Old 666

Old 666 (B-17E 41-2666) was a World War II B-17 Flying Fortress bomber which was assigned to the United States' 19th and 43rd Bomb Groups in 1942-43. It is notable for being the aircraft piloted by Lt. Col. (then Captain) Jay Zeamer on the 16 June 1943 mission that would earn him and 2d Lt. Joseph Sarnoski each a Medal of Honor, and all other members of the crew the Distinguished Service Cross.

Old 666
Bomber 666
Only known image of Old 666.
Other name(s) Lucy
Type Boeing B-17E Flying Fortress
Manufacturer Boeing
Construction number 2487
Manufactured March 1942
Serial 41-2666
In service 1942-1943
Fate Scrapped, September 1945

History

B-17E #41-2666 was built in Seattle, Washington in March 1942. It arrived in Hawaii in May 1942 for delivery to Australia. That same month, it was assigned to the 19th Bombardment Group.[1] Sometime after it arrived in Australia, 41-2666 was equipped with a trimetrogon camera array used in high-altitude topographical mapping.[2]

During the summer and fall of 1942, the aircraft was flown primarily by the 8th Photo Reconnaissance Squadron (PRS), usually while attached to the 19th.[3] Late in the year it was transferred to the 43rd Bomb Group, where on a mission in December 1942 it was damaged severely enough to be grounded for a period of time.[2] Nothing more is currently known about the aircraft until the following April, when it was again being flown by the 8th PRS. In May 1943, having gained a reputation as a “Hard Luck Hattie” for its record of damage and odd accidents, 41-2666 was transferred to the 65th Bomb Squadron, 43rd Bomb Group, at Seven-Mile Airstrip, located at Port Moresby, New Guinea.[4]

It was in the 65th that then-Captain Jay Zeamer, serving as squadron executive officer, requisitioned the aircraft for his crew, known as the “Eager Beavers,” to customize for their use in photo-mapping and reconnaissance work.[5] Besides significantly reducing the overall weight and replacing the engines, the crew installed additional .50 caliber machine guns, including a .50 mounted to the bombardier's deck in the nose that Zeamer could fire himself.[6] While that and the sheer number of guns on '666 was remarkable—the common gun complement on a Pacific B-17E was thirteen—what made Zeamer's upgrade unique in the Pacific was the crew's installation of twin .50s in both waist positions.[2]

As for a name, the regular crew referred to 41-2666 only as "666" or "the plane". The plane was indeed officially nicknamed "Lucy", but only shortly before the 16 June 1943 mission—not in time for the crew to begin referring to it as such.[5] Because of its specialized use for camera work, and despite their extensive work on the plane, Zeamer and his crew flew 41-2666 only five times, two of which were test hops. Bombing missions were flown in B-17s suited to that purpose, with their use of 41-2666 restricted to three photo-mapping missions.[7]

Mapping mission

Tenacity over Bougainville
Tenacity over Bougainville: Zeamer and the “Eager Beavers” display in the World War II Gallery at the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force

The last of these missions occurred on June 16, 1943. It called for a solo B-17 to map the west coast of Bougainville, almost six hundred miles over mostly open ocean from Seven-Mile, in support of a planned invasion of the island later that year. Such mapping demanded rigorously straight and level flight for the duration to avoid blurring of the photos, and this mission would require a 22-minute such run over hostile territory.

Zeamer had volunteered for the mission when it was first requested in April, but weather and other factors forced postponements until the June date.[8][5] Twice before taking off at 4:00 a.m., June 16, Zeamer rejected orders to add to the mission a reconnaissance of Buka airdrome, located off Bougainville's northern tip. The mapping would be hazardous enough, he felt, without adding extended contact with the enemy just prior.[8]

Early arrival to the initial mapping point meant a half-hour delay in starting the mapping run; the sun was not high enough for the light necessary for topographic relief.[9] The delay prompted Zeamer to ask the crew's opinion on the Buka recon. All supported going ahead with it, considering their proximity. As a result, Zeamer adjusted course northeast to take them over Buka airstrip before heading into the mapping run down Bougainville's west coast.

Contemporary accounts from the crew report counting around fifty aircraft on either side of the Buka airstrip, with seventeen or eighteen Japanese aircraft either taxiing or taking off from Buka airstrip as "Old 666" covered the island. These were Japanese Navy fighters, Model 22 Zeroes of Air Squadron 251, most of which were usually based at Rabaul, New Britain, but had moved to Buka the previous day for their planned June 16 attack on Guadalcanal.[5] Zeamer began the mapping run, hoping that it could be finished before the enemy aircraft could reach their mapping altitude of 25,000 feet. Shortly before its completion, ineffectual passes from below were followed by a handful of Zeros enclosing the B-17 in a coordinated attack from below, two approaching from the rear and three fanned across the front. The combination left Zeamer unable to execute his usual defensive tactic of turning inside the line of fire of enemy aircraft attacking from the front; such a maneuver in this case would expose the B-17's belly to the other Zeros attacking from the front. Aware of their position now over Empress Augusta Bay, the primary mapping objective, Zeamer held course, hoping to fight it out.[10]

