Oil platform

An oil platform, offshore platform, or offshore drilling rig is a large structure with facilities for well drilling to explore, extract, store, and process petroleum and natural gas which lies in rock formations beneath the seabed. In many cases, the platform contains facilities to house the workforce as well.

Most commonly, oil platforms engage in activities on the continental shelf, though they can also be used in lakes, inshore waters and inland seas.

Depending on the circumstances,[1] the platform may be fixed to the ocean floor, may consist of an artificial island, or may float. Remote subsea wells may also be connected to a platform by flow lines and by umbilical connections. These sub-sea solutions may consist of one or more subsea wells, or of one or more manifold centres for multiple wells.

Offshore drilling presents environmental challenges, both from the produced hydrocarbons and the materials used during the drilling operation. Controversies include the ongoing U.S. offshore drilling debate.[2]

There are many different types of facilities from which offshore drilling operations take place. These include bottom founded drilling rigs (jackup barges and swamp barges), combined drilling and production facilities either bottom founded or floating platforms, and deepwater mobile offshore drilling units (MODU) including semi-submersibles and drillships. These are capable of operating in water depths up to 3,000 metres (9,800 ft). In shallower waters the mobile units are anchored to the seabed, however in deeper water (more than 1,500 metres (4,900 ft)) the semisubmersibles or drillships are maintained at the required drilling location using dynamic positioning.

Off Shore Drilling Rig, Santa Barbara, CA, 6 December, 2011
An oil drilling platform off the coast of Santa Barbara, CA - 6 December 2011
Oil platform P-51 (Brazil)
Oil platform P-51 off the Brazilian coast is a semi-submersible platform.
11-09-fotofluege-cux-allg-25a
Oil platform Mittelplate in the North Sea

History

Gulf Offshore Platform
Offshore platform, Gulf of Mexico

Around 1891, the first submerged oil wells were drilled from platforms built on piles in the fresh waters of the Grand Lake St. Marys (a.k.a. Mercer County Reservoir) in Ohio. The wide but shallow reservoir was built from 1837 to 1845 to provide water to the Miami and Erie Canal.

Around 1896, the first submerged oil wells in salt water were drilled in the portion of the Summerland field extending under the Santa Barbara Channel in California. The wells were drilled from piers extending from land out into the channel.

Other notable early submerged drilling activities occurred on the Canadian side of Lake Erie since 1913 and Caddo Lake in Louisiana in the 1910s. Shortly thereafter, wells were drilled in tidal zones along the Gulf Coast of Texas and Louisiana. The Goose Creek field near Baytown, Texas is one such example. In the 1920s, drilling was done from concrete platforms in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela.

The oldest offshore well recorded in Infield's offshore database is the Bibi Eibat well which came on stream in 1923 in Azerbaijan.[3] Landfill was used to raise shallow portions of the Caspian Sea.

In the early 1930s, the Texas Company developed the first mobile steel barges for drilling in the brackish coastal areas of the gulf.

In 1937, Pure Oil Company (now Chevron Corporation) and its partner Superior Oil Company (now part of ExxonMobil Corporation) used a fixed platform to develop a field in 14 feet (4.3 m) of water, one mile (1.6 km) offshore of Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana.

In 1938, Humble Oil built a mile-long wooden trestle with railway tracks into the sea at McFadden Beach on the Gulf of Mexico, placing a derrick at its end - this was later destroyed by a hurricane.[4]

In 1945, concern for American control of its offshore oil reserves caused President Harry Truman to issue an Executive Order unilaterally extending American territory to the edge of its continental shelf, an act that effectively ended the 3-mile limit "freedom of the seas" regime.

In 1946, Magnolia Petroleum (now ExxonMobil) drilled at a site 18 miles (29 km) off the coast, erecting a platform in 18 feet (5.5 m) of water off St. Mary Parish, Louisiana.

In early 1947, Superior Oil erected a drilling/production platform in 20 ft (6.1 m) of water some 18 miles off Vermilion Parish, Louisiana. But it was Kerr-McGee Oil Industries (now Anadarko Petroleum Corporation), as operator for partners Phillips Petroleum (ConocoPhillips) and Stanolind Oil & Gas (BP), that completed its historic Ship Shoal Block 32 well in October 1947, months before Superior actually drilled a discovery from their Vermilion platform farther offshore. In any case, that made Kerr-McGee's well the first oil discovery drilled out of sight of land.[5][6]

The British Maunsell Forts constructed during World War II are considered the direct predecessors of modern offshore platforms. Having been pre-constructed in a very short time, they were then floated to their location and placed on the shallow bottom of the Thames and the Mersey estuary.[6][7]

In 1954, the first jackup oil rig was ordered by Zapata Oil. It was designed by R. G. LeTourneau and featured three electro-mechanically-operated lattice type legs. Built on the shores of the Mississippi river by the LeTourneau Company, it was launched in December 1955, and christened 'Scorpion'. The Scorpion was put into operation in May 1956 off Port Aransas, Texas. It was lost in 1969.[8][9][10]

When offshore drilling moved into deeper waters of up to 30 metres (98 ft), fixed platform rigs were built, until demands for drilling equipment was needed in the 100 feet (30 m) to 120 metres (390 ft) depth of the Gulf of Mexico, the first jack-up rigs began appearing from specialized offshore drilling contractors such as forerunners of ENSCO International.

