hexi New City, covers an area of 89.6 hectares, with a total construction area of about 401,000 square meters. As the main venue for the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics and for the 2005 National Games of China, the Nanjing Olympic Sports Centre, Jiangsu Province, the largest since the founding of the social utility projects, is also a period of 15 construction projects in Jiangsu, one of large-scale government investment. The 4 billion yuan RMB Olympic standard complex was designed by International Sports Architecture practice HOK Sport (now Populous). The Olympic Park includes a 61,443 seat multi-use stadium (Nanjing Olympic Sports Centre Stadium), 13,000 seat gymnasium, 4,000 seat FINA standard Aquatic complex, 4,000 seat Tennis Center, 23,000 square meter Information Technology Center, and various recreational sports fields.

Nordic combined

Nordic combined is a winter sport in which athletes compete in cross-country skiing and ski jumping. Nordic combined at the Winter Olympics and the FIS Nordic Combined World Cup are ongoing.

O.A.C.A. Olympic Indoor Hall

The O.A.C.A. Olympic Indoor Hall (honorarily named Nikos Galis Olympic Indoor Hall since 2016), which is a part of the Olympic Athletic Center of Athens (O.A.C.A.) "Spiros Louis" (Greek: O.A.K.A.), was completed in 1995, and was the largest indoor venue in use for sporting events at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece. It is located in Marousi, Athens. It is considered to be one of the biggest and most modern indoor sports arenas in all of Europe.

The arena also contains a training facility. Since 2016, it is named after the well-known Greek basketball player Nikos Galis.

Olympic Sports Center Gymnasium (Beijing)

The Olympic Sports Center Gymnasium (simplified Chinese: 奥体中心体育馆; traditional Chinese: 奧體中心體育館; pinyin: Ào Tǐ Zhōngxīn Tǐyùguǎn) is an indoor arena next to the Olympic Sports Centre Stadium at the southern part of the Olympic Green in Beijing, China.

It was reformed for the 2008 Summer Olympics where it hosted the handball tournaments up to and including the quarter-finals, after which they will move to the larger Beijing National Indoor Stadium. It also hosted the Wushu Tournament Beijing 2008, a separate wushu competition hosted by the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games and the International Wushu Federation, which runs parallel to the Olympic Games.

It has a seating capacity of 7,000 expanded from the original 6,000 and a floor space of 47,410 square metres from the current 43,000. Three handball training courts were put to use in 2008. The renovation was complete in August 2007.

Olympic Sports Centre (Beijing)

The Olympic Sports Centre Stadium (simplified Chinese: 奥体中心体育场; traditional Chinese: 奧體中心體育場; pinyin: Ào Tǐ Zhōngxīn Tǐyùchǎng) is a multi-purpose stadium in Beijing, China. It is currently used mostly for football matches. It was constructed in 1986 for the upcoming Asian Games at that time. The complex contains the main stadium, an indoor arena, a hockey field, and a natatorium.

It was renovated to host the 2008 Summer Olympics, where it hosted football matches and the running and riding parts of the modern pentathlon events. For the riding discipline, the football field at the core of the venue has been turned into a high-standard temporary equestrian field. The renovation also added four pavilion-styled rotating rampways around the stadium.

The stadium has a floor space of 34,975 square metres, which exceeds the original building area of 20,000 square metres. Its capacity has doubled after the renovation, from about 18,000 to 36,228.

Olympic Stadium (Athens)

The Olympic Stadium of Athens "Spyros Louis" (Greek: Ολυμπιακό Στάδιο Αθηνών "Σπύρος Λούης", Olympiakó Stádio Athinon "Spyros Louis") is a sports stadium in Athens, Greece. It is a part of the Athens Olympic Sports Complex and is named after the first modern Olympic marathon gold medalist in 1896, Spyros Louis. The stadium hosts two of the biggest sport clubs in Greece, Panathinaikos and AEK Athens. The stadium served as the main stadium during the 2004 Summer Olympics.

Qinhuangdao Olympic Sports Center Stadium

Qinhuangdao Olympic Sports Centre Stadium (simplified Chinese: 秦皇岛市奥体中心体育场; traditional Chinese: 秦皇島市奧體中心體育場; pinyin: Qínhuángdǎo Shì Ào Tǐ Zhōngxīn Tǐyùchǎng) served as one of the football venues during the 2008 Summer Olympics.

