Ohio

Ohio /oʊˈhaɪoʊ/ (listen) is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, and the tenth most densely populated. The state's capital and largest city is Columbus.

The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek".[15][16][17] Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, and the first under the Northwest Ordinance.[12][18] Ohio is historically known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, and Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes".[5]

Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.

The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor; the legislative branch, which comprises the bicameral Ohio General Assembly; and the judicial branch, led by the state Supreme Court. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives.[19] Ohio is known for its status as both a swing state[20] and a bellwether[20] in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected who had Ohio as their home state.

Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP (2015), and is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan.

State of Ohio
Flag of Ohio State seal of Ohio
Flag Seal
Nickname(s):
The Buckeye State;
Birthplace of Aviation; The Heart of It All
Motto(s): With God, all things are possible (1959)[1]
State song(s): "Beautiful Ohio (1969)[2]
Hang On Sloopy (1985)[3]
"
Map of the United States with Ohio highlighted
Official languageDe jure: None
De facto: English
Spoken languagesEnglish 93.3%
Spanish 2.2%
Other 4.5%[4]
DemonymOhioan; Buckeye[5] (colloq.)
Capital
(and largest city)
Columbus[6][7]
Largest metroGreater Cincinnati
Greater Columbus
(see footnotes [8])
AreaRanked 34th
 • Total44,825 sq mi
(116,096 km2)
 • Width220 miles (355 km)
 • Length220 miles (355 km)
 • % water8.7
 • Latitude38° 24′ N to 41° 59′ N
 • Longitude80° 31′ W to 84° 49′ W
PopulationRanked 7th
 • Total11,689,442 (2018)
 • Density282/sq mi  (109/km2)
Ranked 10th
 • Median household income$53,301[9] (32nd)
Elevation
 • Highest pointCampbell Hill[10][11]
1,549 ft (472 m)
 • Mean850 ft  (260 m)
 • Lowest pointOhio River at Indiana border[10][11]
455 ft (139 m)
Admission to UnionMarch 1, 1803[12] (17th,
declared retroactively on
August 7, 1953[13])
GovernorMike DeWine (R)
Lieutenant GovernorJon Husted (R)
LegislatureGeneral Assembly
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. SenatorsSherrod Brown (D)
Rob Portman (R)
U.S. House delegation12 Republicans
4 Democrats (list)
Time zoneEastern: UTC -5/-4
ISO 3166US-OH
AbbreviationsOH[14]
Websitewww.ohio.gov
Ohio state symbols
Flag of Ohio
Seal of Ohio (Official)
Living insignia
AmphibianSpotted salamander
BirdCardinal (1933)[2]
FlowerRed carnation (1904)[2]
InsectLadybug (1975)[2]
MammalWhite-tailed deer (1987)[2]
ReptileBlack racer snake (1995)[2]
TreeBuckeye (1953)[2]
Inanimate insignia
BeverageTomato juice (1965)[2]
FossilIsotelus maximus, a trilobite (1985)[2]
GemstoneOhio flint (1965)[2]
SloganSo Much to Discover
OtherWild flower: Great white trillium (1986)[2]
Fruit: Pawpaw
State route marker
Ohio state route marker
State quarter
Ohio quarter dollar coin
Released in 2002
Lists of United States state symbols

Geography

Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity.[21] To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles (502 km) of coastline,[22] which allows for numerous cargo ports. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River (with the border being at the 1792 low-water mark on the north side of the river),[23] and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, and West Virginia on the southeast. Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows:

Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, and on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, and thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid.

DSCN4516 portconneautflag e
The Ohio coast of Lake Erie.

Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U.S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia (which at that time included what is now Kentucky and West Virginia), the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky (and, by implication, West Virginia) is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792.[23] Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.

The border with Michigan has also changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River.

Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. This glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, and then by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests.

Geographic regions ohio
Physical geography of Ohio.

The rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, and distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state. In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region."[24] This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia.[25] While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there (1.476 million people.)[26]

Map of Ohio NA
Map of Ohio

Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, and Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, and the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and then the Mississippi.

The worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton. As a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.[27]

Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the canal-building era of 1820–1850. For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles (52 km2), was the largest artificial lake in the world. Ohio's canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their industrial emergence to location on canals, and as late as 1910 interior canals carried much of the bulk freight of the state.

Climate

Ohio Köppen
Köppen climate types in Ohio now showing majority as humid subtropical.

The climate of Ohio is a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa/Dfb) throughout most of the state, except in the extreme southern counties of Ohio's Bluegrass region section, which are located on the northern periphery of the humid subtropical climate (Cfa) and Upland South region of the United States. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold. Precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round. Severe weather is not uncommon in the state, although there are typically fewer tornado reports in Ohio than in states located in what is known as the Tornado Alley. Severe lake effect snowstorms are also not uncommon on the southeast shore of Lake Erie, which is located in an area designated as the Snowbelt.

Although predominantly not in a subtropical climate, some warmer-climate flora and fauna do reach well into Ohio. For instance, some trees with more southern ranges, such as the blackjack oak, Quercus marilandica, are found at their northernmost in Ohio just north of the Ohio River. Also evidencing this climatic transition from a subtropical to continental climate, several plants such as the Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), Albizia julibrissin (mimosa), Crape Myrtle, and even the occasional needle palm are hardy landscape materials regularly used as street, yard, and garden plantings in the Bluegrass region of Ohio; but these same plants will simply not thrive in much of the rest of the state. This interesting change may be observed while traveling through Ohio on Interstate 75 from Cincinnati to Toledo; the observant traveler of this diverse state may even catch a glimpse of Cincinnati's common wall lizard, one of the few examples of permanent "subtropical" fauna in Ohio.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Ohio[28]
Location Region July (°F) July (°C) January (°F) January (°C)
Athens Appalachian 85/61 29/16 40/21 4/–6
Canton Northeast 82/62 28/16 33/19 1/–7
Cincinnati Southwest 86/66 30/19 39/23 3/–5
Cleveland Northeast 82/64 28/18 34/21 1/–5
Columbus Central 85/65 29/18 36/22 2/–5
Dayton Miami Valley 87/67 31/19 36/22 2/–5
Toledo Northwest 84/62 29/17 32/18 0/–7