The first semi-submersible resulted from an unexpected observation in 1961. Blue Water Drilling Company owned and operated the four-column submersible Blue Water Rig No.1 in the Gulf of Mexico for Shell Oil Company. As the pontoons were not sufficiently buoyant to support the weight of the rig and its consumables, it was towed between locations at a draught midway between the top of the pontoons and the underside of the deck. It was noticed that the motions at this draught were very small, and Blue Water Drilling and Shell jointly decided to try operating the rig in the floating mode. The concept of an anchored, stable floating deep-sea platform had been designed and tested back in the 1920s by Edward Robert Armstrong for the purpose of operating aircraft with an invention known as the 'seadrome'. The first purpose-built drilling semi-submersible Ocean Driller was launched in 1963. Since then, many semi-submersibles have been purpose-designed for the drilling industry mobile offshore fleet.

The first offshore drillship was the CUSS 1 developed for the Mohole project to drill into the Earth's crust.

As of June, 2010, there were over 620 mobile offshore drilling rigs (Jackups, semisubs, drillships, barges) available for service in the competitive rig fleet.[11]

One of the world's deepest hubs is currently the Perdido in the Gulf of Mexico, floating in 2,438 meters of water. It is operated by Royal Dutch Shell and was built at a cost of $3 billion.[12] The deepest operational platform is the Petrobras America Cascade FPSO in the Walker Ridge 249 field in 2,600 meters of water.

Main offshore fields

Notable offshore fields include:

Types

Larger lake- and sea-based offshore platforms and drilling rig for oil.

Types of offshore oil and gas structures
1, 2) conventional fixed platforms; 3) compliant tower; 4, 5) vertically moored tension leg and mini-tension leg platform; 6) spar; 7, 8) semi-submersibles; 9) floating production, storage, and offloading facility; 10) sub-sea completion and tie-back to host facility.[16]

Fixed platforms

Oil Platform Base Construction
A fixed platform base under construction on a Louisiana river

These platforms are built on concrete or steel legs, or both, anchored directly onto the seabed, supporting the deck with space for drilling rigs, production facilities and crew quarters. Such platforms are, by virtue of their immobility, designed for very long term use (for instance the Hibernia platform). Various types of structure are used: steel jacket, concrete caisson, floating steel, and even floating concrete. Steel jackets are structural sections made of tubular steel members, and are usually piled into the seabed. To see more details regarding Design, construction and installation of such platforms refer to:[17] and.[18]

Concrete caisson structures, pioneered by the Condeep concept, often have in-built oil storage in tanks below the sea surface and these tanks were often used as a flotation capability, allowing them to be built close to shore (Norwegian fjords and Scottish firths are popular because they are sheltered and deep enough) and then floated to their final position where they are sunk to the seabed. Fixed platforms are economically feasible for installation in water depths up to about 520 m (1,710 ft).

Compliant towers

These platforms consist of slender, flexible towers and a pile foundation supporting a conventional deck for drilling and production operations. Compliant towers are designed to sustain significant lateral deflections and forces, and are typically used in water depths ranging from 370 to 910 metres (1,210 to 2,990 ft).

Semi-submersible platform

These platforms have hulls (columns and pontoons) of sufficient buoyancy to cause the structure to float, but of weight sufficient to keep the structure upright. Semi-submersible platforms can be moved from place to place and can be ballasted up or down by altering the amount of flooding in buoyancy tanks. They are generally anchored by combinations of chain, wire rope or polyester rope, or both, during drilling and/or production operations, though they can also be kept in place by the use of dynamic positioning. Semi-submersibles can be used in water depths from 60 to 6,000 metres (200 to 20,000 ft).

Jack-up drilling rigs

Jackrigkachbay
400 feet (120 m) tall jackup rig being towed by tugboats, Kachemak Bay, Alaska

Jack-up Mobile Drilling Units (or jack-ups), as the name suggests, are rigs that can be jacked up above the sea using legs that can be lowered, much like jacks. These MODUs (Mobile Offshore Drilling Units) are typically used in water depths up to 120 metres (390 ft), although some designs can go to 170 m (560 ft) depth. They are designed to move from place to place, and then anchor themselves by deploying their legs to the ocean bottom using a rack and pinion gear system on each leg.

Drillships

A drillship is a maritime vessel that has been fitted with drilling apparatus. It is most often used for exploratory drilling of new oil or gas wells in deep water but can also be used for scientific drilling. Early versions were built on a modified tanker hull, but purpose-built designs are used today. Most drillships are outfitted with a dynamic positioning system to maintain position over the well. They can drill in water depths up to 3,700 m (12,100 ft).[19]

Floating production systems

View of the Port of Las Palmas from the dock of La Esfinge (3)
View of the Port of Las Palmas from the dock of La Esfinge

The main types of floating production systems are FPSO (floating production, storage, and offloading system). FPSOs consist of large monohull structures, generally (but not always) shipshaped, equipped with processing facilities. These platforms are moored to a location for extended periods, and do not actually drill for oil or gas. Some variants of these applications, called FSO (floating storage and offloading system) or FSU (floating storage unit), are used exclusively for storage purposes, and host very little process equipment. This is one of the best sources for having floating production.