This first attack proved fatal for bombardier Sarnoski, who was mortally wounded by a 20mm shell which also badly injured the navigator, 1st Lt. Ruby Johnston. Another 20mm struck the side of the cockpit behind the pilots, sending shrapnel into the legs of Sgt. Johnny Able, the assistant flight engineer substituting as top turret gunner that day. It also struck the oxygen and hydraulic lines behind the cockpit, starting a fire. A third 20mm entered through the Plexiglass nose, destroying Zeamer's rudder pedals and instrument panel and delivering grievous wounds to Zeamer's left leg and slicing his right wrist. Farther back, radio operator Sgt. William Vaughan was grazed badly in the neck by a bullet. Back in the nose, despite being blown to the floor with a horrible gash in his side and another in his neck, Sarnoski regained his gun in time to counter a twin-engine fighter—variously described by crew members as either a Mitsubishi Ki-46 "Dinah" or Kawasaki Ki-45 "Nick"—pressing a new attack on the nose. Sarnoski drove the attacker off before it could inflict any more damage and then collapsed from his wounds.[11][5]

Having finished the mapping run and now needing oxygen, Zeamer dove the plane from 25,000 feet to around 10,000 feet, estimating his altitude from a change in manifold pressure, since the altimeter had been destroyed. After the dive, both Johnston and Able extinguished the oxygen fire using only their hands and rags.[12]

Leveling out, Zeamer continued to pilot "Old 666" despite excruciating pain and continued blood loss. Correctly assuming its forward guns were now inoperable, the Japanese began lining up on both sides of the B-17 to circle around, one by one in turn, to strafe the aircraft from the front. Zeamer was now able to apply the technique he'd been unable to use against the coordinated first pass: banking hard inside the firing angle of each approaching Zero, Zeamer both avoided the enemy's fire and allowed his rear gunners unfettered access to the Zeros as they passed by the B-17. This continued until finally, low on ammunition and fuel, around forty minutes after the initial attack, the last of the remaining Zeros returned home. While the crew reported downing five fighters, Japanese records show none were actually shot down, with one ditching early in the engagement due to engine failure and only three being damaged by return fire.[13]

Once out of danger, Sgt. Able piloted "Old 666" on a dead reckoning return heading determined by Zeamer while the unscathed substitute copilot, Lt. J.T. Britton, took stock of the damage to the crew and plane. Zeamer, drifting in and out of unconsciousness, advised Able on keeping course and level. Radio operator Vaughan, while nursing his neck wound, calculated a heading for Dobodura, an Allied airstrip on the eastern coast of Papua New Guinea, for an emergency landing. It was not expected that Zeamer would survive a return flight over the Owen-Stanley mountains to Port Moresby. Britton, having returned to his seat for the balance of the flight, landed at Dobodura without flaps or brakes, requiring him to ground loop the bomber near the end of the six-thousand-foot runway.[5]

In all, four members of the crew were wounded and one killed. For the completion of their mission despite the certainty of attack and their respective sacrifices, Sarnoski and Zeamer each received the Medal of Honor, with the remainder of the crew receiving the Distinguished Service Cross, second only to the Medal of Honor in esteem. The mission remains the most highly decorated in American history, and the Eager Beavers, individual decorations all considered, remain the most highly decorated air crew in U.S. history.[14] This mission was featured on the History Channel show Dogfights in an episode titled "Long Odds".[15]

After the mission

By mid-1943, like most heavy bomb groups in the Pacific, the 43rd had mostly converted to the B-24.[16] The aging and much-abused Pacific Fortresses were increasingly difficult to maintain, and the longer range of the B-24 made it more practical anyway in a theater defined by the vast distances to targets.

Due to its specialized nature, 41-2666 evaded retirement despite the damage received on the 16 June 43 mission.[1] Repairs and modifications reversed many of the changes made by the Eager Beavers. The plane was returned to the 8th PRS, and by fall had even returned to combat, flying two missions with the 63rd Bombardment Squadron.[2] By March 1944, though, it had been returned to the US to be used first as a base transport aircraft and then as a heavy bomber trainer, before finally being flown to Albuquerque, New Mexico in August 1945 to be sold as scrap metal.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c #41-2666, Individual Aircraft Record Card, American Air Museum in Britain, retrieved 21 Jan 2019
  2. ^ a b c d "'Old 666' / 'Lucy': A History". Zeamer's Eager Beavers - The Definitive Resource. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  3. ^ Stanaway and Rocker 1999, p. 8.
  4. ^ Stanaway and Rocker 1999, p. 69.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Zeamer's Eager Beavers: The Incredible True Story". Zeamer’s Eager Beavers - The Definitive Resource. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  6. ^ Zeamer 1945, p. 105
  7. ^ Jay Zeamer flight log
  8. ^ a b Murphy 1993, p. 167.
  9. ^ Murphy 1993, p. 168.
  10. ^ Murphy 1993, p. 169.
  11. ^ Gamble 2013, p. 80.
  12. ^ Zeamer 1945, p. 106
  13. ^ Japan Center for Asian Historical Records, Item ID C08051658400, pp. 44-45.
  14. ^ Associated Press (26 March 2007). "Jay Zeamer Jr., 88; pilot won the Medal of Honor in World War II". Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  15. ^ "Long Odds (episode)". Dogfights (TV). The History Channel. January 19, 2007. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  16. ^ USAF Historical Division's Brief History of the 43rd Bombardment Group, 1940-1952, retrieved 21 Jan 2019
  • Stanaway, John, and Rocker, Bob. The Eight Ballers: Eyes of the Fifth Air Force: The 8th Photo Reconnaissance Squadron in World War. (X Planes of the Third Reich Series). Schiffer Publishing, Ltd., 1999. ISBN 978-0764309106
  • Murphy, James T., with Feuer, A.B. Skip Bombing. Praeger, 1993. ISBN 978-0275945404
  • Zeamer, Jay (January 1945). "There's Always a Way". The American Magazine.
  • Zeamer’s Eaver Beavers – The Definitive Resource, Clint Hayes, retrieved 23 Jan 2019
  • Gamble, Bruce. Target: Rabaul. Zenith Press, 2013. ISBN 978-0-7603-4407-1
65th Special Operations Squadron

