Okręg (plural okręgi) is a term used in Polish to denote regions and jurisdictions of various types, including electoral constituencies. As historical administrative subdivisions of Poland, okręgi existed in the later part of the Congress Poland period, from 1842, when the name was applied to the former powiats (the name powiat being transferred to the former obwody). See Administrative division of Congress Poland.
Okręgi were also created temporarily from 1945 to 1946, in the areas annexed to Poland from Germany as a result of the Soviet military advance. An okręg was then subdivided into obwody. These okręgi were later replaced by voivodeships, and the obwody by powiats.
Białystok constituency (Polish: Okręg wyborczy Białystok) is a Polish parliamentary constituency that is coterminous with the Podlaskie Voivodeship. It elects fourteen members of the Sejm.
The district has the number '24', and is named after the city of Białystok. It includes the counties of Augustów, Białystok, Bielsk, Grajewo, Hajnówka, Kolno, Łomża, Mońki, Sejny, Siemiatycze, Sokółka, Suwałki, Wysokie Mazowieckie, and Zambrów and the city counties of Białystok, Łomża, and Suwałki.Bielsko-Biała (parliamentary constituency)
Bielsko-Biała constituency (Polish: Okręg wyborczy Bielsko-Biała) is a Polish parliamentary constituency in the Silesian Voivodeship. It elects nine members of the Sejm.
The district has the number '27', and is named after the city of Bielsko-Biała. It includes the counties of Bielsko, Cieszyn, Pszczyna and Żywiec and the city county of Bielsko-Biała.Central Industrial Region (Poland)
The Central Industrial District (Polish: Centralny Okręg Przemysłowy, abbreviated COP), is an industrial region in Poland. It was one of the biggest economic projects of the Second Polish Republic. The 5-year-long project was initiated by a famous Polish economist, deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Treasury, Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski. Its goal was to create a heavy industrial center in the middle of the country, as far as possible from any borders, strengthen the Polish economy and reduce unemployment. The four-year plan for the development of COP was scheduled from 1 September 1936 until 30 July 1940 and was interrupted by the outbreak of the Second World War and the German invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939. Nonetheless, the COP project succeeded in vastly expanding Polish industry, and after the end of the war in 1945 COP was rebuilt and expanded under the People's Republic of Poland.Electoral districts of Poland
Electoral districts of Poland (Polish: okręg wyborczy) are defined by Polish election law. Electoral districts can be divided depending on whether they are individual entities or parts of a larger electoral district with regard to elections to 1) parliament (Sejm) and Senate 2) local offices and 3) European Parliament. Each district has a number of mandates calculated on the basis of its population.Liswarta
The Liswarta is a river in south-central Poland, a tributary of the Warta river. The Liswarta has a length of 93 km and basin area of 1,558 km2. One of its tributaries is the Pankówka.Marijampolė County
Marijampolė County (Lithuanian: Marijampolės apskritis; Polish: Okręg mariampolski) is one of the ten counties in Lithuania. It is in the south of the country in the historical Suvalkija region, and its capital is the town Marijampolė. On 1 July 2010, the county administration was abolished, and since that date, Marijampolė County remains as the territorial and statistical unit.Military district
Military districts (also called military regions) are formations of a state's armed forces (often of the Army) which are responsible for a certain area of territory. They are often more responsible for administrative than operational matters, and in countries with conscript forces, often handle parts of the conscription cycle.
Navies have also used a similar model, with organizations such as the United States Naval Districts. A number of navies in South America used naval districts at various points in time.Military districts of Poland
Military districts of Poland were created in the aftermath of World War I, at a time when Poland regained its independence.
Initially, right after the First World War, Polish Land Forces had five military districts. (1918–1921):
Kraków Military District (Krakowski Okręg Wojskowy), HQ in Kraków
Łódź Military District (Łódzki Okręg Wojskowy), HQ in Łódź
Lublin Military District (Lubelski Okręg Wojskowy), HQ in Lublin.
Poznań Military District (Poznański Okręg Wojskowy), HQ in Poznań
Warsaw Military District (Warszawski Okręg Wojskowy), HQ in Warszawa.In 1921, due to reorganization, the military districts were replaced with Dowództwo Okręgu Korpusu (DOK – Corps District Command). In the Second Polish Republic there were ten DOK's:
I – Warszawa
II – Lublin
III – Grodno
IV – Łódź
V – Kraków
VI – Lwów
VII – Poznań
VIII – Toruń
IX – Brześć nad Bugiem
X – PrzemyślEach DOK consisted of four large units (three infantry divisions and one cavalry brigade).
For district arrangements after World War II see Polish Land Forces. The Kraków Military District disbanded in 1953.
From 1999 Poland has been divided into two military districts, the Pomeranian Military District and the Silesian Military District, both were disbanded by the end of 2011.Obwód
Obwód (plural obwody) is a term used in Polish to denote administrative districts in various countries, particularly as a translation of the Russian oblast. As administrative subdivisions of Poland itself, obwody existed as subdivisions of voivodeships (later gubernias) in the early part of the Congress Poland period, from 1816 until 1842, when they were renamed powiats (the former powiats being renamed okręgi). See Administrative division of Congress Poland.
Obwody were also created temporarily in 1945–46, in the areas annexed to Poland from Germany as a result of the Soviet military advance. An obwód was then a subdivision of an okręg. These obwody were later replaced by powiats, and the okręgi by voivodeships.Okrug
Okrug (Bulgarian: окръг, okrǎg; Russian: о́круг; Serbian: округ, IPA: [ôkruːɡ]; Ukrainian: окру́га, okruha; Belarusian: акруга, Akruha; Polish: okręg; Abkhazian: оқрҿс; Meadow Mari: йырвел, jyrvel) is an administrative division of some Slavic states. The word "okrug" is a loanword in English, but it is nevertheless often translated as "area", "district", or "region".