The world's first floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) facility is currently under development. See the section on particularly large examples below.

Tension-leg platform

TLPs are floating platforms tethered to the seabed in a manner that eliminates most vertical movement of the structure. TLPs are used in water depths up to about 2,000 meters (6,600 feet). The "conventional" TLP is a 4-column design which looks similar to a semisubmersible. Proprietary versions include the Seastar and MOSES mini TLPs; they are relatively low cost, used in water depths between 180 and 1,300 metres (590 and 4,270 ft). Mini TLPs can also be used as utility, satellite or early production platforms for larger deepwater discoveries.

Gravity-based structure

A GBS can either be steel or concrete and is usually anchored directly onto the seabed. Steel GBS are predominantly used when there is no or limited availability of crane barges to install a conventional fixed offshore platform, for example in the Caspian Sea. There are several steel GBS in the world today (e.g. offshore Turkmenistan Waters (Caspian Sea) and offshore New Zealand). Steel GBS do not usually provide hydrocarbon storage capability. It is mainly installed by pulling it off the yard, by either wet-tow or/and dry-tow, and self-installing by controlled ballasting of the compartments with sea water. To position the GBS during installation, the GBS may be connected to either a transportation barge or any other barge (provided it is large enough to support the GBS) using strand jacks. The jacks shall be released gradually whilst the GBS is ballasted to ensure that the GBS does not sway too much from target location.

Spar platforms

Devils tower 2004
Devil's Tower spar platform

Spars are moored to the seabed like TLPs, but whereas a TLP has vertical tension tethers, a spar has more conventional mooring lines. Spars have to-date been designed in three configurations: the "conventional" one-piece cylindrical hull; the "truss spar", in which the midsection is composed of truss elements connecting the upper buoyant hull (called a hard tank) with the bottom soft tank containing permanent ballast; and the "cell spar", which is built from multiple vertical cylinders. The spar has more inherent stability than a TLP since it has a large counterweight at the bottom and does not depend on the mooring to hold it upright. It also has the ability, by adjusting the mooring line tensions (using chain-jacks attached to the mooring lines), to move horizontally and to position itself over wells at some distance from the main platform location. The first production spar was Kerr-McGee's Neptune, anchored in 590 m (1,940 ft) in the Gulf of Mexico; however, spars (such as Brent Spar) were previously used as FSOs.

Eni's Devil's Tower located in 1,710 m (5,610 ft) of water in the Gulf of Mexico, was the world's deepest spar until 2010. The world's deepest platform is currently the Perdido spar in the Gulf of Mexico, floating in 2,438 metres of water. It is operated by Royal Dutch Shell and was built at a cost of $3 billion.[20][21]

The first truss spars were Kerr-McGee's Boomvang and Nansen. The first (and only) cell spar is Kerr-McGee's Red Hawk.[22]

Normally unmanned installations (NUI)

These installations, sometimes called toadstools, are small platforms, consisting of little more than a well bay, helipad and emergency shelter. They are designed to be operated remotely under normal conditions, only to be visited occasionally for routine maintenance or well work.

Conductor support systems

These installations, also known as satellite platforms, are small unmanned platforms consisting of little more than a well bay and a small process plant. They are designed to operate in conjunction with a static production platform which is connected to the platform by flow lines or by umbilical cable, or both.

Particularly large examples

Oil platform Norway
Troll A natural gas platform, a gravity-based structure, under construction in Norway. Almost all of the 600KT structure will end up submerged.

The Petronius Platform is a compliant tower in the Gulf of Mexico modeled after the Hess Baldpate platform, which stands 2,000 feet (610 m) above the ocean floor. It is one of the world's tallest structures.[23]

The Hibernia platform in Canada is the world's largest (in terms of weight) offshore platform, located on the Jeanne D'Arc Basin, in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Newfoundland. This gravity base structure (GBS), which sits on the ocean floor, is 111 metres (364 ft) high and has storage capacity for 1.3 million barrels (210,000 m3) of crude oil in its 85-metre (279 ft) high caisson. The platform acts as a small concrete island with serrated outer edges designed to withstand the impact of an iceberg. The GBS contains production storage tanks and the remainder of the void space is filled with ballast with the entire structure weighing in at 1.2 million tons.