Records

The highest recorded temperature was 113 °F (45 °C), near Gallipolis on July 21, 1934.[29] The lowest recorded temperature was −39 °F (−39 °C), at Milligan on February 10, 1899,[30] during the Great Blizzard of 1899.[31]

Earthquakes

Although few have registered as noticeable to the average resident, more than 30 earthquakes occurred in Ohio between 2002 and 2007, and more than 200 quakes with a magnitude of 2.0 or higher have occurred since 1776.[32]

The most substantial known earthquake in Ohio history was the Anna (Shelby County) earthquake,[33] which occurred on March 9, 1937. It was centered in western Ohio, and had a magnitude of 5.4, and was of intensity VIII.[34]

Other significant earthquakes in Ohio include:[35] one of magnitude 4.8 near Lima on September 19, 1884;[36] one of magnitude 4.2 near Portsmouth on May 17, 1901;[37] and one of 5.0 in LeRoy Township in Lake County on January 31, 1986, which continued to trigger 13 aftershocks of magnitude 0.5 to 2.4 for two months.[38][39]

The most recent earthquake in Ohio of any appreciable magnitude occurred on December 31, 2011, at 3:05pm EST. It had a magnitude of 4.0, and its epicenter was located approximately 4 kilometres northwest of Youngstown (41°7′19.1994″N 80°41′2.3994″W / 41.121999833°N 80.683999833°W), near the Trumbull/Mahoning county border.[40]

The Ohio Seismic Network (OhioSeis), a group of seismograph stations at several colleges, universities, and other institutions, and coordinated by the Division of Geological Survey of the Ohio Department of Natural Resources,[41] maintains an extensive catalog of Ohio earthquakes from 1776 to the present day, as well as earthquakes located in other states whose effects were felt in Ohio.[42]

Major cities

Columbus (home of The Ohio State University, Franklin University, Capital University, and Ohio Dominican University) is the capital of Ohio, near the geographic center of the state.

Other Ohio cities functioning as centers of United States metropolitan areas include:

The Cincinnati metropolitan area extends into Kentucky and Indiana, the Steubenville metropolitan area extends into West Virginia, The Toledo metropolitan area extends into Michigan, and the Youngstown metropolitan area extends into Pennsylvania.

Ohio cities that function as centers of United States micropolitan areas include:

History

Native Americans

Archeological evidence suggests that the Ohio Valley was inhabited by nomadic people as early as 13,000 BC.[44] These early nomads disappeared from Ohio by 1,000 BC, [44] Between 1,000 and 800 BC, the sedentary Adena culture emerged. The Adena were able to establish "semi-permanent" villages because they domesticated plants, which included squash, sunflowers, and perhaps corn. Cultivation of these in addition to hunting and gathering supported more settled, complex villages.[45] The most spectacular remnant of the Adena culture is the Great Serpent Mound, located in Adams County, Ohio.[45]

5NationsExpansion
Iroquois conquests during the Beaver Wars (mid-1600s), which largely depopulated the upper and mid-Ohio River valley.

Around 100 BC, the Adena evolved into the Hopewell people who were also mound builders. Their complex, large and technologically sophisticated earthworks can be found in modern-day Marietta, Newark, and Circleville.[46] They were also a prolific trading society, with a trading network that spanned a third of the continent.[47] The Hopewell disappeared from the Ohio Valley about 600 AD. The Mississippian Culture rose as the Hopewell Culture declined. Many Siouan-speaking peoples from the plains & east coast claim them as ancestors & say they lived throughout the Ohio region until approx. the 13th century.[48]

There were three other cultures contemporaneous with the Mississippians: the Fort Ancient people, the Whittlesey Focus people [48] & the Monongahela Culture.[49] All three cultures disappeared in the 17th century. Their origins are unknown. It is generally believed that the Shawnees may have absorbed the Fort Ancient people.[48] It's also possible that the Monongahela held no land in Ohio during the Colonial Era. The Mississippian Culture were close to and traded extensively with the Fort Ancient people.

Indians in the Ohio Valley were greatly affected by the aggressive tactics of the Iroquois Confederation, based in central and western New York.[50] After the Beaver Wars in the mid-17th century, the Iroquois claimed much of the Ohio country as hunting and, more importantly, beaver-trapping ground. After the devastation of epidemics and war in the mid-17th century, which largely emptied the Ohio country of indigenous people by the mid-to-late 17th century, the land gradually became repopulated by the mostly Algonquian. Many of these Ohio-country nations were multi-ethnic (sometimes multi-linguistic) societies born out of the earlier devastation brought about by disease, war, and subsequent social instability. They subsisted on agriculture (corn, sunflowers, beans, etc.) supplemented by seasonal hunts. By the 18th century, they were part of a larger global economy brought about by European entry into the fur trade.[51]

The indigenous nations to inhabit Ohio in the historical period included the Iroquoian [52], the Algonquian [53] & the Siouan [54] .[55][56] Ohio country was also the site of Indian massacres, such as the Yellow Creek Massacre, Gnadenhutten and Pontiac's Rebellion school massacre.[57] Most Native Peoples who remained in Ohio were slowly bought out and convinced to leave, or ordered to do so by law, in the early 19th century with the Indian Removal Act of 1830.

Colonial and Revolutionary eras

During the 18th century, the French set up a system of trading posts to control the fur trade in the region. Beginning in 1754, France and Great Britain fought the French and Indian War. As a result of the Treaty of Paris, the French ceded control of Ohio and the remainder of the Old Northwest to Great Britain.

Pontiac's Rebellion in the 1760s, however, posed a challenge to British military control.[58] This came to an end with the colonists' victory in the American Revolution. In the Treaty of Paris in 1783, Britain ceded all claims to Ohio country to the United States.