The multi-use stadium, which is used mostly for football matches, lies inside the Qinhuangdao Olympic Sports Centre on the Hebei Avenue in Qinhuangdao, China.

Its construction was started in May 2002 and completed on July 30, 2004. The sports centre covers 168,000 square metres, the Olympic-standard stadium has a seating capacity of 33,572, 0.2% of which are reserved for the disabled persons.

Shenyang Olympic Sports Center Stadium

The Shenyang Olympic Sports Center Stadium (simplified Chinese: 沈阳奥林匹克体育中心; traditional Chinese: 瀋陽奧林匹克體育中心; pinyin: Shěnyáng Àolínpǐkè Tǐyù Zhōngxīn) is a 60,000-seat multi-purpose stadium in Shenyang, China.

Nicknamed "Crystal Crown" 水晶皇冠, the stadium was built by AXS Satow as a replacement for Wulihe Stadium. It hosted football matches at the 2008 Summer Olympics. It is the home ground of the Shenyang Dongjin F.C. currently playing in the China League Two. In 2013 the stadium was the principal venue of the 2013 National Games of China with the opening and closing ceremonies as well as the main athletic events.The complex includes a 10,000-seat gymnasium, a 4,000-seat natatorium, and a 4,000-seat tennis field.

Skiing

Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow. Many types of competitive skiing events are recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), and the International Ski Federation (FIS).

Wrestling

Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling-type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds. The sport can either be theatrical for entertainment (see professional wrestling), or genuinely competitive. A wrestling bout is a physical competition, between two (occasionally more) competitors or sparring partners, who attempt to gain and maintain a superior position. There are a wide range of styles with varying rules with both traditional historic and modern styles. Wrestling techniques have been incorporated into other martial arts as well as military hand-to-hand combat systems.

The term wrestling is attested in late Old English, as wræstlunge (glossing palestram).

Sport (Discipline) Body 96 00 04 06 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20
 
Current summer sports
 
Diving Diving pictogram.svg FINA 2 1 2 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8
Marathon swimming Open water swimming pictogram.svg 2 2 2 2
Swimming Swimming pictogram.svg 4 7 9 4 6 9 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 13 15 18 29 29 26 26 29 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 35
Synchronized swimming Synchronized swimming pictogram.svg 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
Water polo Water polo pictogram.svg 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
3-on-3 basketball 3x3 basketball pictogram.svg FIBA 2
Basketball Basketball pictogram.svg 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
Canoe/kayak (sprint) Canoeing (flatwater) pictogram.svg ICF 9 9 9 9 7 7 7 7 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12
Canoe/kayak (slalom) Canoeing (slalom) pictogram.svg 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
 
BMX freestyle BMX freestyle pictogram.svg UCI 2
BMX racing Cycling (BMX) pictogram.svg 2 2 2 2
Mountain biking Cycling (mountain biking) pictogram.svg 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Road cycling Cycling (road) pictogram.svg 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Track cycling Cycling (track) pictogram.svg 5 2 7 5 7 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 4 4 5 6 7 8 12 12 10 10 10 12
 
Artistic Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svg FIG 8 1 11 4 2 4 4 9 8 11 9 9 15 15 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14
Rhythmic Gymnastics (rhythmic) pictogram.svg 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Trampoline Gymnastics (trampoline) pictogram.svg 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
Volleyball (beach) Volleyball (beach) pictogram.svg FIVB 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Volleyball (indoor) Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
Equestrian / Dressage Equestrian Dressage pictogram.svg FEI 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Equestrian / Eventing Equestrian Eventing pictogram.svg 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Equestrian / Jumping Equestrian Jumping pictogram.svg 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
Freestyle wrestling Wrestling Freestyle pictogram.svg UWW 7 5 5 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 11 11 11 12 12
Greco-Roman wrestling Wrestling pictogram.svg 1 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 8 7 7 7 6 6
 