Royal Dutch Shell is currently developing the first Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) facility, which will be situated approximately 200 km off the coast of Western Australia and is due for completion around 2017.[24] When finished, it will be the largest floating offshore facility. It is expected to be approximately 488m long and 74m wide with displacement of around 600,000t when fully ballasted.[25]

Maintenance and supply

A typical oil production platform is self-sufficient in energy and water needs, housing electrical generation, water desalinators and all of the equipment necessary to process oil and gas such that it can be either delivered directly onshore by pipeline or to a floating platform or tanker loading facility, or both. Elements in the oil/gas production process include wellhead, production manifold, production separator, glycol process to dry gas, gas compressors, water injection pumps, oil/gas export metering and main oil line pumps.

Larger platforms assisted by smaller ESVs (emergency support vessels) like the British Iolair that are summoned when something has gone wrong, e.g. when a search and rescue operation is required. During normal operations, PSVs (platform supply vessels) keep the platforms provisioned and supplied, and AHTS vessels can also supply them, as well as tow them to location and serve as standby rescue and firefighting vessels.

Crew

Essential personnel

Not all of the following personnel are present on every platform. On smaller platforms, one worker can perform a number of different jobs. The following also are not names officially recognized in the industry:

  • OIM (offshore installation manager) who is the ultimate authority during his/her shift and makes the essential decisions regarding the operation of the platform;
  • operations team leader (OTL);
  • Offshore Methods Engineer (OME) who defines the installation methodology of the platform;
  • offshore operations engineer (OOE) who is the senior technical authority on the platform;
  • PSTL or operations coordinator for managing crew changes;
  • dynamic positioning operator, navigation, ship or vessel maneuvering (MODU), station keeping, fire and gas systems operations in the event of incident;
  • automation systems specialist, to configure, maintain and troubleshoot the process control systems (PCS), process safety systems, emergency support systems and vessel management systems;
  • second mate to meet manning requirements of flag state, operates fast rescue craft, cargo operations, fire team leader;
  • third mate to meet manning requirements of flag state, operate fast rescue craft, cargo operations, fire team leader;
  • ballast control operator to operate fire and gas systems;
  • crane operators to operate the cranes for lifting cargo around the platform and between boats;
  • scaffolders to rig up scaffolding for when it is required for workers to work at height;
  • coxswains to maintain the lifeboats and manning them if necessary;
  • control room operators, especially FPSO or production platforms;
  • catering crew, including people tasked with performing essential functions such as cooking, laundry and cleaning the accommodation;
  • production techs to run the production plant;
  • helicopter pilot(s) living on some platforms that have a helicopter based offshore and transporting workers to other platforms or to shore on crew changes;
  • maintenance technicians (instrument, electrical or mechanical).
  • Fully qualified medic.
  • Radio operator to operate all radio communications.
  • Store Keeper, keeping the inventory well supplied

Incidental personnel

Drill crew will be on board if the installation is performing drilling operations. A drill crew will normally comprise:

Well services crew will be on board for well work. The crew will normally comprise:

  • Well services supervisor
  • Wireline or coiled tubing operators
  • Pump operator
  • Pump hanger and ranger

Drawbacks

Risks

The nature of their operation—extraction of volatile substances sometimes under extreme pressure in a hostile environment—means risk; accidents and tragedies occur regularly. The U.S. Minerals Management Service reported 69 offshore deaths, 1,349 injuries, and 858 fires and explosions on offshore rigs in the Gulf of Mexico from 2001 to 2010.[26] On July 6, 1988, 167 people died when Occidental Petroleum's Piper Alpha offshore production platform, on the Piper field in the UK sector of the North Sea, exploded after a gas leak. The resulting investigation conducted by Lord Cullen and publicized in the first Cullen Report was highly critical of a number of areas, including, but not limited to, management within the company, the design of the structure, and the Permit to Work System. The report was commissioned in 1988, and was delivered November 1990.[27] The accident greatly accelerated the practice of providing living accommodations on separate platforms, away from those used for extraction.

The offshore can be in itself a hazardous environment. In March 1980, the 'flotel' (floating hotel) platform Alexander L. Kielland capsized in a storm in the North Sea with the loss of 123 lives.[28]

In 2001, Petrobras 36 in Brazil exploded and sank five days later, killing 11 people.

Given the number of grievances and conspiracy theories that involve the oil business, and the importance of gas/oil platforms to the economy, platforms in the United States are believed to be potential terrorist targets. Agencies and military units responsible for maritime counter-terrorism in the US (Coast Guard, Navy SEALs, Marine Recon) often train for platform raids.

On April 21, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon platform, 52 miles off-shore of Venice, Louisiana, (property of Transocean and leased to BP) exploded, killing 11 people, and sank two days later. The resulting undersea gusher, conservatively estimated to exceed 20 million US gallons (76,000 m3) as of early June, 2010, became the worst oil spill in US history, eclipsing the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

Ecological effects

Gulf Coast Platforms
NOAA map of the 3,858 oil and gas platforms extant in the Gulf of Mexico in 2006

In British waters, the cost of removing all platform rig structures entirely was estimated in 2013 at £30 billion.[29]