The 65th Special Operations Squadron is a Air Force Special Operations Command unit which flies the MQ-9 Reaper, currently stationed at Hurlburt Field, Florida. It was first activated in 1941 as the 65th Bombardment Squadron when United States increased its armed forces prior to entry into World War II. It briefly served in the antisubmarine role, then deployed to the Southwest Pacific Theater, where it participated in combat against Japan, earning a Distinguished Unit Citation and a Philippine Presidential Unit Citation. During this period, a crew from the 65th became the most-decorated aircrew in United States history, when their B-17 fought off more than a dozen Japanese fighters during a photo reconnaissance mission. The 65th remained in the Philippines after the war ended, and was inactivated in the Philippines in 1946.

The squadron was reactivated at Davis-Monthan Field, Arizona as a Strategic Air Command bomber squadron. It continued in the strategic bomber role until 1970, flying a variety of strategic bombers, including the supersonic Convair B-58 Hustler. In 1962, a crew from the 65th won the Mackay Trophy and the Bendix Trophy for setting a trio of transcontinental speed records in a round trip from Los Angeles to New York and back during Operation Heat Rise. . From 1986 to 1991, as the 65th Strategic Squadron, it controlled bombers and tankers deployed at Anderson Air Force Base, Guam. It was activated in its current role in December 2018.

666

666 may refer to:

666 (number), a number

666 BC, a year

AD 666, a year

The Number of the beast, a reference in the Book of Revelation in the New Testament

666 Desdemona, a minor planet in the asteroid belt

U.S. Route 491, an American highway formerly called U.S. Route 666

1980 Pennsylvania Lottery scandal, known as the "Triple Six Fix"

666 ABC Canberra, an ABC Local Radio station based in Canberra

666, a pornographic movie series by John Thompson Productions

666, an eschatological Christian sect in Uganda

666 Park Avenue, an American supernatural drama series

Ascona

Ascona is a municipality in the district of Locarno in the canton of Ticino in Switzerland.

It is located on the shore of Lake Maggiore.

The town is a popular tourist destination, and holds a yearly jazz festival, the Ascona Jazz Festival.

Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress

The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is a four-engined heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC). Competing against Douglas and Martin for a contract to build 200 bombers, the Boeing entry (prototype Model 299/XB-17) outperformed both competitors and exceeded the air corps' performance specifications. Although Boeing lost the contract (to the Douglas B-18 Bolo) because the prototype crashed, the air corps ordered 13 more B-17s for further evaluation. From its introduction in 1938, the B-17 Flying Fortress evolved through numerous design advances, becoming the third-most produced bomber of all time, behind the four-engined B-24 and the multirole, twin-engined Ju 88.

The B-17 was primarily employed by the USAAF in the daylight strategic bombing campaign of World War II against German industrial and military targets. The United States Eighth Air Force, based at many airfields in central, eastern and southern England, and the Fifteenth Air Force, based in Italy, complemented the RAF Bomber Command's nighttime area bombing in the Combined Bomber Offensive to help secure air superiority over the cities, factories and battlefields of Western Europe in preparation for the invasion of France in 1944. The B-17 also participated to a lesser extent in the War in the Pacific, early in World War II, where it conducted raids against Japanese shipping and airfields.From its prewar inception, the USAAC (by June 1941, the USAAF) promoted the aircraft as a strategic weapon; it was a relatively fast, high-flying, long-range bomber with heavy defensive armament at the expense of bombload. It developed a reputation for toughness based upon stories and photos of badly damaged B-17s safely returning to base. The B-17 dropped more bombs than any other U.S. aircraft in World War II. Of approximately 1.5 million tons of bombs dropped on Nazi Germany and its occupied territories by U.S. aircraft, over 640,000 tons were dropped from B-17s. In addition to its role as a bomber, the B-17 was also employed as a transport, antisubmarine aircraft, drone controller, and search-and-rescue aircraft.

As of October 2019, 9 aircraft remain airworthy, though none of them were ever flown in combat. Dozens more are in storage or on static display. The oldest of these is a D-series flown in combat in the Pacific and the Caribbean.

Index of World War II articles (O)

O-I

OA vz.27

Oak Ridge Associated Universities

Oak Ridge City Center

Oak Ridge High School (Oak Ridge, Tennessee)

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Oakley Hall

Oath of the Horatii

Oaxaca (ship)

OB West

OBD Memorial

Oberführer

Obergruppenführer

Oberkampf (Paris Métro)

Oberkommando der Luftwaffe

Oberkommando der Marine

Oberkommando der Wehrmacht

Oberkommando des Heeres

Oberrottenführer

Oberscharführer

Oberschütze

Oberstgruppenführer

Obersturmbannführer

Obersturmführer

Obersturmmann

Obertruppführer

Obice da 149/12 modello 14

Obice da 210/22

Obice da 75/18 modello 34

Objective, Burma!