Northwest Territory: 1787–1803

DSCN3504 ohiocompany e
Plaque commemorating the Northwest Ordinance outside Federal Hall National Memorial in New York

The United States created the Northwest Territory under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.[59] Slavery was not permitted in the new territory. Settlement began with the founding of Marietta by the Ohio Company of Associates, which had been formed by a group of American Revolutionary War veterans. Following the Ohio Company, the Miami Company (also referred to as the "Symmes Purchase") claimed the southwestern section, and the Connecticut Land Company surveyed and settled the Connecticut Western Reserve in present-day Northeast Ohio. Territorial surveyors from Fort Steuben began surveying an area of eastern Ohio called the Seven Ranges at about the same time.

The old Northwest Territory originally included areas previously known as Ohio Country and Illinois Country. As Ohio prepared for statehood, the Indiana Territory was created, reducing the Northwest Territory to approximately the size of present-day Ohio plus the eastern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and the eastern tip of the Upper Peninsula and a sliver of southeastern Indiana called "The Gore".

Under the Northwest Ordinance, areas of the territory could be defined and admitted as states once their population reached 60,000. Although Ohio's population numbered only 45,000 in December 1801, Congress determined that the population was growing rapidly and Ohio could begin the path to statehood. The assumption was that it would exceed 60,000 residents by the time it was admitted as a state. Furthermore, in regards to the Leni Lenape Native Americans living in the region, Congress decided that 10,000 acres on the Muskingum River in the present state of Ohio would "be set apart and the property thereof be vested in the Moravian Brethren ... or a society of the said Brethren for civilizing the Indians and promoting Christianity".[60]

Statehood and settlement

On February 19, 1803, U.S. President Thomas Jefferson signed an act of Congress that approved Ohio's boundaries and constitution.[61] However, Congress had never passed a resolution formally admitting Ohio as the 17th state. The current custom of Congress declaring an official date of statehood did not begin until 1812, with Louisiana's admission as the 18th state. Although no formal resolution of admission was required, when the oversight was discovered in 1953, Ohio congressman George H. Bender introduced a bill in Congress to admit Ohio to the Union retroactive to March 1, 1803, the date on which the Ohio General Assembly first convened.[62] At a special session at the old state capital in Chillicothe, the Ohio state legislature approved a new petition for statehood that was delivered to Washington, D.C. on horseback. On August 7, 1953 (the year of Ohio's 150th anniversary), President Eisenhower signed a congressional joint resolution that officially declared March 1, 1803, the date of Ohio's admittance into the Union.[62][63][64]

Ohio has had three capital cities: Chillicothe, Zanesville, and Columbus. Chillicothe was the capital from 1803 to 1810. The capital was then moved to Zanesville for two years, as part of a state legislative compromise to get a bill passed. The capital was then moved back to Chillicothe, which was the capital from 1812 to 1816. Finally, the capital was moved to Columbus, to have it near the geographic center of the state.

Although many Native Americans had migrated west to evade American encroachment, others remained settled in the state, sometimes assimilating in part. In 1830 under President Andrew Jackson, the US government forced Indian Removal of most tribes to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.

In 1835, Ohio fought with Michigan in the Toledo War, a mostly bloodless boundary war over the Toledo Strip. Only one person was injured in the conflict. Congress intervened, making Michigan's admittance as a state conditional on ending the conflict. In exchange for giving up its claim to the Toledo Strip, Michigan was given the western two-thirds of the Upper Peninsula, in addition to the eastern third that was already considered part of the state.

Ohio
Ohio state welcome sign, in an older (1990s) style
Ohio schild
Newer state sign, (US 52)

Civil War and growth

Ohio's central position and its population gave it an important place during the Civil War. The Ohio River was a vital artery for troop and supply movements, as were Ohio's railroads. The industry of Ohio made the state one of the most important states in the union during the Civil war. Ohio contributed more soldiers per-capita than any other state in the Union. In 1862, the state's morale was badly shaken in the aftermath of the battle of Shiloh, a costly victory in which Ohio forces suffered 2,000 casualties.[65] Later that year, when Confederate troops under the leadership of Stonewall Jackson threatened Washington, D.C., Ohio governor David Tod still could recruit 5,000 volunteers to provide three months of service.[66] From July 12 to July 23, 1863, Southern Ohio and Indiana were attacked in Morgan's Raid. While this raid was insignificant and small, it aroused fear among people in Ohio and Indiana.[67] Almost 35,000 Ohioans died in the conflict, and 30,000 were physically wounded.[68] By the end of the Civil War, the Union's top three generals–Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, and Philip Sheridan–were all from Ohio.[69][70]

Industrialization

In 1912 a Constitutional Convention was held with Charles B. Galbreath as secretary. The result reflected the concerns of the Progressive Era. It introduced the initiative and the referendum. Also, it allowed the General Assembly to put questions on the ballot for the people to ratify laws and constitutional amendments originating in the Legislature. Under the Jeffersonian principle that laws should be reviewed once a generation, the constitution provided for a recurring question to appear on Ohio's general election ballots every 20 years. The question asks whether a new convention is required. Although the question has appeared in 1932, 1952, 1972, and 1992, it has never been approved. Instead, constitutional amendments have been proposed by petition to the legislature hundreds of times and adopted in a majority of cases.

presidents

Eight US Presidents hailed from Ohio at the time of their elections, giving rise to its nickname "Mother of Presidents," a sobriquet it shares with Virginia. It is also termed "Modern Mother of Presidents," [71] in contrast to Virginia's status as the origin of presidents earlier in American history. Seven Presidents were born in Ohio, making it second to Virginia's eight. Virginia-born William Henry Harrison lived most of his life in Ohio and is also buried there. Harrison conducted his political career while living on the family compound, founded by his father-in-law, John Cleves Symmes, in North Bend, Ohio. The seven presidents born in Ohio were Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison (grandson of William Henry Harrison), William McKinley, William Howard Taft and Warren G. Harding.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
180045,365
1810230,760408.7%
1820581,434152.0%
1830937,90361.3%
18401,519,46762.0%
18501,980,32930.3%
18602,339,51118.1%
18702,665,26013.9%
18803,198,06220.0%
18903,672,32914.8%
19004,157,54513.2%
19104,767,12114.7%
19205,759,39420.8%
19306,646,69715.4%
19406,907,6123.9%
19507,946,62715.0%
19609,706,39722.1%
197010,652,0179.7%
198010,797,6301.4%
199010,847,1150.5%
200011,353,1404.7%
201011,536,5041.6%
Est. 201811,689,4421.3%
Source: 1910–2010[72]
2018 Estimate[73]