Aquatic organisms invariably attach themselves to the undersea portions of oil platforms, turning them into artificial reefs. In the Gulf of Mexico and offshore California, the waters around oil platforms are popular destinations for sports and commercial fishermen, because of the greater numbers of fish near the platforms. The United States and Brunei have active Rigs-to-Reefs programs, in which former oil platforms are left in the sea, either in place or towed to new locations, as permanent artificial reefs. In the US Gulf of Mexico, as of September 2012, 420 former oil platforms, about 10 percent of decommissioned platforms, have been converted to permanent reefs.[30]

On the US Pacific coast, marine biologist Milton Love has proposed that oil platforms off California be retained as artificial reefs, instead of being dismantled (at great cost), because he has found them to be havens for many of the species of fish which are otherwise declining in the region, in the course of 11 years of research.[31] Love is funded mainly by government agencies, but also in small part by the California Artificial Reef Enhancement Program. Divers have been used to assess the fish populations surrounding the platforms.[32]

Challenges

Offshore oil and gas production is more challenging than land-based installations due to the remote and harsher environment. Much of the innovation in the offshore petroleum sector concerns overcoming these challenges, including the need to provide very large production facilities. Production and drilling facilities may be very large and a large investment, such as the Troll A platform standing on a depth of 300 meters.

Another type of offshore platform may float with a mooring system to maintain it on location. While a floating system may be lower cost in deeper waters than a fixed platform, the dynamic nature of the platforms introduces many challenges for the drilling and production facilities.

The ocean can add several thousand meters or more to the fluid column. The addition increases the equivalent circulating density and downhole pressures in drilling wells, as well as the energy needed to lift produced fluids for separation on the platform.

The trend today is to conduct more of the production operations subsea, by separating water from oil and re-injecting it rather than pumping it up to a platform, or by flowing to onshore, with no installations visible above the sea. Subsea installations help to exploit resources at progressively deeper waters—locations which had been inaccessible—and overcome challenges posed by sea ice such as in the Barents Sea. One such challenge in shallower environments is seabed gouging by drifting ice features (means of protecting offshore installations against ice action includes burial in the seabed).

Offshore manned facilities also present logistics and human resources challenges. An offshore oil platform is a small community in itself with cafeteria, sleeping quarters, management and other support functions. In the North Sea, staff members are transported by helicopter for a two-week shift. They usually receive higher salary than onshore workers do. Supplies and waste are transported by ship, and the supply deliveries need to be carefully planned because storage space on the platform is limited. Today, much effort goes into relocating as many of the personnel as possible onshore, where management and technical experts are in touch with the platform by video conferencing. An onshore job is also more attractive for the aging workforce in the petroleum industry, at least in the western world. These efforts among others are contained in the established term integrated operations. The increased use of subsea facilities helps achieve the objective of keeping more workers onshore. Subsea facilities are also easier to expand, with new separators or different modules for different oil types, and are not limited by the fixed floor space of an above-water installation.

Effects on the environment

Offshore oil production involves environmental risks, most notably oil spills from oil tankers or pipelines transporting oil from the platform to onshore facilities, and from leaks and accidents on the platform.[33] Produced water is also generated, which is water brought to the surface along with the oil and gas; it is usually highly saline and may include dissolved or unseparated hydrocarbons.

Deepest oil platforms

The world's deepest oil platform is the floating Perdido, which is a spar platform in the Gulf of Mexico in a water depth of 2,438 metres (7,999 ft).

Non-floating compliant towers and fixed platforms, by water depth:

