Olive warbler

The olive warbler (Peucedramus taeniatus) is a small passerine bird. It is the only member of the genus Peucedramus and the family Peucedramidae.

This species breeds from southern Arizona and New Mexico, USA, south through Mexico to Nicaragua. It is the only bird family endemic to North America (including Central America).[2] It was in the past classed with the Parulidae (New World warblers), but DNA studies suggest that it split early from the other related passerines, prior to the differentiation of the entire New World warbler/American sparrow/Icterid group. It is therefore now given a family of its own.

It is an insectivorous species of coniferous forests. Though it is often said to be non-migratory,[3] most New Mexican birds leave the state from November to late February.[4] It lays 3–4 eggs in a tree nest.

Olive warbler
Peucedramus taeniatus Durango Highway Sinaloa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Peucedramidae
Wolters, 1980
Genus: Peucedramus
Coues, 1875
Species:
P. taeniatus
Binomial name
Peucedramus taeniatus
Peucedramus

Taxonomy

The olive warbler was originally placed in the New World warbler (family Parulidae) genus Dendroica, a group which it closely resembles, particularly in having nine primaries and similar skin. In spite of being assigned to its own genus in 1875, its affinities were a source of contention.[5] The shape of the basihyal bone in the skull, and aspects of its behaviour led to the suggestion that it was instead an Old World warbler in the family Sylviidae. That it was not in the family Parulidae was supported by the arrangement of muscles in the legs. DNA–DNA hybridization placed the olive warbler as an early branch of the finch clade (which included the finches, cardinals and Hawaiian honeycreepers) and the New World sparrow clade (which includes the tanagers, icterids and New world warblers),[6] and a 1998 study of mitochondrial DNA confirmed its status as being far removed from the New world warblers.[7]

The generic name of the olive warbler, Peucedramus, is derived from the Greek peuke for a fir tree and dromos for runner, (from trekho, meaning run), a reference to its feeding habitat and behaviour. The species name, taeniatus, is from the Latin taenia for a headband, and atus for possessing, a reference to its facial markings.[8] The original specific name for the species was olivaceus; however that name was preoccupied and the name was changed.[9]

Description

The olive warbler is a medium-sized warbler, 13 to 14 cm (5.1–5.5 in) in length and weighing 9.5 to 12 g (0.34–0.42 oz). It shows clinal variation in size, with more northern populations being larger than southern ones, a phenomenon known as Bergmann's rule.[5] The olive warbler is a long-winged bird. The plumage of the male is mostly grey body with some olive-green on the wings and two white wing bars. The male's head and breast are "tawny-orange",[3] and there is a black patch through the eye. In the female and juvenile, the orange is replaced by yellow, and the black mask is more diffuse. In addition to differences in size, plumage varies geographically as well, with southern birds having more brightly coloured plumage.

The song consists of clear whistles rendered as hirrJI hirrJI hirrJI, plida plida plida chir chir, etc.[3] The male sings throughout the year, with the frequency of the singing increasing in late winter and reaching a peak in early spring. During the year the male sings the most during the midmorning, but during spring the male sings constantly during mornings and late afternoon. Song is usually delivered from the canopy or other tall trees.[10]

Distribution and habitat

PeucedramusCycle-en
Annual cycle

The olive warbler is distributed from the southwestern United States to Nicaragua, making it the only bird family endemic to North America.[10] In the northern part of its range it has a continuous distribution from Yavapai County, Arizona and the southwestern tip of New Mexico along central Mexico to southern Mexico. It has a disjunct distribution across the rest of its range, with populations in Tamaulipas, Coahuila and Sonora and Chihuahua in Mexico, and further south in southwest Guatemala and from northern El Salvador and central Honduras to northern Nicaragua.[10]