Oboe (navigation)

Occult Reich

Occupation of Baltic republics by Nazi Germany

Occupation of Belarus by Nazi Germany

Occupation of Denmark

Occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany

Occupation of Japan

Occupation of Kharkov

Occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany

Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany

Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)

Occupation of the Baltic republics by Nazi Germany

Occupation of the Baltic states

Occupation of Vojvodina, 1941-1944

Ochota massacre

Ockenburg

Odd Bull

Odd Martinsen

Odd Nansen

Oder-Neisse line

ODESSA

Odette (1950 film)

Odette Sansom

Odile Crick

Odilo Globocnik

Oerlikon 20 mm cannon

Office for Emergency Management

Office of Censorship

Office of Civilian Defense

Office of Military Government, United States

Office of Price Administration

Office of Racial Policy

Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Office of Scientific Research and Development

Office of Strategic Services

Office of War Mobilization

Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War

Official National Front

Offshore Patrol

Oflag 64

Oflag 79

Oflag II-C

Oflag II-D

Oflag II-E

Oflag IV-A

Oflag IV-B Koenigstein

Oflag IV-C

Oflag IV-D

Oflag IX-C

Oflag V-B

Oflag VI-B

Oflag VII-A Murnau

Oflag VII-B

Oflag VII-C

Oflag VII-D

Oflag VIII-E Johannisbrunn

Oflag VIII-F

Oflag X-B

Oflag X-C

Oflag XII-A

Oflag XII-B

Oflag XIII-A

OFLAG XIII-B

Oflag XVII-A

Oflag XXI-B

Oflag XXI-C

Oflag

Ogasawara Naganari

Ognevoy-class destroyer

Ognjen Prica

Ohka

Ohrana

Ohrdruf forced labor camp

Oil Campaign of World War II

Oil Campaign chronology of World War II

Oil Campaign targets of World War II

Oil Plan

Oise-Aisne American Cemetery and Memorial

Oiva Tuominen

Okinawa Bulletins

Okikatsu Arao

Oklahoma World War II Army Airfields

Oku Yasukata

Ola Wærhaug

Olaf Frydenlund

Olaf Hansen

Olav Jordet

Olav V of Norway

Old 666

Ole Øisang

Ole Østmo

Ole Ellefsæter

Ole Lilloe-Olsen

Ole Reistad

Ole Sæther

Oleg Cassini

Oleg Koshevoy

Oleg Protopopov

Oleksander Ohloblyn

Olga Bancic

Olga Benário Prestes

Olga Horak

Olga Lengyel

Olga Pall

Olier Mordrel

Olin J. Eggen

Oliver Goodall

Oliver Hill

Oliver Kessing

Oliver Leese

Oliver Lyttelton, 1st Viscount Chandos

Oliver MacDonald

Oliver Makor

Oliver Mitchell

Oliver P. Smith

Oliver Philpot

Olivia Sanchez

Olivier Assayas

Olivier Brouzet

Olivier Gruner

Olivier Lecerf

Olivier Martinez

Olivier Monterrubio

Olle Petrusson

Olli Puhakka

Olof Thörnell

Oluf Wesmann-Kjær

Olympia (painting)

Olympiades (Paris Métro)

Olympic Stadium (Berlin)

Omaha Beach

Omar Bradley

Omelyan Kovch

Omer Nishani

Omnipotent Government

On-to-Ottawa Trek

ON convoys

On the Double (film)

On the Nameless Height

Ona Šimaitė

Once (novel)

Once Before I Die

Once There Was a War

Ondřej Pukl

Ondrej Nepela

One Big Union (Canada)

One of Our Aircraft Is Missing

One Survivor Remembers

One Thousand Children

Only the Brave

Onna Tachiguishi-Retsuden

OP-20-G

Opana Radar Site

Opekta

Opel Blitz

Open Gaz de France

Opera Gallery

Operation Abercrombie

Operation Abstention

Operation Adler

Operation Agreement

Operation Aida

Operation Alpenveilchen

Operation Alpha

Operation Alphabet

Operation Alsos

Operation Ambassador

Operation Amherst

Operation Amsterdam

Operation Anklet

Operation Anthropoid

Operation Aphrodite

Operation Archery

Operation Archway

Operation Arctic Fox

Operation Ariel

Operation Arsenal

Operation Atlantic

Operation Attila (WW II)

Operation August Storm

Operation Autonomous

Operation Backfire (WWII)

Operation Bagration

Operation Bajadere

Operation Baobab

Operation Barbarossa

Operation Barclay

Operation Basalt

Operation Battleaxe order of battle

Operation Battleaxe

Operation Baytown

Operation Bellicose

Operation Belt

Operation Beowulf

Operation Berlin (Atlantic), 1941

Operation Berlin (Arnhem rescue), 1944

Operation Bernhard

Operation Big

Operation Bikini

Operation Biting

Operation Black Tulip

Operation Blackcock

Operation Blackstone

Operation Blockbuster

Operation Bluecoat

Operation Büffel

Operation Boardman

Operation Bodyguard

Operation Bolero

Operation Brevity order of battle

Operation Brevity

Operation Brushwood

Operation Candytuft

Operation Canuck

Operation Capital

Operation Capri

Operation Carpetbagger

Operation Carthage

Operation Cartwheel

Operation Cascade

Operation Catechism

Operation Cerberus

Operation Chahar order of battle

Operation Chahar

Operation Charnwood

Operation Chastise

Operation Chestnut

Operation Chettyford

Operation Christ Rose

Operation Chronicle

Operation Clawhammer

Operation Claymore

Operation Cleanslate

Operation Clipper

Operation Cobra

Operation Cockpit

Operation Cold Comfort

Operation Collar (commando raid)

