Olympiad

An Olympiad (Greek: Ὀλυμπιάς, Olympiás) is a period of four years associated with the Olympic Games of the Ancient Greeks. Although the Ancient Olympic Games were established during Archaic Greece, it was not until the Hellenistic period, beginning with Ephorus, that the Olympiad was used as a calendar epoch. Converting to the modern BC/AD dating system the first Olympiad began in the summer of 776 BC and lasted until the summer of 772 BC, when the second Olympiad would begin with the commencement of the next games. By extrapolation to the Gregorian calendar, the 3rd year of the 699th Olympiad began in (Northern-Hemisphere) mid-summer 2019.

A modern Olympiad refers to a four-year period beginning on the opening of the Olympic Games for the summer sports. The first modern Olympiad began in 1896, the second in 1900, and so on (the 31st began in 2016: see the Olympic Charter).

The ancient and modern Olympiads would have synchronised had there been a year zero between the Olympiad of 4 BC and the one of 4 AD. But as the Gregorian calendar goes directly from 1 BC to 1 AD, the ancient Olympic cycle now lags the modern cycle by one year.

Antikes Olympia Stadion
Stadium at ancient Olympia.

Ancient Olympics

An ancient Olympiad was a period of four years grouped together, counting inclusively as the ancients did. Each ancient Olympic year overlapped onto two of our modern reckoning of BC or AD years, from midsummer to midsummer. Example: Olympiad 140, year 1 = 220/219 BC; year 2 = 219/218 BC; year 3 = 218/217 BC; year 4 = 217/216 BC. Therefore, the games would have been held in July/August of 220 BC and held the next time in July/August of 216 BC, after four olympic years had been completed.

Historians

The sophist Hippias was the first writer to publish a list of victors of the Olympic Games, and by the time of Eratosthenes, it was generally agreed that the first Olympic games had happened during the summer of 776 BC.[1] The combination of victor lists and calculations from 776 BC onwards enabled Greek historians to use the Olympiads as a way of reckoning time that did not depend on the time reckonings of one of the city-states. (See Attic calendar.) The first to do so consistently was Timaeus of Tauromenium in the third century BC. Nevertheless, since for events of the early history of the games the reckoning was used in retrospect, some of the dates given by later historian for events before the 5th century BC are very unreliable.[2] In the 2nd century AD, Phlegon of Tralles summarised the events of each Olympiad in a book called Olympiads, and an extract from this has been preserved by the Byzantine writer Photius.[3] Christian chroniclers continued to use this Greek system of dating as a way of synchronising biblical events with Greek and Roman history. In the 3rd century AD, Sextus Julius Africanus compiled a list of Olympic victors up to 217 BC, and this list has been preserved in the Chronicle of Eusebius.[4]

Examples of Ancient Olympiad dates

Relief greek ballplayers 500bC
A relief of the Greek Olympiad.
  • Early historians sometimes used the names of Olympic victors as a method of dating events to a specific year. For instance, Thucydides says in his account of the year 428 BC: "It was the Olympiad in which the Rhodian Dorieus gained his second victory".[5]
  • Dionysius of Halicarnassus dates the foundation of Rome to the first year of the seventh Olympiad, 752/1 BC. Since Rome was founded on April 21, which was in the last half of the ancient Olympic year, it would be 751 BC specifically. In Book 1 chapter 75 Dionysius states: "...Romulus, the first ruler of the city, began his reign in the first year of the seventh Olympiad, when Charops at Athens was in the first year of his ten-year term as archon."[6]
  • Diodorus Siculus dates the Persian invasion of Greece to 480 BC: "Calliades was archon in Athens, and the Romans made Spurius Cassius and Proculus Verginius Tricostus consuls, and the Eleians celebrated the Seventy-fifth Olympiad, that in which Astylus of Syracuse won the stadion. It was in this year that king Xerxes made his campaign against Greece."[7]
  • Jerome, in his Latin translation of the Chronicle of Eusebius, dates the birth of Jesus Christ to year 3 of Olympiad 194, the 42nd year of the reign of the emperor Augustus, which equates to the year 2 BC.[8]

Start of the Olympiad

An Olympiad started with the holding of the games, which occurred on the first or second full moon after the summer solstice, in what we call July or August. The games were therefore essentially a new years festival. In 776 BC this occurred on either July 23 or August 21. (After the introduction of the Metonic cycle about 432 BC, the start of the Olympic year was determined slightly differently).

Anolympiad

Though the games were held without interruption, on more than one occasion they were held by others than the Eleians. The Eleians declared such games Anolympiads (non-Olympics), but it is assumed the winners were nevertheless recorded.

End of the era

During the 3rd century AD, records of the games are so scanty that historians are not certain whether after 261 they were still held every four years. During the early years of the Olympiad, any physical benefit deriving from a sport was banned. Some winners were recorded though, until the last Olympiad of 393AD. In 394, Roman Emperor Theodosius I outlawed the games at Olympia as pagan. Though it would have been possible to continue the reckoning by just counting four-year periods, by the middle of the 5th century AD reckoning by Olympiads had become disused.