The olive warbler is a bird of mountains and highlands. In northern areas of its range it occurs from 2,600 m (8,500 ft) above sea level or more, in some parts of its range it may not occur below 3,500 m (11,500 ft). In Oaxaca in Mexico it occupies a range of between 1,700–3,000 m (5,600–9,800 ft) further south in Guatemala it ranges down to 1,850 m (6,070 ft) and at the southern end of its range it can be found as low as 1,000 m (3,300 ft) in Honduras and in Nicaragua it occupies a belt of forest from 1,070–1,370 m (3,510–4,490 ft) .[10] They typically inhabit conifer forests, such as ponderosa and sugar pine forests in Arizona, Abies common fir forests, oak, and pine forests in central Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras. These forests range from humid to semi-arid.[5] In coastal regions stands of palms may be used, and in the Valley of Mexico pine and alder forests are inhabited.[10]

Over most of its range the species is resident, but there is evidence that the most northerly populations are partial migrants. Birds in Arizona, New Mexico, and Mexico apparently move away from their breeding grounds, although what exact movements are made is unclear. It has been suggested that they are either "down slope migrants", moving to lower elevations, or dispersive, as some records show their presence in Texas. Birds attributed to the northern race P. t. arizonae have been recorded near Tepic, in Nayarit. Nevertheless, some birds remain in the northern areas of their range year round.[10][11]

Diet and feeding

The olive warbler is an insectivore, taking insects and other arthropods. No specific information exists about the actual prey species taken, except that they will take the larvae of Tortricidae moths.[10] It forages in forests in the canopy and subcanopy. In feeds in the outer branches and twigs.[12] It mostly feeds in the branches of ponderosa pines, but also feeds in the branches of grey and silverleaf oaks.[10]

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Peucedramus taeniatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Wheatley, Nigel; Brewer, David (2001). Where to Watch Birds in Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691095159.
  3. ^ a b c Sibley, David (2000). The Sibley Guide to Birds. Knopf. p. 458. ISBN 0-679-45122-6.
  4. ^ Parmeter, John; Neville, Bruce; Emkalns, Doug (2002). New Mexico Bird Finding Guide (3rd ed.). New Mexico Ornithological Society. pp. 314–315.
  5. ^ a b c Webster (1962). "Systematic and ecologic notes on the Olive Warbler" (PDF). Wilson Bulletin. 74: 417–425.
  6. ^ Sibley, C. G.; Monroe Jr, B. L. (1990). Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05549-8.
  7. ^ Groth, Jeff (1998). "Molecular Phylogenetics of Finches and Sparrows: Consequences of Character State Removal in Cytochrome b Sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 10 (3): 377–390. doi:10.1006/mpev.1998.0540. PMID 10051390.
  8. ^ Jobling, James A. (1991). A Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 179. ISBN 0-19-854634-3.
  9. ^ Zimmer, J.T. (1948). "The specific name of the Olive Warbler" (PDF). Auk. 65 (1): 126–127. doi:10.2307/4080235.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Lowther, Peter E; Jorge Nocedal (1997). "Olive Warbler (Peucedramus taeniatus)". Bird of North America Online. Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. doi:10.2173/bna.310. Retrieved 1 May 2009.
  11. ^ Vander Wall; Stephen B. & Sullivan, Kelly (1977). "Olive Warblers in the San Francisco Mountains, Arizona" (PDF). Western Birds. 8 (3).
  12. ^ Cursonl, J; Bonan, A (2017). "Olive Warbler (Peucedramidae)". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 13 December 2016.

Further reading

  • Ewing, K. E. (1971). "Olive Warbler at Mccoy Eagle County Colorado". Colorado Field Ornithologist. 9 (32).
  • Hobart, H. H. (1991). Comparative karyology in nine-primaried oscines (Aves) (Ph.D. thesis). The University of Arizona.
  • Lovette, I. J.; Hochachka, W. M. (2006). "Simultaneous effects of phylogenetic niche conservatism and competition on avian community structure". Ecology. 87 (7. Suppl.): S14–S28. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2006)87[14:SEOPNC]2.0.CO;2. PMID 16922299.
  • Martinez-Morales, Miguel Angel (2004). "New records of birds in the cloud forest of northeastern Hidalgo, Mexico" (PDF). Huitzil (in Spanish and English). 5 (2): 12–19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 September 2004.
  • Rusterholz, K. A. (1981). "Competition and the Structure of an Avian Foraging Guild". American Naturalist. 118 (2): 173–190. doi:10.1086/283813.
African pied wagtail

The African pied wagtail, or African wagtail, (Motacilla aguimp) is a species of bird in the family Motacillidae.