Population

From just over 45,000 residents in 1800, Ohio's population grew at rates of over 10% per decade (except for the 1940 census) until the 1970 census, which recorded just over 10.65 million Ohioans.[74] Growth then slowed for the next four decades.[75] The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Ohio was 11,689,442 on July 1, 2018, a 1.33% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[73] Ohio's population growth lags that of the entire United States, and Caucasians are found in a greater density than the United States average. As of 2000, Ohio's center of population is located in Morrow County,[76] in the county seat of Mount Gilead.[77] This is approximately 6,346 feet (1,934 m) south and west of Ohio's population center in 1990.[76]

Population Growth Ohio
Graph of Ohio's population growth from 1800 to 2000.

As of 2011, 27.6% of Ohio's children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups.[78]

6.2% of Ohio's population is under five years of age, 23.7 percent under 18 years of age, and 14.1 percent were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51.2 percent of the population.

Birth data

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother
Race 2013[79] 2014[80] 2015[81] 2016[82]
White 109,749 (79.0%) 110,003 (78.9%) 109,566 (78.7%) ...
> Non-Hispanic White 104,059 (74.9%) 104,102 (74.6%) 103,586 (74.4%) 100,225 (72.6%)
Black 24,952 (18.0%) 24,931 (17.9%) 25,078 (18.0%) 22,337 (16.2%)
Asian 3,915 (2.8%) 4,232 (3.0%) 4,367 (3.1%) 4,311 (3.1%)
American Indian 320 (0.2%) 301 (0.2%) 253 (0.2%) 128 (0.1%)
Hispanic (of any race) 6,504 (4.7%) 6,884 (4.9%) 6,974 (5.0%) 7,420 (5.4%)
Total Ohio 138,936 (100%) 139,467 (100%) 139,264 (100%) 138,085 (100%)
  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Ancestry

According to the 2010 United States Census, the racial composition of Ohio was the following:[83][84]

Ohio Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition 1990[85] 2000[86] 2010[87]
White 87.8% 85.0% 82.7%
African American 10.6% 11.5% 12.2%
Asian 0.8% 1.2% 1.7%
Native 0.2% 0.2% 0.2%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
Other race 0.5% 0.8% 1.1%
Two or more races 1.4% 2.1%

In 2010, there were 469,700 foreign-born residents in Ohio, corresponding to 4.1% of the total population. Of these, 229,049 (2.0%) were naturalized US citizens and 240,699 (2.1%) were not.[4] The largest groups were:[88] Mexico (54,166), India (50,256), China (34,901), Germany (19,219), Philippines (16,410), United Kingdom (15,917), Canada (14,223), Russia (11,763), South Korea (11,307), and Ukraine (10,681). Though predominantly white, Ohio has large black populations in all major metropolitan areas throughout the state, Ohio has a significant Hispanic population made up of Mexicans in Toledo and Columbus, and Puerto Ricans in Cleveland and Columbus, and also has a significant and diverse Asian population in Columbus.

The largest ancestry groups (which the Census defines as not including racial terms) in the state are:[4][89]

Ancestries claimed by less than 1% of the population include Sub-Saharan African, Puerto Rican, Swiss, Swedish, Arab, Greek, Norwegian, Romanian, Austrian, Lithuanian, Finnish, West Indian, Portuguese and Slovene.

Ohio population map
Ohio population density map.

Languages

About 6.7% of the population age 5 years and over reported speaking a language other than English, with 2.2% of the population speaking Spanish, 2.6% speaking other Indo-European languages, 1.1% speaking Asian and Austronesian languages, and 0.8% speaking other languages.[4] Numerically: 10,100,586 spoke English, 239,229 Spanish, 55,970 German, 38,990 Chinese, 33,125 Arabic, and 32,019 French. In addition 59,881 spoke a Slavic language and 42,673 spoke another West Germanic language according to the 2010 Census.[90] Ohio also had the nation's largest population of Slovene speakers, second largest of Slovak speakers, second largest of Pennsylvania Dutch (German) speakers, and the third largest of Serbian speakers.[91]

Religion

Amish - On the way to school by Gadjoboy-crop
Amish children on the way to school.

According to a Pew Forum poll, as of 2008, 76% of Ohioans identified as Christian.[92] Specifically, 26% of Ohio's population identified as Evangelical Protestant, 22% as Mainline Protestant, and 21% as Catholic.[92] 17% of the population is unaffiliated with any religious body.[92] 1.3% (148,380) were Jewish.[93] There are also small minorities of Jehovah's Witnesses (1%), Muslims (1%), Hindus (<0.5%), Buddhists (<0.5%), Mormons (<0.5%), and other faiths (1-1.5%).[92]

According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), in 2010 the largest denominations by adherents were the Catholic Church with 1,992,567; the United Methodist Church with 496,232; the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 223,253, the Southern Baptist Convention with 171,000, the Christian Churches and Churches of Christ with 141,311, the United Church of Christ with 118,000, and the Presbyterian Church (USA) with 110,000.[94] With about 70,000 people in 2015 Ohio had the second largest Amish population of all states of the US.[95]

According to the same data, a majority of Ohioans, 55%, feel that religion is "very important," 30% say that it is "somewhat important," and 15% responded that religion is "not too important/not important at all."[92] 36% of Ohioans indicate that they attend religious services at least once weekly, 35% attend occasionally, and 27% seldom or never participate in religious services.[92]

Economy

Cincinnati-procter-and-gamble-headquarters
Cincinnati's Procter & Gamble is one of Ohio's largest companies in terms of revenue.