Operation Collar (convoy)

Operation Colossus

Operation Compass

Operation Constellation

Operation Cooney

Operation Copperhead

Operation Corkscrew

Operation Cornflakes

Operation Corona

Operation Cottage

Operation Crossbow (film)

Operation Crossbow

Operation Crossword

Operation Crusader

Operation Culverin

Operation Cycle

Operation Darkness

Operation Daybreak

Operation Deadlight

Operation Defoe

Operation Delphin

Operation Desecrate One

Operation Diadem order of battle

Operation Diadem

Operation Dingson

Operation Diver

Operation Donnerschlag

Operation Doppelkopf

Operation Dove (Ireland)

Operation Dove

Operation Downfall

Operation Dracula

Operation Dragoon

Operation Driftwood

Operation Dunhill

Operation Eagle Attack

Operation Edelweiss

Operation Eisbär

Operation Eisenhammer

Operation Epsilon

Operation Epsom

Operation Europe: Path to Victory

Operation Excess

Operation Fall Rot

Operation Felix

Operation Ferdinand

Operation Flax

Operation Flintlock (World War II)

Operation Forager

Operation Fortitude

Operation Foxley

Operation Frankton

Operation Frantic Joe

Operation Frantic

Operation Frühlingserwachen

Operation Fustian

Operation Gaff

Operation Gambit

Operation Gauntlet

Operation Goldeneye

Operation Goodwood

Operation Goodwood (naval)

Operation Green (Ireland)

Operation Greif (game)

Operation Greif

Operation Grenade

Operation Gymnast

Operation Haifisch

Operation Hailstone

Operation Halberd

Operation Halyard

Operation Hambone

Operation Hannibal

Operation Harborage

Operation Hardtack (commando raid)

Operation Harpoon (1942)

Operation Harpune

Operation Haudegen

Operation Herbstreise

Operation Herkules

Operation Herring

Operation Himmler

Operation Huckaback

Operation Hurricane (1944)

Operation Husky order of battle

Operation Husky

Operation Ichi-Go

Operation Ikarus

Operation Infatuate

Operation Innkeeper

Operation Ironside

Operation Isabella

Operation Iskra

Operation Jael

Operation Jaywick

Operation Jedburgh

Operation Jehol order of battle

Operation Jericho

Operation Jubilee order of battle

Operation Juneau

Operation Juno

Operation K

Operation Ke

Operation Keelhaul

Operation Keystone

Operation Kiebitz

Operation Konrad

Operation Kremlin

Operation Krohcol

Operation Kutuzov

Operation Ladbroke

Operation Lüttich

Operation Lobster I

Operation Lobster

Operation Lost

Operation Loyton

Operation Lumberjack

Operation Lustre

Operation Lusty

Operation Magic Carpet

Operation Mainau

Operation Majestic

Operation Manna

Operation Maple

Operation Margarethe

Operation Market Garden order of battle

Operation Market Garden

Operation Mars

Operation Matador (disambiguation)

Operation Matterhorn

Operation Mincemeat

Operation Mo

Operation Musketoon

Operation Narcissus

Operation Nelson

Operation Newton

Operation Noah (World War II)

Operation Nordlicht (1942)

Operation Nordlicht (1944–1945)

Operation Nordseetour

Operation Nordwind (1941)

Operation Nordwind

Operation Oboe Six

Operation Obviate

Operation Osprey

Operation Ostfront

Operation Ostra Brama

Operation Outward

Operation Overlord

Operation Pacific

Operation Panzerfaust

Operation Paperclip

Operation Paravane

Operation Pastel

Operation Pastorius

Operation Pedestal

Operation Pegasus

Operation Pelikan

Operation Perch

Operation Persecution

Operation Petticoat

Operation Platinum Fox

Operation Plunder

Operation Pluto

Operation Pointblank

Operation Polkovodets Rumyantsev

Operation Polyarnaya Zvezda

Operation Pomegranate (SAS)

Operation Pomegranate

Operation Pugilist

Operation Queen

Operation Quicksilver (WWII)

Operation Rösselsprung (Naval)

Operation Ratweek

Operation Ratweek (1944)

Operation Red Dog

Operation Reinhard

Operation Renntier

Operation Reservist

Operation Resurrection

Operation Retribution

Operation Rimau

Operation Roast

Operation Romeo

Operation Royal Marine

Operation Salaam

Operation Samwest

Operation Saturn

Operation Savannah

Operation Saxifrage

Operation Scavenger

Operation Sea Eagle

Operation Seagull (Ireland)

Operation Seagull I

Operation Seagull II

Operation Seagull

Operation Sealion Order of Battle

Operation Sea Lion

Operation Shamrock

Operation Shingle

Operation Silver Fox

Operation Skagway

Operation Skye

Operation Slapstick

Operation Sledgehammer

Operation Snatch

Operation Solstice

Operation Sonnenblume

Operation Source

Operation Span

Operation Spark (1940)