Modern Olympics

Olympiad Start date End date Host of the Games of the Olympiad
I (1st) 6 Apr 1896 14 May 1900 Athens Flag of Greece (1822-1978).svg Greece
II (2nd) 14 May 1900 1 Jul 1904 Paris  France
III (3rd) 1 Jul 1904 13 Jul 1908 St. Louis Flag of the United States (1896-1908).svg United States
IV (4th) 13 Jul 1908 6 Jul 1912 London  United Kingdom
V (5th) 6 Jul 1912 1 Jul 1916 Stockholm  Sweden
VI (6th) 1 Jul 1916 14 Aug 1920 not celebrated   (plan Berlin German Empire Germany)
VII (7th) 14 Aug 1920 5 Jul 1924 Antwerp  Belgium
VIII (8th) 5 Jul 1924 28 Jul 1928 Paris  France
IX (9th) 28 Jul 1928 30 Jul 1932 Amsterdam  Netherlands
X (10th) 30 Jul 1932 1 Aug 1936 Los Angeles Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg United States
XI (11th) 1 Aug 1936 20 Jul 1940 Berlin Nazi Germany Germany
XII (12th) 20 Jul 1940 17 Jun 1944 not celebrated   (plan Tokyo
then Helsinki
 Japan,
 Finland)
XIII (13th) 17 Jun 1944 29 Jul 1948 not celebrated (plan London  United Kingdom)
XIV (14th) 29 Jul 1948 19 Jul 1952 London  United Kingdom
XV (15th) 19 Jul 1952 22 Nov 1956 Helsinki  Finland
XVI (16th) 22 Nov 1956 25 Aug 1960 Melbourne  Australia
XVII (17th) 25 Aug 1960 10 Oct 1964 Rome  Italy
XVIII (18th) 10 Oct 1964 12 Oct 1968 Tokyo  Japan
XIX (19th) 12 Oct 1968 26 Aug 1972 City of Mexico  Mexico
XX (20th) 26 Aug 1972 17 Jul 1976 Munich  Germany
XXI (21st) 17 Jul 1976 19 Jul 1980 Montreal  Canada
XXII (22nd) 19 Jul 1980 28 Jul 1984 Moscow
            (now
 Soviet Union
 Russia)
XXIII (23rd) 28 Jul 1984 17 Sep 1988 Los Angeles  United States
XXIV (24th) 17 Sep 1988 25 Jul 1992 Seoul Korea Korea
XXV (25th) 25 Jul 1992 19 Jul 1996 Barcelona  Spain
XXVI (26th) 19 Jul 1996 15 Sep 2000 Atlanta  United States
XXVII (27th) 15 Sep 2000 13 Aug 2004 Sydney  Australia
XXVIII (28th) 13 Aug 2004 8 Aug 2008 Athens  Greece
XXIX (29th) 8 Aug 2008 27 Jul 2012 Beijing  China
XXX (30th) 27 Jul 2012 5 Aug 2016 London  United Kingdom
XXXI (31st) 5 Aug 2016 24 Jul 2020 Rio de Janeiro  Brazil
XXXII (32nd) 24 Jul 2020 26 Jul 2024 Tokyo  Japan
XXXIII (33rd) 26 Jul 2024 21 Jul 2028 Paris  France
XXXIV (34th) 21 Jul 2028
2032
Los Angeles  United States

Start and end

The modern Olympiad is a period of four years, beginning at the opening of the Olympic Summer Games and ending at the opening of the next. The Olympiads are numbered consecutively from the first Games of the Olympiad celebrated in Athens in 1896. The XXXI Olympiad (i.e. 31st) began on August 5, 2016 and will end on July 24, 2020.[9]

The Summer Olympics are more correctly referred to as the Games of the Olympiad. The first poster to announce the games using this term was the one for the 1932 Summer Olympics, in Los Angeles, using the phrase: Call to the games of the Xth Olympiad

Note, however, that the official numbering of the Winter Olympics does not count Olympiads—- it counts only the Games themselves. For example:

  • The first Winter Games, in 1924, were not designated as Winter Games of the VII Olympiad, but as the I Winter Olympic Games.
  • The 1936 Summer Games were the Games of the XI Olympiad. After the 1940 and 1944 Summer Games were canceled due to World War II, the Games resumed in 1948 as the Games of the XIV Olympiad.
  • However, the 1936 Winter Games were the IV Winter Olympic Games, and the resumption of the Winter Games in 1948 was designated the V Winter Olympic Games.[10]

Some media people have from time to time referred to a particular (e.g., the nth) Winter Olympics as "the Games of the nth Winter Olympiad", perhaps believing it to be the correct formal name for the Winter Games by analogy with that of the Summer Games. Indeed, at least one IOC-published article has applied this nomenclature as well.[11] This analogy is sometimes extended further by media references to "Summer Olympiads". However, the IOC does not seem to make an official distinction between Olympiads for the summer and winter games, and such usage particularly for the Winter Olympics is not consistent with the numbering discussed above.

Quadrennium

Some Olympic Committees often use the term quadrennium, which it claims refers to the same four-year period. However, it indicates these quadrennia in calendar years, starting with the first year after the Summer Olympics and ending with the year the next Olympics are held. This would suggest a more precise period of four years, but the 2001–2004 Quadrennium would then not be exactly the same period as the XXVIIth Olympiad.[12]

Cultural Olympiad

A Cultural Olympiad is a concept protected by the International Olympic Committee and may be used only within the limits defined by an Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games. From one Games to the next, the scale of the Cultural Olympiad varies considerably, sometimes involving activity over the entire Olympiad and other times emphasizing specific periods within it. Baron Pierre de Coubertin established the principle of Olympic Art Competitions at a special congress in Paris in 1906, and the first official programme was presented during the 1912 Games in Stockholm. These competitions were also named the ‘Pentathlon of the Muses’, as their purpose was to bring artists to present their work and compete for ‘art’ medals across five categories: architecture, music, literature, sculpture and painting.

Nowadays, while there are no competitions as such, cultural and artistic practice is displayed via the Cultural Olympiad. The 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver presented the Cultural Olympiad Digital Edition. The 2012 Olympics included an extensive Cultural Olympiad with the London 2012 Festival in the host city, and events elsewhere including the World Shakespeare Festival produced by the RSC.[13] The 2016 games' Cultural Olympiad was scaled back due to Brazil's recession; there was no published programme, with director Carla Camurati promising "secret" and "spontaneous" events such as flash mobs.[14]

Other uses

The English term is still often used popularly to indicate the games themselves, a usage that is uncommon in ancient Greek (as an Olympiad is most often the time period between and including sets of games).[15] It is also used to indicate international competitions other than physical sports. This includes international science olympiads, such as the International Geography Olympiad, International Mathematical Olympiad and the International Linguistics Olympiad and their associated national qualifying tests (e.g., the United States of America Mathematical Olympiad or the North American Computational Linguistics Olympiad), and also events in mind-sports, such as the Science Olympiad, Mindsport Olympiad, Chess Olympiad, International History Olympiad and Computer Olympiad. In these cases Olympiad is used to indicate a regular event of international competition for top achieving participants; it does not necessarily indicate a four-year period.

In some languages, like Czech and Slovak, Olympiad (Czech: olympiáda) is the correct term for the games.

The Olympiad (L'Olimpiade) is also the name of some 60 operas set in Ancient Greece.