In 2010, Ohio was ranked No. 2 in the country for best business climate by Site Selection magazine, based on a business-activity database.[97] The state has also won three consecutive Governor's Cup awards from the magazine, based on business growth and developments.[98] As of 2016, Ohio's gross domestic product (GDP) was $626 billion.[99] This ranks Ohio's economy as the seventh-largest of all fifty states and the District of Columbia.[100]

The Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council ranked the state No. 10 for best business-friendly tax systems in their Business Tax Index 2009, including a top corporate tax and capital gains rate that were both ranked No. 6 at 1.9%.[101] Ohio was ranked No. 11 by the council for best friendly-policy states according to their Small Business Survival Index 2009.[102] The Directorship's Boardroom Guide ranked the state No. 13 overall for best business climate, including No. 7 for best litigation climate.[103] Forbes ranked the state No. 8 for best regulatory environment in 2009.[104] Ohio has 5 of the top 115 colleges in the nation, according to U.S. News and World Report's 2010 rankings,[105] and was ranked No. 8 by the same magazine in 2008 for best high schools.[106]

Ohio's unemployment rate stands at 4.5% as of February 2018,[107] down from 10.7% in May 2010.[108][109] The state still lacks 45,000 jobs compared to the prerecession numbers of 2007.[110] The labor force participation as of April 2015 is 63%, slightly above the national average.[110] Ohio's per capita income stands at $34,874.[100][111] As of 2016, Ohio's median household income is $52,334,[112] and 14.6% of the population is below the poverty line [113]

The manufacturing and financial activities sectors each compose 18.3% of Ohio's GDP, making them Ohio's largest industries by percentage of GDP.[100] Ohio has the third largest manufacturing workforce behind California and Texas.[114][115] Ohio has the largest bioscience sector in the Midwest, and is a national leader in the "green" economy. Ohio is the largest producer in the country of plastics, rubber, fabricated metals, electrical equipment, and appliances.[116] 5,212,000 Ohioans are currently employed by wage or salary.[100]

By employment, Ohio's largest sector is trade/transportation/utilities, which employs 1,010,000 Ohioans, or 19.4% of Ohio's workforce, while the health care and education sector employs 825,000 Ohioans (15.8%).[100] Government employs 787,000 Ohioans (15.1%), manufacturing employs 669,000 Ohioans (12.9%), and professional and technical services employs 638,000 Ohioans (12.2%).[100] Ohio's manufacturing sector is the third-largest of all fifty United States states in terms of gross domestic product.[100] Fifty-nine of the United States' top 1,000 publicly traded companies (by revenue in 2008) are headquartered in Ohio, including Procter & Gamble, Goodyear Tire & Rubber, AK Steel, Timken, Abercrombie & Fitch, and Wendy's.[117]

Ohio is also one of 41 states with its own lottery,[118] the Ohio Lottery.[119] The Ohio Lottery has contributed over $15.5 billion to public education in its 34-year history.[120]

Transportation

Ground travel

Many major east-west transportation corridors go through Ohio. One of those pioneer routes, known in the early 20th century as "Main Market Route 3", was chosen in 1913 to become part of the historic Lincoln Highway which was the first road across America, connecting New York City to San Francisco. In Ohio, the Lincoln Highway linked many towns and cities together, including Canton, Mansfield, Wooster, Lima, and Van Wert. The arrival of the Lincoln Highway to Ohio was a major influence on the development of the state. Upon the advent of the federal numbered highway system in 1926, the Lincoln Highway through Ohio became U.S. Route 30.

Ohio also is home to 228 miles (367 km) of the Historic National Road, now U.S. Route 40.

Ohio has a highly developed network of roads and interstate highways. Major east-west through routes include the Ohio Turnpike (I-80/I-90) in the north, I-76 through Akron to Pennsylvania, I-70 through Columbus and Dayton, and the Appalachian Highway (State Route 32) running from West Virginia to Cincinnati. Major north-south routes include I-75 in the west through Toledo, Dayton, and Cincinnati, I-71 through the middle of the state from Cleveland through Columbus and Cincinnati into Kentucky, and I-77 in the eastern part of the state from Cleveland through Akron, Canton, New Philadelphia and Marietta south into West Virginia. Interstate 75 between Cincinnati and Dayton is one of the heaviest traveled sections of interstate in Ohio.

Ohio also has a highly developed network of signed state bicycle routes. Many of them follow rail trails, with conversion ongoing. The Ohio to Erie Trail (route 1) connects Cincinnati, Columbus, and Cleveland. U.S. Bicycle Route 50 traverses Ohio from Steubenville to the Indiana state line outside Richmond.[121]

Ohio has several long-distance hiking trails, the most prominent is the Buckeye Trail which is a 1,444 mi (2,324 km)[1] hiking trail that loops around the state of Ohio. Part of it is on roads and part is on wooded trail. Additionally, the North Country Trail (the longest of the eleven National Scenic Trails authorized by Congress) and the American Discovery Trail (a system of recreational trails and roads that collectively form a coast-to-coast route across the mid-tier of the United States) pass through Ohio. Much of these two trails coincide with the Buckeye Trail.

Air travel

Ohio has five international airports, four commercial, and two military. The five international include Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, John Glenn Columbus International Airport, and Dayton International Airport, Ohio's third largest airport. Akron Fulton International Airport handles cargo and for private use. Rickenbacker International Airport is one of two military airfields which is also home to the 7th largest FedEx building in America. The other military airfield is Wright Patterson Air Force Base which is one of the largest Air Force bases in the United States. Other major airports are located in Toledo and Akron.

Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport is in Hebron, Kentucky, and therefore is not listed above.

Transportation lists

Law and government

The state government of Ohio consists of the executive,[122] judicial,[123] and legislative[124] branches.