Operation Speedwell

Operation Sportpalast

Operation Spring

Operation Starvation

Operation Steinbock

Operation Stella Polaris

Operation Stone Age

Operation Stonewall

Operation Strangle

Operation Substance

Operation Surgeon

Operation Tabarin

Operation Tan No. 2

Operation Tanne Ost

Operation Tannenberg

Operation Tempest

Operation Terminal

Operation Tidal Wave

Operation Tiderace

Operation Tombola

Operation Tonga

Operation Torch

Operation Totalize

Operation Tractable

Operation Transom

Operation Tungsten

Operation Typical

Operation Tyr

Operation U-Go

Operation Underworld

Operation Uranus

Operation Varsity

Operation Venezia

Operation Vengeance

Operation Veritable

Operation Vigorous

Operation Vulcan

Operation Walküre

Operation Weserübung

Operation Whale

Operation Wieniec

Operation Wikinger

Operation Wilfred

Operation Willi

Operation Wintergewitter

Operation Wunderland

Operation Währung

Operation Zebra

Operation Zeppelin (Allies)

Operation Zeppelin (Assassination Plot)

Operation Zipper

Operation Zitronella

Operational Zone Adriatic Coast

Operations Reckless and Persecution

Opfer der Vergangenheit

Opposing forces in the Polish September Campaign

Opposition to World War II

Opytny-class destroyer

Opéra-Comique

Opéra (Paris Métro)

Opéra Bastille

Opéra National de Paris

Oradour-sur-Glane

Oradour-sur-Glane massacre

Oranienburg concentration camp

Orchestre de la Société des Concerts du Conservatoire

Orde Wingate

Ordensburg Krössinsee

Ordensburg Sonthofen

Ordensburg Vogelsang

Order 7161

Order No. 227

Order No. 270

Order of Alexander Nevsky

Order of Battle Battle of Pingxingguan

Order of battle Battle of South Shanxi

Order of Battle Battle of Taiyuan

Order of Battle Central Hupei Operation (November 25–30, 1940)

Order of battle Defense of the Great Wall

Order of battle for Amoy Operation

Order of Battle for Battle of Changsha (1939)

Order of Battle for Battle of South Guangxi

Order of battle for Campaign of Northern and Eastern Henan 1938

Order of battle for Campaign of Northern and Eastern Honan 1938

Order of battle for Convoy SC-7

Order of battle for Guangdong Operation

Order of battle for the American airborne landings in Normandy

Order of battle for the Battle of Beiping-Tianjin

Order of battle for the Battle of France

Order of Battle January 28 Incident

Order of battle of Battle of Wuhan

Order of battle of the Battle of Beiping-Tianjin

Order of Battle of the Battle of Lanfeng

Order of battle of the Battle of Shanghai

Order of Battle of the Chindits

Order of battle of the German Ninth Army, October 1941

Order of Battle Peiking – Hankou Railway Operation

Order of battle Peiking – Suiyuan Railway Operation

Order of Battle Suiyuan Campaign (1936)

Order of battle Swatow Operation

Order of Battle Tianjin–Pukou Railway Operation

Order of Battle, Battle of Nanchang

Order of Battle, East African Campaign (World War II)

Order of Battle: Battle of Changde

Order of battle: Battle of Xuzhou

Order of Battle: Battle of Zaoyang-Yichang

Order of Battle: Hundred Regiments Offensive

Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky

Order of Flemish militants

Order of Glory

Order of Kutuzov

Order of Lenin

Order of Nakhimov

Order of Polonia Restituta

Order of Suvorov

Order of the Bath

Order of the British Empire

Order of the Crown of King Zvonimir

Order of the German Eagle

Order of the Golden Kite

Order of the National Hero

Order of the October Revolution

Order of the Patriotic War

Order of the Red Banner

Order of Ushakov

Order of Victory

Orders of battle for Downfall

Orders, decorations, and medals of Nazi Germany

Ordnance ML 3 inch Mortar

Ordnance QF 17 pounder

Ordnance QF 18 pounder

Ordnance QF 2 pounder

Ordnance QF 25 pounder

Ordnance QF 3 pounder Vickers

Ordnance QF 6 pounder

Ordnance QF 75 mm

Ordnungspolizei

Ordre de la Libération

Oregon Shipbuilding Corporation

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Organisation Todt

Organization for the Protection of the People's Fighters

Organization of Imperial Japanese Army forces in the Pacific

Organization of Japanese defensive units in Okinawa

Organization of Japanese Expeditionary forces in China

Organization of Japanese forces in Southeast Asia

Organization of Japanese fortifications in New Guinea area

Organization of the China Garrison detachment of the Imperial Japanese Army (to 1937)

Organization of the Imperial Japanese Central China Army

Organization of the Imperial Japanese Navy Alaskan Strike Group

Organization of the Jews in Bulgaria

Organization of the Kwantung Army of Japan

Organization of the Luftwaffe

Organization of the Third Reich

Orglandes German war cemetery

Orgues de Flandre

Original Shaftesbury Theatre

Origins of World War II (game)

Orita M1941

Orlando DiGirolamo

Orlando Executive Airport

Orlando Leopardi

Orlando Ward

Orly - Ouest (Orlyval)

Orly - Sud (Orlyval)

Orly Airport (Paris)

Orlyval

Orme G. Stuart

Ormsby-class attack transport

Oronce Finé

Oroville Municipal Airport

ORP Żbik

ORP Ślązak (L26)

ORP Błyskawica

ORP Burza

ORP Dzik (P52)

ORP General Haller

ORP Grom (1936)

ORP Gryf (1936)

ORP Jaskółka

ORP Jastrząb

ORP Krakowiak (L115)

ORP Kujawiak (L72)

ORP Mazur

ORP Orkan (G90)