Notes

  1. ^ Bickerman 1980, p. 75.
  2. ^ Bickerman 1980, p. 88.
  3. ^ Photius, Bibliotheca, Terlullian, p. 97.
  4. ^ Eusebius, Chronicle, Attalus, p. 193.
  5. ^ Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, Tufts.
  6. ^ of Halicarnassus, Dionysius, Roman Antiquities, University of Chicago, 1.75.
  7. ^ Siculus, Diodorus, Historical Library, University of Chicago, 11.1.2.
  8. ^ Jerome, Chronological Tables, Attalus, year 2015.
  9. ^ Olympic Charter - Bye-law to Rule 6
  10. ^ Team USA: Olympic Games Chronology.
  11. ^ Kendall, Nigel (2011-04-08). "Community Spirit". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2011-06-22. The XXI Winter Olympiad was to be the first 'social media Games'.
  12. ^ USOC Quadrennial Congressional Report, June 2009 Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ "World Shakespeare Festival tickets go on public sale". BBC Online. 10 October 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
  14. ^ Lang, Kirsty (29 July 2016). "Rio 2016: The 'secret' Cultural Olympiad". BBC Online. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
  15. ^ Liddell, Scott, and Jones, A Greek-English Lexicon, s.v. Ὀλυμπιάς, A. II. 1

References

  • Bickerman, Elias J (1980), Chronology of the Ancient World (Aspects of Greek & Roman Life) (2nd sub ed.), Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, ISBN 978-0-8014-1282-0

External links

1920 Summer Olympics

The 1920 Summer Olympics (French: Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1920; Dutch: Olympische Zomerspelen van de VIIe Olympiade; German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1920), officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium.

In March 1912, during the 13th session of the IOC, Belgium's bid to host the 1920 Summer Olympics was made by Baron Édouard de Laveleye, president of the Belgian Olympic Committee and of the Royal Belgian Football Association. No fixed host city was proposed at the time.

The 1916 Summer Olympics, to be held in Berlin, capital of the German Empire, were cancelled due to World War I. The aftermath of the war and the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 affected the Olympic Games not only due to new states being created, but also by sanctions against the nations that lost the war and were blamed for starting it. Hungary, Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire were banned from competing in the Games. Germany did not return to Olympic competition until 1928 and instead hosted a series of games called Deutsche Kampfspiele, starting with the Winter edition of 1922 (which predated the first Winter Olympics).

The sailing events were held in Ostend, Belgium, and two in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

1924 Summer Olympics

The 1924 Summer Olympics (French: Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1924), officially known as the Games of the VIII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1924 in Paris, France.

It was the second time Paris hosted the games, after 1900. The selection process for the 1924 Summer Olympics consisted of six bids, and Paris was selected ahead of Amsterdam, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Prague, and Rome. The selection was made at the 20th IOC Session in Lausanne in 1921.The cost of the Games of the VIII Olympiad was estimated to be 10,000,000₣. With total receipts at 5,496,610₣, the Olympics resulted in a hefty loss despite crowds that reached 60,000 people at a time.

1948 Summer Olympics

The 1948 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was held in London, United Kingdom from 29 July to 14 August 1948.

After a twelve-year hiatus caused by the outbreak of World War II; these were the first Summer Olympics held since the 1936 Games in Berlin. The 1940 Olympic Games had been scheduled for Tokyo, and then for Helsinki; the 1944 Olympic Games had been provisionally planned for London. This was the second occasion that London had hosted the Olympic Games, having previously hosted them in 1908, forty years earlier. The Olympics would again return to London 64 years later in 2012, making London the first city to have hosted the games three times, and the only such city until Paris and Los Angeles host their third games in 2024 and 2028, respectively. The 1948 Olympic Games were the first of two summer Olympic Games held under the IOC presidency of Sigfrid Edström.

The event came to be known as the Austerity Games, because of the difficult economic climate and rationing imposed in the aftermath of World War II. No new venues were built for the games (with events taking place mainly at Wembley Stadium and the Empire Pool at Wembley Park), and athletes were housed in existing accommodation at the Wembley area instead of an Olympic Village, as were the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games and the subsequent 1952 Games. A record 59 nations were represented by 4,104 athletes, 3,714 men and 390 women, in 19 sport disciplines. Germany and Japan were not invited to participate in the games; the Soviet Union was invited but chose not to send any athletes, sending observers instead to prepare for the 1952 Olympics.

One of the star performers at the Games was Dutch sprinter Fanny Blankers-Koen. Dubbed "The Flying Housewife", the thirty-year-old mother of two won four gold medals in athletics. In the decathlon, American Bob Mathias became the youngest male ever to win an Olympic gold medal at the age of seventeen. The most individual medals were won by Veikko Huhtanen of Finland who took three golds, a silver and a bronze in men's gymnastics.

1952 Summer Olympics

The 1952 Summer Olympics (Finnish: Kesäolympialaiset 1952; Swedish: Olympiska sommarspelen 1952), officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Helsinki, Finland from July 19 to August 3, 1952.

Helsinki had been earlier selected to host the 1940 Summer Olympics, which were cancelled due to World War II. It is the northernmost city at which a summer Olympic Games have been held. These were the first games to be held in a non-Indo-European language speaking country. It was also the Olympic Games at which the most number of world records were broken until surpassed by the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. The Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Israel, Thailand, and Saarland made their Olympic debuts in Helsinki 1952.

1960 Summer Olympics

The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad (Italian: Giochi della XVII Olimpiade), was an international multi-sport event that was held from August 25 to September 11, 1960, in Rome, Italy. The city of Rome had previously been awarded the administration of the 1908 Summer Olympics, but following the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 1906, Rome had no choice but to decline and pass the honour to London.

1964 Summer Olympics

The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad (Japanese: 第十八回オリンピック競技大会, Hepburn: Dai Jūhachi-kai Orinpikku Kyōgi Taikai), was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan, from 10 to 24 October 1964. Tokyo had been awarded the organization of the 1940 Summer Olympics, but this honour was subsequently passed to Helsinki because of Japan's invasion of China, before ultimately being cancelled because of World War II.

The 1964 Summer Games were the first Olympics held in Asia, and the first time South Africa was barred from taking part due to its apartheid system in sports. (South Africa was, however, allowed to compete at the 1964 Summer Paralympics, also held in Tokyo, where it made its Paralympic Games debut.) Tokyo was chosen as the host city during the 55th IOC Session in West Germany, on 26 May 1959.

These games were also the first to be telecast internationally without the need for tapes to be flown overseas, as they had been for the 1960 Olympics four years earlier. The games were telecast to the United States using Syncom 3, the first geostationary communication satellite, and from there to Europe using Relay 1. These were also the first Olympic Games to have color telecasts, albeit partially. Certain events like the sumo wrestling and judo matches, sports huge in Japan, were tried out using Toshiba's new colour transmission system, but only for the domestic market. History surrounding the 1964 Olympics was chronicled in the 1965 documentary film Tokyo Olympiad, directed by Kon Ichikawa.

The games were scheduled for mid-October to avoid the city's midsummer heat and humidity and the September typhoon season. The previous Olympics in Rome in 1960 started in late August and experienced hot weather. The following games in 1968 in Mexico City also began in October.

The 1960's Olympics were also the last to use a traditional cinder track for the track events. A smooth, synthetic, all-weather track was used for the first time at the 1968 Olympics and at every Olympiad thereafter.