Etymologically, "okrug" literally means circuit. In meaning, the word is similar to the German term Bezirk ("district") and the French word Arrondissement; all of which refer to something "encircled" or "surrounded".Okręg, Lesser Poland Voivodeship
Okręg [ˈɔkrɛŋk] is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Gręboszów, within Dąbrowa County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland. It lies approximately 18 kilometres (11 mi) west of Dąbrowa Tarnowska and 61 km (38 mi) east of the regional capital Kraków.Old-Polish Industrial Region
Staropolski Okręg Przemysłowy (Old Polish Industrial Region) is an industrial region in northern part of Lesser Poland. It is the oldest and in terms of area covered, largest of Polish industrial regions. Most of the region is located in Lesser Poland Upland, and its historic center lies along the Kamienna river. Primary industrial cities: Kielce, Radom, Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski, Starachowice and Skarżysko-Kamienna.Polish Land Forces
The Land Forces (Wojska Lądowe) are a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland. They currently contain some 77,000 active personnel and form many components of the European Union and NATO deployments around the world. Poland's recorded military history stretches back a millennium – since the 10th century (see List of Polish wars and History of the Polish Army), but Poland's modern army was formed after the country regained independence following World War I in 1918.Rybnik Coal Area
Rybnik Coal Area (Polish: Rybnicki Okręg Węglowy, ROW) is an industrial region in southern Poland. It is located in the Silesian Voivodeship, in a basin between the Vistula and Oder rivers, sited on the Rybnik Plateau (Polish: Płaskowyż Rybnicki) between Katowice (Upper-Silesian Metropolis) to the north and Ostrava on the south-west. Part a Silesian metropolitan area populated by 5,294,000 people and Silesian metropolitan region populated by about 7 million. According to scientific description by Paweł Swianiewicz and Urszula Klimska this area have 507,000 people, according to European Spatial Planning Observation Network - 634,000 people (525,000 + 109,000 by Racibórz). Area: about 1,300 km².Silesian Military District
Silesian Military District (Polish: Śląski Okręg Wojskowy) was one of three military districts in Poland, the other two being the Pomeranian Military District and the Warsaw Military District. All three were disbanded by the end of 2011 due to the restructuring of the Polish Army. Its headquarters was in Wrocław
Its history dates back to the aftermath of World War II, when Military District Silesia (Okręg Wojskowy Śląsk) was formed in 1945.Sub-district IV of Ochota (of Armia Krajowa)
The Sub-district I of Ochota (of Armia Krajowa) (Polish: Obwód IV Ochota) – one of territorial organisational units of the Warsaw District (Armia Krajowa) (Pol.: Okręg Warszawa Armii Krajowej), which operated during the German occupation of Poland 1939-1945. It comprised the area of the Ochota district of the city of Warsaw.Szałot
Szałot (Polish pronunciation: [ˈʂawɔt]) is a Silesian potato salad made with squares of boiled potatoes, carrots, peas, ham, various sausages, pickled fish, boiled eggs, and bonded with olive oil or mayonnaise.Upper Silesian Coal Basin
The Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Polish: Górnośląskie Zagłębie Węglowe, GZW, Czech: Hornoslezská uhelná pánev) is a coal basin in Silesia, in Poland and the Czech Republic.The Basin also contains a number of other minable resources, such as methane, cadmium, lead, silver and zinc. Coal depth is approximately 1000 meters, and contains about 70 billion tons, with excellent extraction potential.
Industrial areas within the Upper Silesian Coal Basin:
Upper Silesian Industrial Region (Polish: Górnośląski Okręg Przemysłowy, GOP)
Rybnik Coal Area (Polish: Rybnicki Okręg Węglowy, ROW)
Ostrava-Karviná Coal Area (Czech: Ostravsko-karvinská uhelná pánev)The Upper Silesian Coal Basin lies in the provinces of Upper Silesia and Zagłębie Dąbrowskie in southern Poland, in a highland located between the upper Vistula and the upper Oder rivers, as well as extending into the Moravian-Silesian Region in the Czech Republic. The Upper Silesian Coal Basin includes the Silesian metropolitan area and has a population of 5,294,000 (with 4,311,000 in Poland and 983,000 in the Czech Republic). Area: 5,400 km² (in Poland - 4,500 km², in Czech Republic - 900 km²).Upper Silesian Industrial Region
The Upper Silesian Industrial Region (Polish: Górnośląski Okręg Przemysłowy, pronounced [gurnɔˈɕlɔ̃skʲi ˌɔkrɛŋk pʂɛmɨˈswɔvɨ], Polish abbreviation: GOP [gɔp]; German: Oberschlesisches Industriegebiet) is a large industrial region in Poland. It lies mainly in the Silesian Voivodeship, centered on Katowice.
It is situated in the northern part of Upper Silesian Coal Basin a home of altogether 5 million people (Silesian metropolitan area), the southwest border of the Rybnik Coal Area (Polish: Rybnicki Okręg Węglowy, ROW) and west borders with the Ostrava urban area. Covers 3,200 km² and about 3 million people.The Upper Silesian Industrial Region is located in the province of Upper Silesia and Zagłębie Dąbrowskie in southern Poland in a basin between the Vistula and Oder rivers.
Upper Silesian Industrial Region is an area with enormous concentration of industry. Dominates here:
Mining industry (more than a dozen active coal mines, mainly as Katowicki Holding Węglowy and Kompania Węglowa)
Iron and steel industry (more than a dozen active iron and nonferrous metals)
Transport industry (example General Motors Manufacturing Poland and Fiat Auto Poland, Konstal, Bumar Łabędy)
The energy industry (more than a dozen plants)