ORP Orzeł

ORP Piorun (G65)

ORP Ryś

ORP Sęp (1938)

ORP Sokół (1940)

ORP Wicher (1928)

ORP Wilk (1929)

Orphism (art)

Orsa-class torpedo boat

Orsay – Ville (Paris RER)

Orson Leon Crandall

Ortrun Enderlein

Orval Faubus

Orval R. Cook

Orvar Trolle

Orville Emil Bloch

Orville Freeman

Oryoku Maru

Orzeł incident

OS2U Kingfisher

Osami Nagano

Oscar C. Badger II

Oscar De Cock

Oscar de Somville

Oscar F. Perdomo

Oscar G. Johnson

Oscar Grégoire

Oscar I of Sweden

Oscar J. Zuniga

Oscar M. Laurel

Oscar Shumsky

Oscar V. Peterson

Oscar van Rappard

Oscar Wilde

Oscarsborg Fortress

Oshima Ken'ichi

Oskar Brüsewitz

Oskar Dinort

Oskar Dirlewanger

Oskar Fried

Oskar Goßler

Oskar Körner

Oskar Kokoschka

Oskar Müller

Oskar Morgenstern

Oskar Rosenfeld

Oskar Schindler

Oskari Friman

Oslo report

Osman Kulenović

Osovets Offensive Operation

OSS Detachment 101

Ossewabrandwag

OST-Arbeiter

Ost battalion

Oster Conspiracy

Ostforschung

Ostlegionen

Ostmark (Austria)

Ostrogozhsk-Rossosh Operation

Ostwind

Osvaldo Aranha

Osvaldo Ardiles

Oswald Birley

Oswald Boelcke

Oswald Mosley

Oswald Phipps, 4th Marquess of Normanby

Oswald Pohl

Oswald Teichmüller

Oszkár Gerde

Ota Šik

Otakar Batlička

Otakar Jaroš

Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer

Otokar Keršovani

Otomars Oškalns

Ōtori-class torpedo boat

Otozō Yamada

Otpisani

Otter Light Reconnaissance Car

Ottmar Walter

Otto Abetz

Otto Baum

Otto Bertram

Otto Bradfisch

Otto Carius

Otto Ciliax

Otto Dietrich

Otto Špaček

Otto Ernst Remer

Otto Fickeisen

Otto Frank

Otto Freundlich

Otto Georg Thierack

Otto Günsche

Otto Hellmuth

Otto Herschmann

Otto Hitzfeld

Otto Hofmann

Otto Hultberg

Otto John

Otto Königsberger

Otto Kerner, Jr.

Otto Kiep

Otto Kittel

Otto Klemperer

Otto Kretschmer

Otto Kumm

Otto L. Nelson, Jr.

Otto Lasch

Otto Meißner

Otto Müller (wrestler)

Otto Ohlendorf

Otto P. Weyland

Otto Passman

Otto Rahn

Otto Rasch

Otto Robert Frisch

Otto Ruge

Otto Schimek

Otto Schmirgal

Otto Schulz (admiral)

Otto Skorzeny

Otto Steinbrinck

Otto Strasser

Otto Telschow

Otto Tief

Otto Ville Kuusinen

Otto von Bülow

Otto von Knobelsdorff

Otto von Lossow

Otto von Porat

Otto von Stülpnagel

Otto Wöhler

Otto Wagener

Otto Wahle

Otto Weddigen

Otto Weidinger

Otto Wächter

Ou Zhen

Oumar Dieng

Oumar Sène

Oumar Tchomogo

Our Enemy- The Japanese

Our Job in Japan

Ourcq (Paris Métro)

Ours-Pierre-Armand Petit-Dufrénoy

Out Distance

Out of the Ashes (2003 film)