1976 Summer Olympics

The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially called the Games of the XXI Olympiad (French: Les XXIes olympiques d'été), was an international multi-sport event in Montreal, Quebec, in 1976, and the first Olympic Games held in Canada.

Montreal was awarded the rights to the 1976 Games on May 12, 1970, at the 69th IOC Session in Amsterdam, over the bids of Moscow and Los Angeles. It was the first and, so far, only Summer Olympic Games to be held in Canada. Calgary and Vancouver later hosted the Winter Olympic Games in 1988 and 2010, respectively.

Twenty-nine countries, mostly African, boycotted the Montreal Games when the International Olympic Committee (IOC) refused to ban New Zealand, after the New Zealand national rugby union team had toured South Africa earlier in 1976 in defiance of the United Nations' calls for a sporting embargo.

1984 Summer Olympics

The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 28 to August 12, 1984, in Los Angeles, California, United States. This was the second time that Los Angeles had hosted the Games, the first being in 1932.

California was the home state of the incumbent U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who officially opened the Games. The logo for the 1984 Games, branded "Stars in Motion", featured red, white and blue stars arranged horizontally and struck through with alternating streaks.

The official mascot of the Games was Sam the Olympic Eagle. These were the first Summer Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch.

The 1984 Games were boycotted by a total of fourteen Eastern Bloc countries, including the Soviet Union and East Germany, in response to the American-led boycott of the previous 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow in protest of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan; Romania was the only Eastern Bloc nation that opted to attend the Games. Iran and Libya also chose to boycott the Games for unrelated reasons. Despite the field being depleted in certain sports due to the boycott, 140 National Olympic Committees took part, which was a record at the time.The 1984 Summer Olympics are widely considered to be the most financially successful modern Olympics and serve as an example of how to run the model Olympic Games. As a result of low construction costs, coupled with a reliance on private corporate funding, the 1984 Olympic Games generated a profit of more than $250 million.

On July 18, 2009, a 25th anniversary celebration was held in the main Olympic Stadium. The celebration included a speech by the former president of the Los Angeles Olympic Organizing Committee, Peter Ueberroth, and a re-creation of the lighting of the cauldron. Los Angeles will host the Summer Olympics for the third time in 2028.

1996 Summer Olympics

The 1996 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad, commonly known as Atlanta 1996, and also referred to as the Centennial Olympic Games, were an international multi-sport event that was held from July 19 to August 4, 1996, in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. These Games, which were the fourth Summer Olympics to be hosted by the United States, marked the centenary of the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens—the inaugural edition of the modern Olympic Games. They were also the first since 1924 to be held in a different year from a Winter Olympics, under a new IOC practice implemented in 1994 to hold the Summer and Winter Games in alternating, even-numbered years.

More than 10,000 athletes from 197 National Olympic Committees competed in 26 sports, including the Olympic debuts of beach volleyball, mountain biking, and softball, as well as the new disciplines of lightwight rowing and women's football (soccer). 24 countries made their Summer Olympic debut in Atlanta, including eleven former Soviet republics (who competed in 1992 under the Olympic flag as the Unified Team due to the Soviet Union breaking up several months before the Games) participating for the first time as independent nations. The hosting United States led the medal count, with 44 gold and 101 total medals respectively, for the first time since 1984, and for the first time since 1968 in a non-boycotted Olympics. Russia finished second, while Germany placed third. Notable performances during competition included those of Andre Agassi—who became the first men's singles tennis player to combine a career Grand Slam with an Olympic gold medal, Donovan Bailey—who set a new world record of 9.84 for the men's 100 meters, and Lilia Podkopayeva—who became the second gymnast to win an individual event gold after winning the all-round title in the same Olympics.

The festivities were marred by violence on July 27, when Eric Rudolph detonated pipe bombs at Centennial Olympic Park—a downtown park that was built to serve as a public focal point for the Games' festivities, injuring 111. In 2003, Rudolph confessed to the bombing and a series of related attacks on abortion centers and a gay bar, and was sentenced to life in prison. He claimed that the bombing was meant to protest the U.S. government's sanctioning of "abortion on demand".

The 1996 Summer Olympics were considered to be financially successful, due to record revenue from sponsorship deals and broadcast rights among other factors. The Games faced criticism for being overly commercialized, as well as other issues noted by European officials, such as the availability of food and transport. The financial struggles faced by many later Games have led to more positive re-appraisals of the management of the Atlanta Games. Former JPMorgan Chase president (and torchbearer) Kabir Sehgal noted that in contrast to many later Games, the 1996 Olympics were both financially viable, and had a lasting economic impact on the city; Centennial Olympic Park led a revitalization of Atlanta's downtown area and has served as a symbol of the Games' legacy, the Olympic Village buildings have since been used as residence housing for area universities, and the Centennial Olympic Stadium has been re-developed twice since the Games—first as the baseball park Turner Field, and then as the college football venue Georgia State Stadium.

2008 Summer Olympics

The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (Chinese: 第二十九届夏季奥林匹克运动会; pinyin: Dì Èrshíjiǔ Jiè Xiàjì Àolínpǐkè Yùndònghuì) and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.A total of 10,942 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) competed in 28 sports and 302 events (one event more than those scheduled for the 2004 Games). This was the first time that China had hosted the Summer Olympics, but the third time that the Games had been held in East Asia, following the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo, Japan, and the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. These were the third Olympic Games staged in a socialist country, after the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Soviet Union, and the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia.

Beijing was awarded the 2008 Games over four competitors on 13 July 2001, having won a majority of votes from members of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) after two rounds of voting. The Government of the People's Republic of China promoted the Games and invested heavily in new facilities and transportation systems. A total of 37 venues were used to host the events, including twelve constructed specifically for use at the Games. The equestrian events were held in Hong Kong, making this the third Olympics for which the events were held under the jurisdiction of two different NOCs. The sailing events were contested in Qingdao, while the football events took place in several different cities.

The official logo for the 2008 Games, titled "Dancing Beijing", featured a stylized calligraphic character jīng (京, means capital) in reference to the host city. Beijing Olympics was watched by 3.5 billion people worldwide. Longest distance for an Olympic torch relay The event sets numerous world and Olympics records in the history of Sports, and is also the most expensive Summer Olympics of all time and second most expensive overall, after the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi. The opening ceremony was lauded by spectators and numerous international presses as spectacular and spellbinding, and by many accounts "the greatest ever in the history of Olympics".An unprecedented 87 countries won at least one medal during the Games. China won the most gold medals, with 48, and became only the seventh different team to top an overall Olympic medal tally, winning a total of 100 medals overall. The United States placed second in the gold medal tally but won the highest number of medals overall, with a total of 112. The third place in the gold medal tally was achieved by Russia.