Altai accentor

The Altai accentor (Prunella himalayana) is a species of bird in the Prunellidae family. It is also known as the rufous-streaked accentor or Himalayan accentor. It breeds in the Altai Mountains of western mongolia; it winters in the southern Tian Shan and Himalayan ranges.

Firefinch

The firefinches (Lagonosticta) are a genus of African birds in the Estrildidae family.

The genus Lagonosticta was introduced by the German ornithologists Jean Cabanis in 1851. The type species was subsequently designated as the African firefinch. The name combines the Ancient Greek words lagōn "flank" and stiktos "spotted".The genus contains 11 species:

Black-bellied firefinch, Lagonosticta rara

Bar-breasted firefinch, Lagonosticta rufopicta

Brown firefinch, Lagonosticta nitidula

Red-billed firefinch, Lagonosticta senegala

Rock firefinch, Lagonosticta sanguinodorsalis

Chad firefinch, Lagonosticta umbrinodorsalis

Mali firefinch, Lagonosticta virata

African firefinch, Lagonosticta rubricata

Landana firefinch, Lagonosticta landanae

Jameson's firefinch, Lagonosticta rhodopareia

Black-faced firefinch, Lagonosticta larvata

List of birds of Arizona

This list of birds of Arizona includes every wild bird species seen in Arizona, as recorded by the Arizona Bird Committee (ABC) through July 2018.This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

The following tags have been used to identify categories of occurrence:

(n) – Nesting: Per the ABC, this denotes "[a] species that has hatched young at least once, however, this does not include hybrid offspring"

(I) – Introduced: Birds that have been introduced to North America by the actions of humans, either directly or indirectly

(Ex) – Extirpated: A bird that, while it is not extinct, is no longer found in Arizona

(C) – Casual: Birds that are rare in Arizona, but have been recorded often enough that the ABC does not require a formal report though documentation is requested.

(A) – Accidental: Birds that have been seen only a few times, or only once; the ABC requires a formal report for sightings of them to be included in the official record

(H) – Hypothetical: Birds that have had a credible sighting reported, but have not been documented with physical evidence such as a specimen or photographThe ABC list contains 562 species and one "slash" entry for a record which could not be identified at the species level. Of them, 75 are classed as casual, 161 as accidental, and two as hypothetical. Eight have been introduced by humans and four have been extirpated. Nesting has been recorded for 338 taxa (species or identifiable subspecies) including some which are classed as casual and accidental. The list also includes 67 forms or groups of subspecies which can be distinguished in the field; some of them are also classed as casual or accidental.

List of birds of Guatemala

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Guatemala. The avifauna of Guatemala included a total of 762 species as of August 2017, according to Bird Checklists of the World. Of them, 46 are rare or accidental and five have been introduced by humans. One species (now extinct) was endemic and two non-endemic species have been extirpated.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, the species on this list are considered to occur regularly in Guatemala as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The tags and notes of population status are from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Guatemala

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Guatemala

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Guatemala as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Honduras

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Honduras. The avifauna of Honduras included a total of 766 species as of August 2015, according to La Asociación Hondureña de Ornitología (ASHO). Between that date and July 2018, an additional 10 species have been added through eBird.Of the 776 species listed here, one of them, the Honduran emerald, is endemic. Thirty-seven are rare or accidental and five have been introduced by humans. Five species are hypothetical (see below) and a few have insufficient information to classify. Some of the "hypothetical" species have more recent eBird records with photographs. Two species have possibly been extirpated. Eleven species are globally vulnerable or endangered.This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, the species on this list are considered to occur regularly in Honduras as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags are used by ASHO to highlight several categories of occurrence.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Honduras

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Honduras

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Honduras as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with no tangible evidence such as a photograph, according to the ASHO

(?) Insufficient information - Appended to a tag or note because of uncertainty

List of birds of New Mexico

This list of birds of New Mexico are the species documented in the U.S. state of New Mexico and accepted by the New Mexico Bird Records Committee (NMBRC). As of January 2019, 546 species are included in the official list. Of them, 169 are on the review list (see below), five species have been introduced to North America, and three have been extirpated.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in New Mexico as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. These tags are used to annotate some species:

(R) Review list - birds that if seen require more comprehensive documentation than regularly seen species. These birds are considered irregular or rare in New Mexico.