Executive branch

The executive branch is headed by the Governor of Ohio.[122] The current governor is John Kasich,[125] a Republican elected in 2010. A lieutenant governor succeeds the governor in the event of any removal from office,[126] and performs any duties assigned by the governor.[127] The current lieutenant governor is Mary Taylor. The other elected constitutional offices in the executive branch are the secretary of state (Jon A. Husted), auditor (Dave Yost), treasurer (Josh Mandel), and attorney general (Mike DeWine).[122]

Judicial branch

There are three levels of the Ohio state judiciary. The lowest level is the court of common pleas: each county maintains its own constitutionally mandated court of common pleas, which maintain jurisdiction over "all justiciable matters".[128] The intermediate-level court system is the district court system.[129] Twelve courts of appeals exist, each retaining jurisdiction over appeals from common pleas, municipal, and county courts in a set geographical area.[128] A case heard in this system is decided by a three-judge panel, and each judge is elected.[128]

The highest-ranking court, the Ohio Supreme Court, is Ohio's "court of last resort".[130] A seven-justice panel composes the court, which, by its own discretion, hears appeals from the courts of appeals, and retains original jurisdiction over limited matters.[131]

Legislative branch

The Ohio General Assembly is a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and House of Representatives.[132] The Senate is composed of 33 districts, each of which is represented by one senator. Each senator represents approximately 330,000 constituents.[133] The House of Representatives is composed of 99 members.[134]

National politics

Presidential elections results[135]
Year Republican Democratic
2016 51.69% 2,841,005 43.56% 2,394,164
2012 47.60% 2,661,437 50.58% 2,827,709
2008 46.80% 2,677,820 51.38% 2,940,044
2004 50.81% 2,859,768 48.71% 2,741,167
2000 49.97% 2,351,209 46.46% 2,186,190
1996 41.02% 1,859,883 47.38% 2,148,222
1992 38.35% 1,894,310 40.18% 1,984,942
1988 55.00% 2,416,549 44.15% 1,939,629
1984 58.90% 2,678,560 40.14% 1,825,440
1980 51.51% 2,206,545 40.91% 1,752,414
1976 48.65% 2,000,505 48.92% 2,011,621
1972 59.63% 2,441,827 38.07% 1,558,889
1968 45.23% 1,791,014 42.95% 1,700,586
1964 37.06% 1,470,865 62.94% 2,498,331
1960 53.28% 2,217,611 46.72% 1,944,248
United States presidential election in Ohio, 2016
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

Ohio, nicknamed the "Mother of Presidents," has sent seven of its native sons (Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley, William Howard Taft, and Warren G. Harding) to the White House.[136] All seven were Republicans. Virginia native William Henry Harrison, a Whig, resided in Ohio.[136] Historian R. Douglas Hurt asserts that not since Virginia "had a state made such a mark on national political affairs".[137] The Economist notes that "This slice of the mid-west contains a bit of everything American — part north-eastern and part southern, part urban and part rural, part hardscrabble poverty and part booming suburb",[138] Ohio is the only state that has voted for the winning Presidential candidate in each election since 1964, and in 33 of the 37 held since the Civil War. No Republican has ever won the presidency without winning Ohio.

As of 2008, Ohio's voter demographic leans towards the Democratic Party.[139] An estimated 2,408,178 Ohioans are registered to vote as Democrats, while 1,471,465 Ohioans are registered to vote as Republicans.[139] These are changes from 2004 of 72% and 32%, respectively, and Democrats have registered over 1,000,000 new Ohioans since 2004.[139] Unaffiliated voters have an attrition of 15% since 2004, losing an estimated 718,000 of their kind.[139] The total now rests at 4,057,518 Ohioans.[139] In total, there are 7,937,161 Ohioans registered to vote.[139] In United States presidential election of 2008, then-Senator Barack Obama of Illinois won 51.50% of Ohio's popular vote, 4.59 percentage points more than his nearest rival, Senator John McCain of Arizona (with 46.91% of the popular vote).[140] However, Obama won only 22 of Ohio's 88 counties.[141] Since 2010, the Republicans have largely controlled Ohio state politics, including a super-majority in the state's House, a majority in the state Senate, the Governorship, etc.[142] As of 2014, the state Senate is 1 Republican away from a super-majority.[142]

Following the 2000 census, Ohio lost one congressional district in the United States House of Representatives, which left Ohio with 18 districts, and consequently, 18 representatives. The state lost two more seats following the 2010 Census, leaving it with 16 seats for the next three presidential elections in 2012, 2016 and 2020.[143] In the 2008 elections, Democrats gained three seats in Ohio's delegation to the House of Representatives.[144] This left eight Republican-controlled seats in the Ohio delegation.[145] Ohio's U.S. Senators in the 112th Congress are Republican Rob Portman and Democrat Sherrod Brown.[146] Marcy Kaptur (D-9) is the dean, or most senior member, of the Ohio delegation to the United States House of Representatives.[147]

Education

Ohio's system of public education is outlined in Article VI of the state constitution, and in Title XXXIII of the Ohio Revised Code. Ohio University, the first university in the Northwest Territory, was also the first public institution in Ohio. Substantively, Ohio's system is similar to those found in other states. At the State level, the Ohio Department of Education, which is overseen by the Ohio State Board of Education, governs primary and secondary educational institutions. At the municipal level, there are approximately 700 school districts statewide. The Ohio Board of Regents coordinates and assists with Ohio's institutions of higher education which have recently been reorganized into the University System of Ohio under Governor Strickland. The system averages an annual enrollment of over 400,000 students, making it one of the five largest state university systems in the U.S.

Tree Map of Majors in Ohio (Bachelor's Degree)
A treemap depicting the distribution of bachelor's degrees awarded in Ohio in 2014.

Colleges and universities

Libraries

Ohio is home to some of the nation's highest-ranked public libraries.[148] The 2008 study by Thomas J. Hennen Jr. ranked Ohio as number one in a state-by-state comparison.[149] For 2008, 31 of Ohio's library systems were all ranked in the top ten for American cities of their population category.[148]

The Ohio Public Library Information Network (OPLIN) is an organization that provides Ohio residents with internet access to their 251 public libraries. OPLIN also provides Ohioans with free home access to high-quality, subscription research databases.