Beijing has been selected to host the 2022 Winter Olympics; it will become the first city to ever host both a Summer and Winter Games.

2012 Summer Olympics

The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom. The first event, the group stage in women's football, began on 25 July at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, followed by the opening ceremonies on 27 July. 10,768 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated.Following a bid headed by former Olympic champion Sebastian Coe and then-Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, London was selected as the host city on 6 July 2005 during the 117th IOC Session in Singapore, defeating bids from Moscow, New York City, Madrid, and Paris. London became the first city to host the modern Olympics three times, having previously hosted the Summer Games in 1908 and in 1948.Construction for the Games involved considerable redevelopment, with an emphasis on sustainability. The main focus was a new 200-hectare (490-acre) Olympic Park, constructed on a former industrial site at Stratford, East London. The Games also made use of venues that already existed before the bid.The Games received widespread acclaim for their organisation, with the volunteers, the British military and public enthusiasm praised particularly highly. The opening ceremony, directed by Danny Boyle, received widespread acclaim throughout the world, particular praise from the British public and a minority of widely ranging criticisms from some social media sites. During the Games, Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, winning his 22nd medal. Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Brunei entered female athletes for the first time, so that every currently eligible country has sent a female competitor to at least one Olympic Games. Women's boxing was included for the first time, thus the Games became the first at which every sport had female competitors. These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge.

The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China and host Great Britain. Several world and Olympic records were set at the games. Though there were several controversies, the 2012 games were deemed highly successful with the rising standards of competition amongst nations across the world, packed stadiums and smooth organisation. Furthermore, the focus on sporting legacy and post-games venue sustainability was seen as a blueprint for future Olympics.

2016 Summer Olympics

The 2016 Summer Olympics (Portuguese: Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 2016), officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad and commonly known as Rio 2016, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 5 to 21 August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 3 August. These were the first Olympic Games ever to be held in South America and the third to be held in a developing country, after the 1968 games in Mexico City and the 1988 games in Seoul, South Korea.

More than 11,000 athletes from 205 National Olympic Committees, including first time entrants Kosovo, South Sudan, and the Refugee Olympic Team, took part. With 306 sets of medals, the games featured 28 Olympic sports, including rugby sevens and golf, which were added to the Olympic program in 2009. These sporting events took place at 33 venues in the host city, and at five separate venues in the Brazilian cities of São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Brasília, and Manaus.

These were the first Summer Olympic Games to take place under the International Olympic Committee (IOC) presidency of Thomas Bach. The host city Rio de Janeiro was announced at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2 October 2009. Rio became the first South American city ever to host the Olympic Games. These were the first games to be held in a Portuguese-speaking country, the first summer edition to be held entirely in the host country's winter season, the first since 1968 to be held in Latin America, and the first since 2000 to be held in the Southern Hemisphere.The lead-up to these Games was marked by controversies, including the Brazil's political and economic crisis; the Zika virus epidemic and the significant pollution in the Guanabara Bay; and a doping scandal involving Russia, which affected the participation of its athletes in the Games. However, nobody competing in or attending the Olympics contracted the Zika virus and the Games took place normally, without any major incident.The United States topped the medal table, winning the most gold and overall medals, 46 and 121, as well as its 1,000th Summer Olympic gold medal overall. Great Britain finished second and became the first country of modern Olympics history to increase its tally of medals in the subsequent games after being the host nation. China finished third. Host country Brazil won seven gold medals, its most at any single Summer Olympics, finishing in thirteenth place. Bahrain, Fiji, Jordan, Kosovo, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Tajikistan, Ivory Coast and Vietnam each won their first gold medals, as did the group of Independent Olympic Athletes (from Kuwait).

2020 Summer Olympics

The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXII Olympiad (Japanese: 第三十二回オリンピック競技大会, Hepburn: Dai Sanjūni-kai Orinpikku Kyōgi Taikai) and commonly known as Tokyo 2020, is an upcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020 in Tokyo, Japan.

Tokyo was selected as the host city during the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires on 7 September 2013. These Games will mark the return of the Summer Olympics to Tokyo for the first time since 1964, the first city in Asia to host the Olympics twice, and the fourth Olympics overall to be held in Japan, following the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo and the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. They will be the second of three consecutive Olympic Games to be held in East Asia, following the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea, and preceding the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing, China.

These Games will see the introduction of additional disciplines within several of the Summer Olympics sports, including 3x3 basketball, freestyle BMX and Madison cycling, as well as further mixed events. Under new IOC policies that allow sports to be added to the Games' programme to augment the permanent "core" Olympic events, these Games will see karate, sport climbing, surfing and skateboarding make their Olympic debuts, and the return of baseball and softball (which were removed from the summer programme after 2008).

2022 Winter Olympics

The 2022 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXIV Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XXIVèmes Jeux olympiques d'hiver; Chinese: 第二十四届冬季奥林匹克运动会; pinyin: Dì Èrshísì Jiè Dōngjì Àolínpǐkè Yùndònghuì), and commonly known as Beijing 2022, is an international winter multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 4 to 20 February 2022, in Beijing and towns in the neighbouring Hebei province, China.Beijing was elected as the host city in July 2015 at the 128th IOC Session in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. These Games will be the first Winter Olympics ever to be held in China, the fourth Winter Olympics held in East Asia, and the last of three consecutive Olympics to be held in East Asia, following the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea, and the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Japan. With its previous hosting of the 2008 Summer Olympics, Beijing will be the first city to have ever hosted both the Summer and Winter Olympics: there are plans to utilize many of the same venues that were used for the 2008 Games, including its indoor venues, and Beijing National Stadium as ceremonies venue.

Chess Olympiad

The Chess Olympiad is a biennial chess tournament in which teams from all over the world compete. FIDE organises the tournament and selects the host nation.

The use of the name "Chess Olympiad" for FIDE's team championship is of historical origin and implies no connection with the Olympic Games.

Computer Olympiad

The Computer Olympiad is a multi-games event in which computer programs compete against each other. For many games, the Computer Olympiads are an opportunity to claim the "world's best computer player" title. First contested in 1989, the majority of the games are board games but other games such as Bridge take place as well. In 2010, several puzzles were included in the competition.