(I) Introduced - a species established in North America as a result of human action

(Ex) Extirpated - a species no longer found in New Mexico but which exists elsewhere

List of birds of Nicaragua

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Nicaragua. The avifauna of Nicaragua included a total of 781 species as of December 2017, according to Bird Checklists of the World. Of the species, 55 are rare or accidental and five have been introduced by humans. None are endemic.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, the species on this list are considered to occur regularly in Nicaragua as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The tags and notes of population status are from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Nicaragua

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Nicaragua as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of North America (Passeriformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Passeriformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of Texas

The list of birds of Texas is the official list of species recorded in the U.S. state of Texas according to the Texas Bird Records Committee (TBRC) of the Texas Ornithological Society. As of May 2019, the list contained 650 species. Of them, 159 are considered review species. Six species were introduced to Texas, two are known to be extinct and another is thought to be, and a fourth is extirpated and possibly extinct.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in Texas as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. These tags are used to annotate some species:

(R) Review species- species "for which documentation for review is requested for any record" by the TBRC

(I) Introduced – introduced to Texas by humans, directly or indirectly.

(E) Extinct – species which no longer exist

(e) (lowercase) Extirpated – no longer found in Texas but exists elsewhere

(RI) Reintroduction in progress - per the TBRC, two species are present but have not been reestablished following earlier extirpation

(u) uncertain – per the TBRC, two species have "stable to increasing populations of introduced/native origin"

Longclaw

The longclaws are a genus, Macronyx, of small African passerine birds in the family Motacillidae.

Longclaws are slender, often colorful, ground-feeding insectivores of open country. They are ground nesters, laying up to four speckled eggs. They are named for their unusually long hind claws, which are thought to help in walking on grass. There are only between 10,000 and 19,000 Sharpe's longclaw left in Kenya.

The genus Macronyx was introduced by the English naturalist William John Swainson in 1827 with the Cape longclaw as the type species. The name combines the Classical Greek words makros "long" or "great" and onux "claw".

Neochmia

Neochmia is a genus of estrildid finches found in Australasia. They are gregarious seed-eaters with short, thick, but pointed bills.

The members are:

Red-browed finch , Neochmia temporalis (Latham, 1801)

Crimson finch, Neochmia phaeton (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841)

Star finch, Neochmia ruficauda (Gould, 1837)

Plum-headed finch or cherry finch, Neochmia modesta (Gould, 1837)The red-browed finch and plum-headed finch are sometimes placed in other genera.

Nine-primaried oscine

The nine-primaried oscines are a group of songbird families from the parvorder Passerida in the infraorder Passerides. It is composed of the Fringillidae (finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers), Emberizidae (Old World buntings), Passerellidae (American sparrows), Parulidae (New World warblers), Thraupidae (tanagers), Cardinalidae (cardinals), Icteridae (icterids) and the monotypic Peucedramidae (olive warbler). The name of this group arises from the fact that all species within it have only nine easily visible primary feathers on each wing (in reality most, if not all, also have a 10th primary, but it is greatly reduced and largely concealed).These families (with the possible exception of the Fringillidae) appear to form a clade; the status of the peculiar olive warbler and the distinct bananaquit (Coereba flaveola) need to be clarified. In most bird classifications, this group is placed at the end of the taxonomic sequence.

In the Sibley–Ahlquist classification, the nine-primaried oscines are treated as a single family (Fringillidae sensu Sibley & Ahlquist). As noted above, this is not correct as they defined it, and in any case has not found widespread support. A more common scheme, often used by American ornithologists, is to treat most of these groups in a vastly expanded Emberizidae, but this is also likely to be overlumping.