See also

References

  1. ^ Ronalds, BF (2005). "Applicability ranges for offshore oil and gas production facilities". Marine Structures. 18 (3): 251–263. doi:10.1016/j.marstruc.2005.06.001.
  2. ^ Compton, Glenn, "10 Reasons Not to Drill for Oil Offshore of Florida", The Bradenton Times, Sunday, January 14, 2018
  3. ^ "Oil in Azerbaijan". Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  4. ^ Morton, Michael Quentin (June 2016). "Beyond Sight of Land: A History of Oil Exploration in the Gulf of Mexico". GeoExpro. 30 (3): 60–63. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  5. ^ Ref accessed 02-12-89 by technical aspects and coast mapping. Kerr-McGee
  6. ^ a b Project Redsand
  7. ^ 11.2 Azerbaijan's Oil History Brief Oil Chronology since 1920 Part 2 by Mir-Yusif Mir-Babayev
  8. ^ http://iadc.org/dcpi/dc-septoct05/Sept05-anniversary.pdf
  9. ^ http://petrowiki.org/History_of_offshore_drilling_units
  10. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ibvuWmF7Dc
  11. ^ "RIGZONE - Offshore Rig Data, Onshore Fleet Analysis". Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  12. ^ "UPDATE 1-Shell starts production at Perdido". Reuters. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-11-05. Retrieved 2011-02-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ "Russian Rosneft announces major oil, gas discovery in Arctic Kara Sea". Platts. Retrieved 2017-08-18.
  15. ^ "Year 2006 National Assessment - Alaska Outer Continental Shelf" (PDF). Dept Interior BEOM. Retrieved 2017-08-18.
  16. ^ Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (15 December 2008). "Types of Offshore Oil and Gas Structures". NOAA Ocean Explorer: Expedition to the Deep Slope. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  17. ^ http://www.slideshare.net/amirkabirsadeghi/jsas-002-0401sadeghi
  18. ^ http://www.slideshare.net/amirkabirsadeghi/jsas-004-077sadeghi
  19. ^ "Chevron Drillship". 2010-03-11. Archived from the original on 2010-05-30. Retrieved 2010-05-24.
  20. ^ Shell starts production at Perdido
  21. ^ Fahey, Jonathan, Associated Press, "Deep Gulf drilling thrives 18 mos. after BP spill", Japan Times, 4 January 2012, p. 11; "The offshore drilling life: cramped and dangerous", 1 January 2012.
  22. ^ "First Cell Spar". Archived from the original on 2011-07-11. Retrieved 2010-05-24.
  23. ^ "What is the World's Tallest Building?". All About Skyscrapers. 2009. Archived from the original on 5 February 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  24. ^ http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/9ccaed4a-82ba-11e0-b97c-00144feabdc0.html#axzz1NADgzzOH
  25. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-01-31. Retrieved 2018-12-16.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  26. ^ "Potential for big spill after oil rig sinks". MSNBC. 2010-04-22. Retrieved 2010-06-04.
  27. ^ http://www.oilandgas.org.uk/issues/piperalpha/v0000864.cfm
  28. ^ "North Sea platform collapses". BBC News. 1980-03-27. Retrieved 2008-06-19.
  29. ^ http://www.raeng.org.uk/publications/reports/decommissioning-in-the-north-sea.
  30. ^ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Gulf decomissioning and Rigs-to-Reefs, FAQs Archived 2013-11-09 at the Wayback Machine, 2012.
  31. ^ Page M, Dugan J, Love M, Lenihan H. "Ecological Performance and Trophic Links: Comparisons Among Platforms And Natural Reefs For Selected Fish And Their Prey". University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
  32. ^ SA Cox; CR Beaver; QR Dokken & JR Rooker. (1996). "Diver-based under water survey techniques used to assess fish populations and fouling community development on offshore oil and gas platform structures". In: MA Lang, CC Baldwin (Eds.) the Diving for Science...1996, "Methods and Techniques of Underwater Research". Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences (16th Annual Scientific Diving Symposium). Retrieved 2008-06-27.
  33. ^ Debate Over Offshore Drilling (internet video). CBS News. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-08-24. Retrieved 2008-09-27.

External links

Apache Corporation

Apache Corporation is is a company engaged in hydrocarbon exploration. It is organized in Delaware and headquartered in Houston. The company is ranked 438th on the Fortune 500.

Baldpate (oil platform)

Baldpate is a 579.7 metres (1,902 ft) offshore compliant tower oil platform near the coast of Louisiana. Baldpate Platform was designed by Hudson Engineering (now J. Ray McDermott Engineering) in Houston, Texas, and installed by Heerema Marine Contractors.

Benguela-Belize Lobito-Tomboco Platform

Benguela-Belize Lobito-Tomboco is a 390 m (1,280 ft) offshore compliant tower oil platform off the coast of Angola, in the lower Congo basin. It is owned and run by the Chevron Corporation.

Bullwinkle (oil platform)

Bullwinkle is a 1,736 feet (529 m) tall, pile-supported fixed steel oil platform in the Gulf of Mexico. Of the total height, 1,352 feet (412 m) are below the waterline. It is located in Green Canyon Block 65, approximately 160 miles (260 km) southwest of New Orleans. Bullwinkle belongs to Fieldwood Energy LLC. The total field development construction cost was US$500,000,000 according to some sources. The jacket, i.e. the mainly submerged part of the platform, was built by Gulf Marine Fabricators in 1985-1988 at the North Yard location at the intersection of the Corpus Christi Ship Channel and the Intracoastal Waterway in Port Aransas, TX, east of Corpus Christi. The platform was installed by Heerema Marine Contractors.

Deepwater Horizon explosion

The Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion was the April 20, 2010, explosion and subsequent fire on the Deepwater Horizon semi-submersible Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU), which was owned and operated by Transocean and drilling for BP in the Macondo Prospect oil field about 40 miles (60 km) southeast off the Louisiana coast. The explosion and subsequent fire resulted in the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon and the deaths of 11 workers; 17 others were injured. The same blowout that caused the explosion also caused a massive offshore oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, considered the largest accidental marine oil spill in the world, and the largest environmental disaster in U.S. history.

Hibernia oil field

Hibernia is an oil field in the North Atlantic Ocean, approximately 315 kilometres (196 mi) east-southeast of St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, in 80 m of water.The production platform Hibernia is the world's largest oil platform (by weight) and consists of a 37,000 t (41,000 short tons) integrated topsides facility mounted on a 600,000 t (660,000 short tons) gravity base structure. The platform was towed to its final site, and 450,000 t (500,000 short tons) of solid ballast were added to secure it in place. Inside the gravity base structure are storage tanks for 1.3 million barrels (210,000 m3) of crude oil.