International Mathematical Olympiad

The International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) is an annual six-problem mathematical olympiad for pre-college students, and is the oldest of the International Science Olympiads. The first IMO was held in Romania in 1959. It has since been held annually, except in 1980. More than 100 countries, representing over 90% of the world's population, send teams of up to six students, plus one team leader, one deputy leader, and observers.The content ranges from extremely difficult algebra and pre-calculus problems to problems on branches of mathematics not conventionally covered at school and often not at university level either, such as projective and complex geometry, functional equations, combinatorics, and well-grounded number theory, of which extensive knowledge of theorems is required. Calculus, though allowed in solutions, is never required, as there is a principle that anyone with a basic understanding of mathematics should understand the problems, even if the solutions require a great deal more knowledge. Supporters of this principle claim that this allows more universality and creates an incentive to find elegant, deceptively simple-looking problems which nevertheless require a certain level of ingenuity.

The selection process differs by country, but it often consists of a series of tests which admit fewer students at each progressing test. Awards are given to approximately the top-scoring 50% of the individual contestants. Teams are not officially recognized—all scores are given only to individual contestants, but team scoring is unofficially compared more than individual scores. Contestants must be under the age of 20 and must not be registered at any tertiary institution. Subject to these conditions, an individual may participate any number of times in the IMO.The International Mathematical Olympiad is one of the most prestigious mathematical competitions in the world. In January 2011, Google sponsored €1 million to the International Mathematical Olympiad organization.

List of Olympic winners of the Stadion race

The following is a list of winners of the Stadion race at the Olympic Games from 776 BC to 225 AD. It is based on the list given by Eusebius of Caesarea using a compilation by Sextus Julius Africanus. The Stadion race was the first and most important competition of the ancient Olympiads and the names of the winners are used by many Greek authors to date historic events.

1st Olympiad 776 BC - Coroebus of Elis

2nd Olympiad 772 BC - Antimachus of Elis

3rd Olympiad 768 BC - Androclus of Messenia

4th Olympiad 764 BC - Polychares of Messenia

5th Olympiad 760 BC - Aeschines of Elis

6th Olympiad 756 BC - Oebotas of Dyme

7th Olympiad 752 BC - Diocles of Messenia (Ancient Greek: Διοκλῆς Μεσήνιος; called Daïcles, Ancient Greek: Δαϊκλῆς Μεσσήνιος, in Dionysius's chronicle)

8th Olympiad 748 BC - Anticles of Messenia

9th Olympiad 744 BC - Xenocles of Messenia

10th Olympiad 740 BC - Dotades of Messenia

11th Olympiad 736 BC - Leochares of Messenia

12th Olympiad 732 BC - Oxythemis of Cleonae or Coroneia

13th Olympiad 728 BC - Diocles of Corinth

14th Olympiad 724 BC - Desmon of Corinth

15th Olympiad 720 BC - Orsippus of Megara

16th Olympiad 716 BC - Pythagoras of Laconia

17th Olympiad 712 BC - Polus of Epidaurus

18th Olympiad 708 BC - Tellis of Sicyon

19th Olympiad 704 BC - Menus of Megara

20th Olympiad 700 BC - Atheradas of Laconia

21st Olympiad 696 BC - Pantacles of Athens - In 692 BC he also won the diaulos. He was the first winner from Athens and the first runner in history to defend his title four years after his first victory.

22nd Olympiad 692 BC - Pantacles for a second time

23rd Olympiad 688 BC - Icarius of Hyperesia

24th Olympiad 684 BC - Cleoptolemus of Laconia

25th Olympiad 680 BC - Thalpis of Laconia

26th Olympiad 676 BC - Callisthenes of Laconia

27th Olympiad 672 BC - Eurybus of Athens (Ancient Greek: Εὔρυβος Ἀθηναῖος; called Eurybates, Ancient Greek: Εὐρυβάτης by Dionysius)

28th Olympiad 668 BC - Charmis of Laconia

29th Olympiad 664 BC - Chionis of Laconia

30th Olympiad 660 BC - Chionis for a second time

31st Olympiad 656 BC - Chionis for a third time

32nd Olympiad 652 BC - Cratinus of Megara

33rd Olympiad 648 BC - Gylis of Laconia

34th Olympiad 644 BC - Stomas of Athens - He was the third winner from Athens and his name is only referred by Eusebius.

35th Olympiad 640 BC - Sphaerus of Laconia (Ancient Greek: Σφαῖρος Λάκων)