Ohio also offers the OhioLINK program, allowing Ohio's libraries (particularly those from colleges and universities) access to materials for the other libraries. The program is largely successful in allowing researchers for access to books and other media that might not be otherwise available.

Culture

Sports

Professional sports teams

Ohio is home to major professional sports teams in baseball, basketball, football, hockey, lacrosse and soccer. The state's major professional sporting teams include: Cincinnati Reds (Major League Baseball),[150] Ohio Machine (Major League Lacrosse), Cleveland Indians (Major League Baseball),[151] Cincinnati Bengals (National Football League),[152] Cleveland Browns (National Football League),[152] Cleveland Cavaliers (National Basketball Association),[153] Columbus Blue Jackets (National Hockey League),[154] and the Columbus Crew (Major League Soccer).[155]

Ohio played a central role in the development of both Major League Baseball and the National Football League. Baseball's first fully professional team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings of 1869, were organized in Ohio.[156] An informal early-20th-century American football association, the Ohio League, was the direct predecessor of the NFL, although neither of Ohio's modern NFL franchises trace their roots to an Ohio League club. The Pro Football Hall of Fame is located in Canton.

On a smaller scale, Ohio hosts minor league baseball, arena football, indoor football, mid-level hockey, and lower division soccer.

Individual sports

The Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course has hosted several auto racing championships, including CART World Series, IndyCar Series, NASCAR Nationwide Series, Can-Am, Formula 5000, IMSA GT Championship, American Le Mans Series and Rolex Sports Car Series. The Grand Prix of Cleveland also hosted CART races from 1982 to 2007. The Eldora Speedway is a major dirt oval that hosts NASCAR Camping World Truck Series, World of Outlaws Sprint Cars and USAC Silver Crown Series races.

Ohio hosts two PGA Tour events, the WGC-Bridgestone Invitational and Memorial Tournament. The Cincinnati Masters is an ATP World Tour Masters 1000 and WTA Premier 5 tennis tournament.

College sports

Ohio has eight NCAA Division I FBS college football teams, divided among three different conferences. It has also experienced considerable success in the secondary and tertiary tiers of college football divisions.

In Division I-A, representing the Big Ten, the Ohio State Buckeyes football team ranks 5th among all-time winningest programs, with seven national championships and seven Heisman Trophy winners. Their biggest rivals are the Michigan Wolverines, whom they traditionally play each year as the last game of their regular season schedule.

Ohio has six teams represented in the Mid-American Conference: the University of Akron, Bowling Green, Kent State, Miami University, Ohio University and the University of Toledo. The MAC headquarters are in Cleveland. The University of Cincinnati Bearcats represent Ohio in the American Athletic Conference.

State symbols

Aesculus glabra nuts
Ohio buckeyes, the seed from the Ohio buckeye tree.

Ohio's state symbols:

See also

Notes

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  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Ohio's State Symbols". Ohio Governor's Residence and State Garden. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
  3. ^ "Ohio's State Rock Song". Ohio Historical Society. July 1, 2005. Retrieved March 27, 2009.
  4. ^ a b c d Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder2.census.gov.
  5. ^ a b "Why is Ohio known as the Buckeye State and why are Ohioans known as Buckeyes?" (PDF). November 1998. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  6. ^ "Ohio Quick Facts". Ohio Historical Society. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
  7. ^ a b "City of Columbus: Fun Facts". City of Columbus, Ohio. 2006. Archived from the original on May 1, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
  8. ^ According to the U.S. Census July 2017 Annual Estimate, Greater Columbus is the largest Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) that is entirely within Ohio, with a population of 2,078,725; and Greater Cincinnati is the largest MSA that is at least partially within Ohio, with a population of 2,179,082, approximately 25% of which is in Indiana or Kentucky. Which MSA is the largest in Ohio depends on the context.
  9. ^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
  10. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  11. ^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  12. ^ a b Mary Stockwell (2006). Ohio Adventure. Gibbs Smith. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-4236-2382-3.
  13. ^ "Creation of the Board of Elections". Mahoning County Board of Elections. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved March 25, 2009.
  14. ^ "Official USPS Abbreviations". United States Postal Service. 1998. Archived from the original on March 28, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2009.
  15. ^ "Quick Facts About the State of Ohio". Ohio History Central. Retrieved July 2, 2010. From Iroquois word meaning 'great river'
  16. ^ Mithun, Marianne (1999). "Borrowing". The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 311–3. ISBN 978-0-521-29875-9. Ohio ('large creek')
  17. ^ "Native Ohio". American Indian Studies. Ohio State University. Archived from the original on February 2, 2007. Retrieved February 25, 2007. Ohio comes from the Seneca (Iroquoian) ohiiyo' 'good river'
  18. ^ William M. Davidson (1902). A History of the United States. Scott, Foresman and Company. p. 265.
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  52. ^ Petun , Erie , Chonnonton, Wyandot, the Mingo Seneca & the Iroquois Confederacy
  53. ^ Miami, Mascouten Lenape Shawnee & Odawa
  54. ^ Mosopelea
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  59. ^ Cayton (2002), p. 3.
  60. ^ "Religion and the Congress of the Confederation, 1774–89". Library of Congress. Retrieved April 11, 2012.
  61. ^ An act to provide for the due execution of the laws of the United States, within the state of Ohio, ch. 7, 2 Stat. 201 (February 19, 1803).
  62. ^ a b Blue, Frederick J. (Autumn 2002). "The Date of Ohio Statehood". Ohio Academy of History Newsletter. Archived from the original on September 11, 2010.
  63. ^ Joint Resolution for admitting the State of Ohio into the Union, (Pub.L. 83–204, 67 Stat. 407, enacted August 7, 1953).
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References

  • Cayton, Andrew R. L. (2002). Ohio: The History of a People. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University Press. ISBN 0-8142-0899-1
  • Knepper, George W. (1989). Ohio and Its People. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press. ISBN 978-0-87338-791-0
  • Mithun, Marianne (1999). Languages of Native North America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Morris, Roy, Jr. (1992). Sheridan: The Life and Wars of General Phil Sheridan. New York: Crown Publishing. ISBN 0-517-58070-5.
  • Holli, Melvin G. (1999). The American Mayor. State College, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01876-3
  • Roseboom, Eugene H.; Weisenburger, Francis P. (1967). A History of Ohio. Columbus: The Ohio Historical Society.