Kolskaya (jack-up rig)

Kolskaya was a jack-up rig operating in the Russian Far East. It was built by Rauma-Repola in Pori, Finland in 1985 and was owned by the Russian company ArktikmorNeftegazRazvedka (AMNGR), a subsidiary of Zarubezhneft.Kolskaya was an independent leg cantilever type jack-up rig. It was 69 metres (226 ft) long and 80 metres (260 ft) wide, and could accommodate up to 102 people. Its rated water depth for operations was 328 feet (100 m). Its drilling depth was 21,325 feet (6,500 m).

List of tallest oil platforms

This is a list of the tallest oil platforms over 380 m (1,247 ft) in height. The current highest oil platform is the Petronius platform operated by Chevron Corporation and Marathon Oil in the Gulf of Mexico, 210 km southeast of New Orleans, United States.

Mad Dog Oil Field

Mad Dog Oil Field is an offshore oil field located along the Sigsbee Escarpment at Green Canyon blocks 825, 826 and 782, Western Atwater Foldbelt, Gulf of Mexico. The field is located about 190 miles (310 km) south of New Orleans and 150 miles (240 km) southwest of Venice, Louisiana, United States. It is in the depth of 5,000 to 7,000 feet (1,500 to 2,100 m) of water.The field was discovered in May 1998 and it became operational in 2005. It is owned by BP (60.5%), BHP Billiton (23.9%), and Chevron Corporation (15.6%). The operator is BP.The gross estimated reserves are ranged from 200 to 450 million barrels (32×10^6 to 72×10^6 m3) of oil equivalent. The field has production capacity around 100,000 barrels per day (16,000 m3/d) of oil and 60 million cubic feet per day (1.7×10^6 m3/d) of natural gas. Oil is transported to Ship Shoal 332B via the Caesar pipeline, while natural gas is transported via the Cleopatra pipeline.The field is operated by using a spar oil platform manufactured in Finland. The hull measures are 128 feet (39 m) in diameter and 555 feet (169 m) in length. Its weight is 20,800 tonnes. The deck measures are 220 by 163 feet (67 by 50 m). It includes production facilities with 13 production slots, a drilling riser slot and two service slots, and quarters for 126 personnel. The front-end engineering design of the second spar will be done by Technip.It was reported on September 16, 2008 that Mad Dog was damaged due to Hurricane Ike. The drilling derrick was toppled over and was on the sea bed. A new drilling package was built and replaced the damaged one on the spar in early 2012.

Mars (oil platform)

Mars is a permanent offshore drilling and production tension-leg oil platform (TLP) operating in Mississippi Canyon blocks 762, 763, 806, 807, 850 and 851 in the Gulf of Mexico and was approved by the MMS in December 1992 with production beginning on July 8, 1996. The leases were acquired by Shell in 1985 and 1988. The platform is a joint venture between Shell Oil Company and BP, with Shell owning the majority share and operating the facility.Mars is positioned in a water depth of 896 m (2940 ft) and is designed to produce 220,000 barrels (35,000 m3) of oil and 220 million cubic feet (6,200,000 m3) of gas a day.

Neft Daşları

Neft Daşları (Azerbaijani: Neft Daşları, Russian: Нефтяные Камни, also known as the Oil Rocks) is an industrial settlement in Baku, Azerbaijan. The settlement forms part of the municipality of Çilov-Neft Daşları in the Khazar raion. It lies 100 km (62 mi) away from the Azerbaijani capital Baku, and 55 km (34 mi) from the nearest shore in the Caspian Sea. A full town on the sea, it was the first oil platform in Azerbaijan, and the first operating offshore oil platform in the world, incorporating numerous drilling platforms. It is featured in Guinness World Records as the world's first offshore oil platform.The settlement began with a single path out over the water and grew into a system of paths and platforms built on the back of ships sunk to serve as the Neft Daşları's foundation. The most distinctive feature of Neft Daşları is that it is actually a functional city with a population of about 2,000 and over 300 km (190 mi) of streets built on piles of dirt and landfill.

Petrobras 36

Petrobras 36 (P-36) was at the time the largest floating semi-submersible oil platform in the world prior to its sinking on 20 March 2001. It was owned by Petrobras, a semi-public Brazilian oil company headquartered in Rio de Janeiro. The cost of the platform was US$350 million (currently US$495 million).The vessel was built at the Fincantieri shipyard in Genoa, Italy in 1995 as a drilling rig. She was owned then by Società Armamento Navi Appoggio S.p.A. The 33,000 tonnes (36,000 short tons) rig was converted by Davie Industry, Lévis, Canada to the world's largest oil production platform.

P-36 was operating for Petrobras on the Roncador Oil Field, 130 kilometres (80 mi) off the Brazilian coast, producing about 84,000 barrels (13,400 m3) of crude per day.P-36 was replaced by FPSO-Brasil which is a leased vessel from SBM Offshore. The FPSO-Brasil started its lease contract with Petrobras in December 2002.

Petronius (oil platform)

Petronius is a deepwater compliant tower oil platform operated by Chevron in the Gulf of Mexico, 210 km southeast of New Orleans, United States.