36th Olympiad 636 BC - Phrynon of Athens

37th Olympiad 632 BC - Eurycleidas of Laconia

38th Olympiad 628 BC - Olyntheus of Laconia

39th Olympiad 624 BC - Rhipsolaus of Laconia

40th Olympiad 620 BC - Olyntheus of Laconia for a second time

41st Olympiad 616 BC - Cleondas of Thebes

42nd Olympiad 612 BC - Lycotas of Laconia

43rd Olympiad 608 BC - Cleon of Epidaurus

44th Olympiad 604 BC - Gelon of Laconia

45th Olympiad 600 BC - Anticrates of Epidaurus

46th Olympiad 596 BC - Chrysamaxus of Laconia

47th Olympiad 592 BC - Eurycles of Laconia

48th Olympiad 588 BC - Glycon of Croton

49th Olympiad 584 BC - Lycinus of Croton

50th Olympiad 580 BC - Epitelidas of Laconia

51st Olympiad 576 BC - Eratosthenes of Croton

52nd Olympiad 572 BC - Agis of Elis

53rd Olympiad 568 BC - Hagnon of Peparethus

54th Olympiad 564 BC - Hippostratus of Croton

55th Olympiad 560 BC - Hippostratus for a second time

56th Olympiad 556 BC - Phaedrus of Pharsalus

57th Olympiad 552 BC - Ladromus of Laconia

58th Olympiad 548 BC - Diognetus of Croton

59th Olympiad 544 BC - Archilochus of Corcyra

60th Olympiad 540 BC - Apellaeus of Elis

61st Olympiad 536 BC - Agatharchus of Corcyra

62nd Olympiad 532 BC - Eryxias of Chalcis

63rd Olympiad 528 BC - Parmenides of Camarina

64th Olympiad 524 BC - Menander of Thessaly

65th Olympiad 520 BC - Anochas of Tarentum

66th Olympiad 516 BC - Ischyrus of Himera

67th Olympiad 512 BC - Phanas of Pellene

68th Olympiad 508 BC - Isomachus of Croton

69th Olympiad 504 BC - Isomachus for a second time

70th Olympiad 500 BC - Nicasias of Opus

71st Olympiad 496 BC - Tisicrates of Croton

72nd Olympiad 492 BC - Tisicrates for a second time

73rd Olympiad 488 BC - Astyalus of Croton

74th Olympiad 484 BC - Astyalus for a second time

75th Olympiad 480 BC - Astyalus for a third time

76th Olympiad 476 BC - Scamander of Mytilene

77th Olympiad 472 BC - Dandes of Argos

78th Olympiad 468 BC - Parmenides of Poseidonia

79th Olympiad 464 BC - Xenophon of Corinth

80th Olympiad 460 BC - Torymmas of Thessaly

81st Olympiad 456 BC - Polymnastus of Cyrene

82nd Olympiad 452 BC - Lycus of Larissa

83rd Olympiad 448 BC - Crisson of Himera

84th Olympiad 444 BC - Crisson for a second time

85th Olympiad 440 BC - Crisson for a third time

86th Olympiad 436 BC - Theopompus of Thessaly

87th Olympiad 432 BC - Sophron of Ambracia

88th Olympiad 428 BC - Symmachus of Messenia

89th Olympiad 424 BC - Symmachus for a second time

90th Olympiad 420 BC - Hyperbius of Syracuse

91st Olympiad 416 BC - Exagentus of Acragas

92nd Olympiad 412 BC - Exagentus for a second time

93rd Olympiad 408 BC - Eubatus of Cyrene

94th Olympiad 404 BC - Crocinas of Larissa

95th Olympiad 400 BC - Minon of Athens - Using his victory to date historic events, Diodorus Siculus reports his name as Minos.

96th Olympiad 396 BC - Eupolemus of Elis

97th Olympiad 392 BC - Perieres of Terina or Terinaeus of Elis ?

98th Olympiad 388 BC - Sosippus of Delphi

99th Olympiad 384 BC - Dicon of Syracuse

100th Olympiad 380 BC - Dionysodorus of Tarentum

101st Olympiad 376 BC - Damon of Thurii

102nd Olympiad 372 BC - Damon for a second time

103rd Olympiad 368 BC - Pythostratus of Ephesus

104th Olympiad 364 BC - Phocides of Athens - listed by Eusebius of Caesarea as a victor in the stadion race (Diodor) or wrestling contest (Eusebius) of the 104th Olympiad (364 BC). His victory is used by Diodorus Siculus to date the events of his history.

105th Olympiad 360 BC - Porus of Cyrene

106th Olympiad 356 BC - Porus for a second time

107th Olympiad 352 BC - Smicrinas of Tarentum

108th Olympiad 348 BC - Polycles of Cyrene

109th Olympiad 344 BC - Aristolochus of Athens - His victory is used by Diodorus Siculus to date the events of his history.

110th Olympiad 340 BC - Anticles of Athens

111th Olympiad 336 BC - Cleomantis of Cleitor

112th Olympiad 332 BC - Gryllus of Chalcis

113th Olympiad 328 BC - Cliton of Macedonia

114th Olympiad 324 BC - Micinas of Rhodes

115th Olympiad 320 BC - Damasias of Amphipolis

116th Olympiad 316 BC - Demosthenes of Laconia

117th Olympiad 312 BC - Parmenides of Mytilene

118th Olympiad 308 BC - Andromenes of Corinth

119th Olympiad 304 BC - Andromenes for a second time

120th Olympiad 300 BC - Pythagoras of Magnesia-on-Maeander

121st Olympiad 296 BC - Pythagoras for a second time

122nd Olympiad 292 BC - Antigonus of Macedonia

123rd Olympiad 288 BC - Antigonus for a second time

124th Olympiad 284 BC - Philomelus of Pharsalus

125th Olympiad 280 BC - Ladas of Aegium

126th Olympiad 276 BC - Idaeus or Nicator of Cyrene

127th Olympiad 272 BC - Perigenes of Alexandria

128th Olympiad 268 BC - Seleucus of Macedonia

129th Olympiad 264 BC - Philinus of Cos

130th Olympiad 260 BC - Philinus for a second time

131st Olympiad 256 BC - Ammonius of Alexandria

132nd Olympiad 252 BC - Xenophanes of Amphissa in Aetolia

133rd Olympiad 248 BC - Simylus of Neapolis

134th Olympiad 244 BC - Alcides of Laconia

135th Olympiad 240 BC - Eraton of Aetolia

136th Olympiad 236 BC - Pythocles of Sicyon

137th Olympiad 232 BC - Menestheus of Barcyla

138th Olympiad 228 BC - Demetrius of Alexandria

139th Olympiad 224 BC - Iolaidas of Argos - He was the second winner from Argos in the category.

140th Olympiad 220 BC - Zopyrus of Syracuse

141st Olympiad 216 BC - Dorotheus of Rhodes

142nd Olympiad 212 BC - Crates of Alexandria

143rd Olympiad 208 BC - Heracleitus of Samos

144th Olympiad 204 BC - Heracleides of Salamis in Cyprus

145th Olympiad 200 BC - Pyrrhias of Aetolia

146th Olympiad 196 BC - Micion of Boeotia

147th Olympiad 192 BC - Agemachus of Cyzicus

148th Olympiad 188 BC - Arcesilaus of Megalopolis

149th Olympiad 184 BC - Hippostratus of Seleuceia in Pieria

150th Olympiad 180 BC - Onesicritus of Salamis

151st Olympiad 176 BC - Thymilus of Aspendus

152nd Olympiad 172 BC - Democritus of Megara

153rd Olympiad 168 BC - Aristander of Antissa in Lesbos

154th Olympiad 164 BC - Leonidas of Rhodes, victor in all three racing competitions

155th Olympiad 160 BC - Leonidas for a second time

156th Olympiad 156 BC - Leonidas for a third time

157th Olympiad 152 BC - Leonidas, victor in three races for a fourth time, was the first and only man to win 12 Olympic crowns over four Olympiads.

158th Olympiad 148 BC - Othon of Syracuse

159th Olympiad 144 BC - Alcimus of Cyzicus

160th Olympiad 140 BC - Agnodorus of Cyzicus

161st Olympiad 136 BC - Antipater of Epirus

162nd Olympiad 132 BC - Damon of Delphi

163rd Olympiad 128 BC - Timotheus of Tralles

164th Olympiad 124 BC - Boeotus of Sicyon

165th Olympiad 120 BC - Acusilaus of Cyrene

166th Olympiad 116 BC - Chrysogonus of Nicaea

167th Olympiad 112 BC - Chrysogonus for a second time

168th Olympiad 108 BC - Nicomachus of Philadelphia

169th Olympiad 104 BC - Nicodemus of Lacedaemon

170th Olympiad 100 BC - Simmias of Seleuceia-on-Tigris

171st Olympiad 96 BC - Parmeniscus of Corcyra

172nd Olympiad 92 BC - Eudamus of Cos

173rd Olympiad 88 BC - Parmeniscus of Corcyra for a second time

174th Olympiad 84 BC - Demostratus of Larissa

175th Olympiad 80 BC - Epaenetus of Argos, (boys' stadion race) There was no stadion race for adults this year, because Sulla had summoned all the athletes to Rome.