Archery Archery pictogram.svg WA 6 6 3 10 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5
Athletics Athletics pictogram.svg IAAF 12 23 25 21 26 30 29 27 27 29 29 33 33 33 34 36 36 38 37 38 41 42 43 44 46 46 47 47 47 48
Badminton Badminton pictogram.svg BWF 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
Baseball Baseball pictogram.svg WBSC[s 1] 1 1 1 1 1 1
Boxing Boxing pictogram.svg AIBA 7 5 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 11 11 13 13 13
Fencing Fencing pictogram.svg FIE 3 7 5 8 4 5 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 12
Field hockey Field hockey pictogram.svg FIH 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Football Football pictogram.svg FIFA 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Golf Golf pictogram.svg IGF 2 2 2 2
Handball Handball pictogram.svg IHF 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Judo Judo pictogram.svg IJF 4 6 6 8 8 7 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15
Karate Karate icon.svg WKF 8
Modern pentathlon Modern pentathlon pictogram.svg UIPM 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
Rowing Rowing pictogram.svg FISA 4 5 6 4 4 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14
Rugby sevens Rugby Sevens pictogram.svg WR 2 2
Sailing Sailing pictogram.svg ISAF 7 4 4 14 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 8 10 10 11 11 11 10 10 10
Shooting Shooting pictogram.svg ISSF 5 9 16 15 18 21 10 2 3 4 7 7 6 6 7 8 7 7 11 13 13 15 17 17 15 15 15 15
Skateboarding Skateboarding pictogram.svg WS[s 2] 4
Softball Softball pictogram.svg WBSC[s 1] 1 1 1 1 1
Sport climbing Climbing pictogram.svg IFSC 2
Surfing Surfing pictogram.svg ISA 2
Table tennis Table tennis pictogram.svg ITTF 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5
Taekwondo Taekwondo pictogram.svg WT 8 8 8 8 8 8
Tennis Tennis pictogram.svg ITF 2 4 2 4 6 8 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5
Triathlon Triathlon pictogram.svg ITU 2 2 2 2 2 3
Weightlifting Weightlifting pictogram.svg IWF 2 2 2 5 5 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 7 7 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 15 15 15 15 15 14
 
Discontinued summer sports
 
Equestrian / Vaulting EQ Vaulting pictogram.svg FEI 2
 
Handball / Field Handball Handball Field Handball pictogram.svg IHF 1
Rugby / Rugby union Rugby union pictogram.svg WR 1 1 1 1
 
Basque pelota Basque pelota pictogram.svg FIPV 1
Cricket Cricket pictogram.svg ICC 1
Croquet Croquet pictogram.svg WCF 3
Lacrosse Lacrosse pictogram.svg FIL 1 1
Jeu de paume Jeu de paume pictogram.svg 1
Polo Polo pictogram.svg FIP 1 1 1 1 1
Rackets Racquets pictogram.svg 2
Roque Roque pictogram.svg 1
Tug of war Tug of war pictogram.svg TWIF 1 1 1 1 1 1
Water motorsports Water motorsports pictogram.svg UIM 3
 
Figure skating Figure skating pictogram.svg ISU 4 3 Rescheduled during winter games
Ice hockey Ice hockey pictogram.svg IIHF 1
 
Total events 43 85 94 78 110 102 156 126 109 117 129 136 149 151 150 163 172 195 198 203 221 237 257 271 300 301 302 302 306 339
Sport (Discipline) Body 96 00 04 06 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 20
Sport (Discipline) Body 08 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 18
 
Figure skating Figure skating pictogram.svg ISU 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5
Speed skating Speed skating pictogram.svg   5 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 12 12 12 14
Short track speed skating Short track speed skating pictogram.svg   4 6 6 8 8 8 8 8
 
Ice hockey Ice hockey pictogram.svg IIHF   1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
 
Curling Curling pictogram.svg WCF   1 2 2 2 2 2 3
 
Cross-country skiing Cross country skiing pictogram.svg FIS   2 2 2 3 3 4 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 10 10 10 12 12 12 12 12
Alpine skiing Alpine skiing pictogram.svg   2 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11
Ski jumping Ski jumping pictogram.svg   1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4
Nordic combined Nordic combined pictogram.svg   1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3
Freestyle skiing Freestyle skiing pictogram.svg   2 4 4 4 4 6 10 10
Snowboarding Snowboarding pictogram.svg   4 4 6 6 10 10
 
Biathlon Biathlon pictogram.svg IBU   1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 6 6 6 8 10 10 11 11
 
Luge Luge pictogram.svg FIL   3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4
 
Bobsleigh Bobsleigh pictogram.svg IBSF   1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3
Skeleton Skeleton pictogram.svg   1 1 2 2 2 2 2
 
Discontinued winter sports
 
Biathlon / Military Patrol Military patrol pictogram.svg IBU   1
Total events 16 14 14 17 22 22 24 27 34 35 35 37 38 39 46 57 61 68 78 84 86 98 102
Sports at the Olympic Games
Summer sports
Winter sports
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Demonstration sports
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