A compliant piled tower design, it is 609.9 metres (2,001 ft) high, and was arguably the tallest free-standing structure in the world, until surpassed by the Burj Khalifa in 2010, although this claim is disputed since only 75 metres of the platform are above water. The multi-deck topsides are 64 metres by 43 metres by 18.3 metres high and hold 21 well slots, and the entire structure weighs around 43,000 tons. Around 8,000 m3 (50,000 barrels) of oil and 2,000,000 m3 (70 million cubic feet) of natural gas are extracted daily by the platform.

The platform is situated to exploit the Petronius field, discovered in 1995 in Viosca Knoll (block VK 786) and named after Petronius, the Roman writer. The seabed is 535 m (1,754 ft) below the platform. The compliant tower design is more flexible than conventional land structures to cope better with sea forces. It can deflect (sway) in excess of 2% of height. Most buildings are kept to within 0.5% of height in order to have occupants not feel uneasy during periods of movement.

Construction began in 1997 by J Ray McDermott with the seabed mooring system. The contract for the platform was budgeted at $200 million with total costs of around $500 million. The 4,000-ton North Module was installed in November 1998, but the attempt to install the slightly lighter South Module in December of that year ended with the unit on the seabed. A replacement module was built and installed by Saipem 7000 in May 2000.

Pompano Platform

Pompano is a 477.012 metres (1,565.00 ft) offshore compliant tower oil platform in the Gulf of Mexico. The platform was formerly owned and run by BP Exploration but was sold to Stone Energy in early 2012.

Sea Dragon-class ROV

Sea Dragon (海龙) class remotely operated underwater vehicle is a class of Chinese ROV used to perform various underwater tasks ranging from oil platform service to salvage and rescue missions, and it is a class of ROUV developed in People's Republic of China with the deepest diving capability: up to 3,500 meters.

Tern oilfield

The Tern oilfield is an oilfield situated 169 kilometres (105 mi) north east of Lerwick, Shetland Islands, Scotland, in block numbers 210/25a.

Thunder Horse PDQ

Thunder Horse PDQ is a BP plc and ExxonMobil joint venture semi-submersible oil platform on location over the Mississippi Canyon Thunder Horse oil field (Block 778/822), in deepwater Gulf of Mexico, 150 miles (240 km) southeast of New Orleans, moored in waters of 1,840 metres (6,040 ft). The "PDQ" identifies the platform as being a Production and oil Drilling facility with crew Quarters.Thunder Horse PDQ is the largest offshore installation of its kind in the world. The vessel's hull is of GVA design. The hull was built by Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME) in Okpo, South Korea, then loaded aboard the heavy lift ship MV Blue Marlin and transported to Kiewit Offshore Services in Ingleside, Texas, where it was integrated with its topsides modules that were built in Morgan City, La.. The 15,813 nautical miles (29,286 km; 18,197 mi) journey around the Cape of Good Hope took nine weeks (63 days), from 23 July to 23 September 2004.

Ula oil field

Ula (Norwegian: Ulafeltet) is an offshore oil field located in the southern Norwegian section of North Sea along with Gyda, Tambar and Tambar East fields making up the UGT area, usually attributed to DONG Energy's main areas of exploration and production activity.The Ula field was discovered in 1976 and came online in October 1986. It contains confirmed 69.98 million m3 of oil and 2.5 million of NGL.

Vienen

"Vienen" is the eighteenth episode of the eighth season of the American science fiction television series The X-Files, and is the 179th episode overall. The episode first aired in the United States and Canada on April 29, 2001, on the Fox Network, and in the United Kingdom on June 7. It was written by staff member Steven Maeda, was directed by Rod Hardy, and forms part of the series' overarching mythology. The episode received a Nielsen household rating of 7.4 and was viewed by 11.8 million viewers. "Vienen" received mixed to positive reviews from critics, many of whom appreciated its hearkening-back to the older mythology of The X-Files.

The season centers on FBI special agents Dana Scully (Gillian Anderson), her new partner John Doggett (Robert Patrick), and Scully's former partner Fox Mulder (David Duchovny), who work on X-Files—cases linked to the paranormal. In this episode, Mulder disobeys orders to stay away from the X-Files and finds himself stranded on a quarantined oil platform with Doggett. They soon discover that the crew has been infected with the black oil, an alien virus that Mulder and Scully have encountered many times before. Despite their dislike for each other, Mulder and Doggett team up and escape before the infected crew members are able to capture and kill them.

The episode was a series milestone, and features the last appearance of the alien black oil before the series finale, where it appeared via flashback—a plot device that plays a significant role in the series and in the 1998 X-Files movie. The oil effects were created using chocolate syrup and molasses. Principal filming for "Vienen" was carried out at three locations: an oil platform, an oil refinery, and on a specially-created set. The episode's title is a Spanish word meaning "they come" or "they are coming", and has been interpreted as foreshadowing the show's Super Soldier narrative arc. Elements of the plot have been compared to the ancient Greek religious and mythological figure Orpheus.

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