176th Olympiad 76 BC - Dion of Cyparissus (Cyparissia in Laconia)

177th Olympiad 72 BC - Hecatomnus of Elis

178th Olympiad 68 BC - Diocles of Hypopenus

179th Olympiad 64 BC - Andreas of Lacedaemon

180th Olympiad 60 BC - Andromachus of Ambracia

181st Olympiad 56 BC - Lamachus of Tauromenium

182nd Olympiad 52 BC - Anthestion of Argos - The third winner from Argos in the category.

183rd Olympiad 48 BC - Theodorus of Messene

184th Olympiad 44 BC - Theodorus for a second time

185th Olympiad 40 BC - Ariston of Thurii

186th Olympiad 36 BC - Scamander of Alexandria Troas

187th Olympiad 32 BC - Ariston of Thurii again

188th Olympiad 28 BC - Sopater of Argos - The fourth winner from Argos in the category.

189th Olympiad 24 BC - Asclepiades of Sidon

190th Olympiad 20 BC - Auphidius of Patrae

191st Olympiad 16 BC - Diodotus of Tyana

192nd Olympiad 12 BC - Diophanes of Aeolis

193rd Olympiad 8 BC - Artemidorus of Thyateira

194th Olympiad 4 BC - Demaratus of Ephesus

195th Olympiad 1 AD - Demaratus for a second time

196th Olympiad 5 AD - Pammenes of Magnesia-on-Maeander

197th Olympiad 9 AD - Asiaticus of Halicarnassus

198th Olympiad 13 AD - Diophanes of Prusa

199th Olympiad 17 AD - Aeschines Glaucias of Miletus

200th Olympiad 21 AD - Polemon of Petra

201st Olympiad 25 AD - Damasias of Cydonia

202nd Olympiad 29 AD - Hermogenes of Pergamum

203rd Olympiad 33 AD - Apollonius of Epidaurus

204th Olympiad 37 AD - Sarapion of Alexandria

205th Olympiad 41 AD - Eubulidas of Laodiceia

206th Olympiad 45 AD - Valerius of Mytilene

207th Olympiad 49 AD - Athenodorus of Aegium

208th Olympiad 53 AD - Athenodorus for a second time

209th Olympiad 57 AD - Callicles of Sidon

210th Olympiad 61 AD - Athenodorus of Aegium for a third time

211th Olympiad 67 AD - Tryphon of Philadelphia (These games were not held at the usual time because Nero postponed them until his visit to Greece two years later)

212th Olympiad 69 AD - Polites of Ceramus

213th Olympiad 73 AD - Rhodon of Cyme (or Theodotus)

214th Olympiad 77 AD - Straton of Alexandria

215th Olympiad 81 AD - Hermogenes of Xanthus

216th Olympiad 85 AD - Apollophanes Papis of Tarsus

217th Olympiad 89 AD - Hermogenes of Xanthus for a second time

218th Olympiad 93 AD - Apollonius of Alexandria (or Heliodorus)

219th Olympiad 97 AD - Stephanus of Cappadocia

220th Olympiad 101 AD - Achilleus of Alexandria

221st Olympiad 105 AD - Theonas Smaragdus of Alexandria

222nd Olympiad 109 AD - Callistus of Side

223rd Olympiad 113 AD - Eustolus of Side

224th Olympiad 117 AD - Isarion of Alexandria

225th Olympiad 121 AD - Aristeas of Miletus

226th Olympiad 125 AD - Dionysius Sameumys of Alexandria

227th Olympiad 129 AD - Dionysius for a second time

228th Olympiad 133 AD - Lucas of Alexandria

229th Olympiad 137 AD - Epidaurus Ammonius of Alexandria

230th Olympiad 141 AD - Didymus Clydeus of Alexandria

231st Olympiad 145 AD - Cranaus of Sicyon

232nd Olympiad 149 AD - Atticus of Sardis

233rd Olympiad 153 AD - Demetrius of Chios

234th Olympiad 157 AD - Eras of Chios

235th Olympiad 161 AD - Mnasibulus of Elateia

236th Olympiad 165 AD - Aeithales of Alexandria

237th Olympiad 169 AD - Eudaemon of Alexandria

238th Olympiad 173 AD - Agathopus of Aegina

239th Olympiad 177 AD - Agathopus for a second time

240th Olympiad 181 AD - Anubion Pheidus of Alexandria

241st Olympiad 185 AD - Heron of Alexandria

242nd Olympiad 189 AD - Magnus Libycus of Cyrene

243rd Olympiad 193 AD - Isidorus Artemidorus of Alexandria

244th Olympiad 197 AD - Isidorus for a second time

245th Olympiad 201 AD - Alexander of Alexandria (20th winner from Alexandria in Egypt and 18th Alexandrian crown during their period of dominance in the 1st and 2nd century.)

246th Olympiad 205 AD - Epinicus Cynas of Cyzicus

247th Olympiad 209 AD - Satornilus of Gortyn in Crete

248th Olympiad 213 AD - Heliodorus Trosidamas of Alexandria (Last winner of the stadion race from Alexandria in Egypt recorded by Eusebius and his second title was the 20th Alexandrian crown in the Christian era)

249th Olympiad 217 AD - Heliodorus for a second time

250th Olympiad 221 AD - Publius Aelius Alcandridas of Sparta

251st Olympiad 225 AD - Publius Aelius Alcandridas of Sparta for a second time

252nd Olympiad 229 AD - Demetrius of Salamis

253rd Olympiad 233 AD - Demetrius of Salamis for a second time

254th Olympiad 237 AD - Demetrius of Salamis for a third time

(...)

262nd Olympiad 269 AD - Dionysius of Alexandria

Women's Chess Olympiad

The Women's Chess Olympiad is an event held by FIDE (the International Chess Federation) since 1957 (every two years since 1972), where national women's teams compete at chess for gold, silver and bronze medals. Since 1976 the Women's Chess Olympiad has been incorporated within Chess Olympiad events, with simultaneous women's and open tournaments.

The Soviet Union has won it the most often: 11 times. Since the break-up of the Soviet Union, China and Georgia have won the event four times each. It has also been won by Hungary, Ukraine and Israel (one year when it was boycotted by the Eastern Bloc).

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