This group (omitting the family Fringillidae) is now generally known as the superfamily Emberizoidea.

Passerida

Passerida is, under the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, one of two parvorders contained within the suborder Passeri (standard taxonomic practice would place them at the rank of infraorder). While more recent research suggests that its sister parvorder, Corvida, is not a monophyletic grouping, the Passerida as a distinct clade are widely accepted.

Radde's accentor

The Radde's accentor (Prunella ocularis) is a species of bird in the family Prunellidae. It is found in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, Russia, Syria, and Turkey.

Its natural habitat is temperate grassland.

Rupite

Rupite (Bulgarian: Рупите, pronounced [ˈrupite]) is a village which includes a small mountainous protected area in the southeastern part of Blagoevgrad Province, Bulgaria, 10-12 kilometres northeast of Petrich, inside Petrich Municipality, on the right bank of the Struma River. It is best known as the place where the Bulgarian medium Baba Vanga lived and was buried. The area is in fact the crater of an extinct volcano, its appearance being shaped by the volcanic hill of Kozhuh, the thermal springs and Pchelina Hill. The village has 1,124 inhabitants.

Rupite is a protected area, which is situated at a distance of about 10 km from Petrich and 2 km from the village of Rupite, at the eastern foot of the extinct volcano Kozhuh Mountain (281 meters altitude). The hill was built by volcanic rocks. Its name comes from the fact that it looks like a mantle (kozhuh in Bulgarian). In 1962 a part of the locality of Kozhuh – 0.4 hectares – was declared a natural landmark.

The protected area of Rupite is famous for its healing mineral springs with a temperature of 74° C and capacity of up to 35 l/sec. The climate in the locality is transitional-Mediterranean, which is a reason for the presence of Mediterranean grass vegetation and some thermoliphic animal species. The natural by-river forest consists mainly of White Poplar (Populus Alba).

The protected areas of Rupite and Kozhuh Mountain are homes to various snake species. Here you can see the relatively rare species – Cat Snake (Telescopus fallax). There are 201 bird species in the Rupite area, including various Mediterranean species, which can rarely be seen in other places in our country. Via Aristotelis passes through this area. This is one of the two basic bird migration routes through the territory of the country. In the region visitors can see species, such as the Large Olive Warbler (Нippolais Olivetorum), White-headed Shrike (Lanius nubicus) and Black-headed Shrike (Lanius minor). During the migration and the wintering period here stays the globally endangered species Small Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus).

The remains of an ancient town, existing within the period from 4th century BC to the 6th century AD are located along the south slopes and at the foot of the volcanic hill Kozhuh. According to explorers, this was the main town of the Thracian tribe Sints – Heraclea Sintica.

The memorial temple “St. Petka of Bulgaria”, built in 1994 is situated in the locality of Rupite. The locality is mostly famous as a place related to the prophet Vanga, and by this it attracts thousands of worshippers and tourists. Vangeliya Gushterova (1911 – 1996), is the full name of the prophet, was famous around the whole world with her multiple prophecies which had come true. According to a legend, Vanga lost her sight in her early childhood years in a storm, but during the accident she had a vision, which gave her the unique abilities. In the last years of her life, Vanga lived in a small house in the Rupite, because according to her relatives she considered the area an energy source and collected her powers from it. The church was built by monetary means, provided by Vanga, and it is notable for its wall paintings. They were made by the famous Bulgarian artist Svetlin Rusev and they are quite realistic, which differentiates them from the Orthodox canon. Despite the fact that the temple was not built according to the rules of the Orthodox church, it attracts thousands of worshippers and tourists because of its connection with Grandmother Vanga.

Warbler

Various Passeriformes (perching birds) are commonly referred to as warblers. They are not necessarily closely related to one another, but share some characteristics, such as being fairly small, vocal, and insectivorous.

They are mostly brownish or dull greenish in color. They tend to be more easily heard than seen. Identification can be difficult and may be made on the basis of song alone (to English-speaking birdwatchers in Europe, warblers are the archetypal "LBJs", or little brown jobs).

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