Outer London Defence Ring

Outpost Snipe

Ouvrage Ancien Camp

Ouvrage Anzeling

Ouvrage Arrondaz

Ouvrage Aumetz

Ouvrage Baisse de Saint Veran

Ouvrage Bambesch

Ouvrage Barbonnet

Ouvrage Berenbach

Ouvrage Bersillies

Ouvrage Billig

Ouvrage Bois du Four

Ouvrage Bois Karre

Ouvrage Bousse

Ouvrage Boussois

Ouvrage Bovenberg

Ouvrage Brehain

Ouvrage Cap Martin

Ouvrage Castillon

Ouvrage Cave à Canon

Ouvrage Champ de Tir

Ouvrage Chatelard

Ouvrage Col Agnon

Ouvrage Col de Brouis

Ouvrage Col de Buffere

Ouvrage Col de Crous

Ouvrage Col de Restefond

Ouvrage Col des Banquettes

Ouvrage Col des Gardes

Ouvrage Col du Caire Gros

Ouvrage Col du Fort

Ouvrage Col du Granon

Ouvrage Coucou

Ouvrage Coume Annexe Nord

Ouvrage Coume Annexe Sud

Ouvrage Coume

Ouvrage Denting

Ouvrage Einseling

Ouvrage Eth

Ouvrage Ferme Chappy

Ouvrage Fermont

Ouvrage Flaut

Ouvrage Fontvive Nord-ouest

Ouvrage Four a Chaux

Ouvrage Fressinen

Ouvrage Galgenberg

Ouvrage Gondran

Ouvrage Gordolon

Ouvrage Grand Hohekirkel

Ouvrage Granges Communes

Ouvrage Hackenberg

Ouvrage Haut-Poirier

Ouvrage Hobling

Ouvrage Hochwald

Ouvrage Immerhof

Ouvrage Janus

Ouvrage Kerfent

Ouvrage Kobenbusch

Ouvrage L'Agaisen

Ouvrage La Beole

Ouvrage La Dea

Ouvrage La Moutiere

Ouvrage La Serena

Ouvrage Latiremont

Ouvrage Laudrefang

Ouvrage Le Lavoir

Ouvrage Lembach

Ouvrage Les Aittes

Ouvrage Les Rochilles

Ouvrage Mauvais Bois

Ouvrage Metrich

Ouvrage Michelsberg

Ouvrage Molvange

Ouvrage Mont Agel

Ouvrage Mont des Welches

Ouvrage Monte Grosso

Ouvrage Mottemberg

Ouvrage Oberheid

Ouvrage Otterbiel

Ouvrage Pas du Roc

Ouvrage Plan Caval

Ouvrage Plate Lombard

Ouvrage Reservoir

Ouvrage Restefond

Ouvrage Rimplas

Ouvrage Roche Lacroix

Ouvrage Rochonvillers

Ouvrage Rohrbach

Ouvrage Roquebrunne

Ouvrage Saint Antoine

Ouvrage Saint Gobain

Ouvrage Saint Ours Bas

Ouvrage Saint Ours Haut

Ouvrage Saint Ours Nord-est

Ouvrage Saint Roch

Ouvrage Sainte Agnes

Ouvrage Salmagne

Ouvrage Sapey

Ouvrage Sarts

Ouvrage Schiesseck

Ouvrage Schoenenbourg

Ouvrage Sentzich

Ouvrage Simserhof

Ouvrage Soetrich

Ouvrage Teting

Ouvrage Valdeblore

Ouvrage Village Coume

Ouvrage Welschhof

Ouvry Lindfield Roberts

Ova A. Kelley

Over Here (TV serial)

Overloon War Museum

Overlord (1994 video game)

Oveta Culp Hobby

Ovitz family

OVP (firearm)

Owen Chamberlain

Owen J. Baggett

Owen submachine gun

Owen Tudor Boyd

Owen W. Siler

Ox Emerson

Oxmo Puccino

Oy Insinööritoimisto Ratas

Jay Zeamer Jr.

Jay Zeamer Jr. (July 25, 1918 – March 22, 2007) was a pilot of the United States Army Air Forces in the South Pacific during World War II, and received the Medal of Honor for valor during an air mission on June 16, 1943. After the war, he became an aeronautical engineer and worked in the aerospace industry.

Joseph Sarnoski

Joseph Raymond Sarnoski (January 31, 1915 – June 16, 1943) was an officer of the United States Army Air Forces during World War II, and received the Medal of Honor posthumously.

Sarnoski was part of the flight crew of Capt. Jay Zeamer Jr. on Old 666 on the day where both he and Zeamer earned the Medal of Honor.

List of aircraft by tail number

This list is only of aircraft that have an article, indexed by aircraft registration "tail number" (civil registration or military serial number). The list includes aircraft that are notable either as an individual aircraft or have been involved in a notable accident or incident or are linked to a person notable enough to have a stand-alone Wikipedia article.

List of individual aircraft

This is a list of individual aircraft which are notable in their own right.

On the Buses

On the Buses was a British television sitcom that was broadcast on ITV from 1969 to 1973. It was created by Ronald Chesney and Ronald Wolfe, who wrote most of the episodes. It spawned three spin-off feature films and a stage version. Despite the writers' previous successes with The Rag Trade and Meet the Wife with the BBC, the corporation rejected On the Buses, not seeing much comedy potential in a bus depot as a setting. The comedy partnership turned to Frank Muir, Head of Entertainment at London Weekend Television, who loved the idea; the show was accepted and despite a poor critical reception became a hit with viewers.

The series is centred on the Number 11 bus, at the Luxton and District Motor Traction Company, a green and cream double-decker crewed by driver Stan Butler and his pal conductor Jack Harper. With its "bawdy, comic postcard humour and resolutely working-class outlook" the series became "one of the most popular British comedy series of its era, if not all time." At the Butler household, the typical scene would involve a family argument around the breakfast table, whilst at the bus depot, there was always fun at the expense of the crew's "eternal nemesis" Inspector Blake, recognisable from Hitler moustache and facial contortions.

U.S. Route 491

U.S. Route 491 (US 491) is a north–south U.S. Highway serving the Four Corners region of the United States. One of the newest designations in the U.S. Highway System, it was created in 2003 as a renumbering of U.S. Route 666 (US 666). With the 666 designation, this road was nicknamed the "Devil's Highway" because of the significance of number 666 to many Christian denominations, which is believed by some that 666 is the Number of the Beast. This Satanic connotation, combined with a high fatality rate along the New Mexico portion, convinced some people the highway was cursed. The problem was compounded by persistent sign theft. These factors led to two efforts to renumber the highway, first by officials in Arizona, later in New Mexico. There have been safety improvement projects in recent years, and fatality rates have subsequently decreased.The highway, now a spur route of US 91 via its connection to US 191, runs through Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah, as well as the tribal nations of the Navajo Nation and Ute Mountain Ute Tribe. The highway passes by two mountains considered sacred by Native Americans: Ute Mountain and an extinct volcanic core named Shiprock. Other features along the route include Mesa Verde National Park and Dove Creek, Colorado, the self-proclaimed pinto-bean capital of the world.

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