External links

Preceded by
Tennessee
List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union
Admitted on March 1, 1803 (17th)
Succeeded by
Louisiana

Coordinates: 40°30′N 82°30′W / 40.5°N 82.5°W

Big Ten Conference

The Big Ten Conference (stylized B1G, formerly the Western Conference and the Big Nine Conference) is the oldest Division I collegiate athletic conference in the United States, based in suburban Chicago, Illinois. Despite its name, the conference consists of 14 members (as of 2019). They compete in the NCAA Division I; its football teams compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), formerly known as Division I-A, the highest level of NCAA competition in that sport. The conference includes the flagship public university in each of 11 states stretching from New Jersey to Nebraska, as well as two additional public land grant schools and a private university.

The Big Ten Conference was established in 1895 when Purdue University president James H. Smart and representatives from the University of Chicago, University of Illinois, University of Michigan, University of Minnesota, Northwestern University, and University of Wisconsin gathered at Chicago's Palmer House Hotel to set policies aimed at regulating intercollegiate athletics. In 1905, the conference was officially incorporated as the "Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives". The conference is one of the nation's oldest, predating the founding of the NCAA by a decade, and was one of the first collegiate conferences to sponsor men's basketball.

Big Ten member institutions are predominantly major flagship research universities with large financial endowments and strong academic reputations. Large student enrollment is also a hallmark of Big Ten Universities, as 13 of the 14 members feature enrollments of 20,000 or more students. Northwestern University, the only full member with a total enrollment of fewer than 30,000 students, is the lone private university among Big Ten membership (the University of Chicago, a private university, left the conference in 1946). Collectively, Big Ten universities educate more than 520,000 total students and have 5.7 million living alumni. Big Ten universities engage in $9.3 billion in funded research each year. Though the Big Ten existed for nearly a century as an assemblage of universities located primarily in the Midwest, the conference's geographic footprint now stretches east to the Atlantic Ocean.

Big Ten universities are also members of the Big Ten Academic Alliance, an academic consortium. In 2014–2015, members generated more than $10 billion in research expenditures. Despite the conference's name, the Big Ten has grown to fourteen members, with the following universities accepting invitations to join: Pennsylvania State University in 1990, the University of Nebraska–Lincoln in 2011, and both the University of Maryland and Rutgers University in 2014. Johns Hopkins University was invited in 2012 to join the Big Ten as an associate member participating in men's lacrosse, and in 2015, it was also accepted as an associate member in women's lacrosse. Notre Dame joined the Big Ten on July 1, 2017 as an associate member in men's ice hockey.

Cincinnati

Cincinnati ( SIN-sih-NAT-ee) is a major city in the United States state of Ohio and is the government seat of Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking and Ohio rivers, the latter of which marks the state line with Kentucky. The city drives the Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington combined statistical area, which had a population of 2,172,191 in the 2010 census making it Ohio's largest metropolitan area. With a population of 301,301, Cincinnati is the third-largest city in Ohio and 65th in the United States. Its metropolitan area is the fastest growing economic power in the Midwestern United States based on increase of economic output and it is the 28th-biggest metropolitan statistical area in the U.S. Cincinnati is also within a half day's drive of sixty percent of the United States populace.In the nineteenth century, Cincinnati was an American boomtown in the heart of the country. Throughout much of the 19th century, it was listed among the top 10 U.S. cities by population, surpassed only by New Orleans and the older, established settlements of the United States eastern seaboard, as well as being the sixth-biggest city for a period spanning 1840 until 1860. As Cincinnati was the first city founded after the American Revolution, as well as the first major inland city in the country, it is regarded as the first purely "American" city.Cincinnati developed with fewer immigrants and less influence from Europe than east coast cities in the same period. However, it received a significant number of German immigrants, who founded many of the city's cultural institutions. By the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads drawing off freight shipping, trade patterns had altered and Cincinnati's growth slowed considerably. The city was surpassed in population by other inland cities, particularly Chicago, which developed based on strong commodity exploitation, economics, and the railroads, and St. Louis, which for decades after the Civil War served as the gateway to westward migration.

Cincinnati is home to three major sports teams: the Cincinnati Reds of Major League Baseball; the Cincinnati Bengals of the National Football League; and FC Cincinnati, currently playing in the second division United Soccer League but moving to Major League Soccer (Division 1) in 2019. The city's largest institution of higher education, the University of Cincinnati, was founded in 1819 as a municipal college and is now ranked as one of the 50 largest in the United States. Cincinnati is home to historic architecture with many structures in the urban core having remained intact for 200 years. In the late 1800s, Cincinnati was commonly referred to as the "Paris of America", due mainly to such ambitious architectural projects as the Music Hall, Cincinnatian Hotel, and Shillito Department Store. Cincinnati is the birthplace of William Howard Taft, the 27th President of the United States.

Cleveland

Cleveland ( KLEEV-lənd) is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County. The city proper has a population of 388,072, making it the 51st-largest city in the United States, and the second-largest city in Ohio. Greater Cleveland is ranked as the 32nd-largest metropolitan area in the U.S., with 2,055,612 people in 2016. The city anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, which had a population of 3,515,646 in 2010 and is ranked 15th in the United States.

The city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie, approximately 60 miles (100 kilometers) west of the Ohio-Pennsylvania state border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River. It became a manufacturing center due to its location on both the river and the lake shore, as well as being connected to numerous canals and railroad lines. Cleveland's economy relies on diversified sectors such as manufacturing, financial services, healthcare (such as the Cleveland Clinic and University Hospitals), and biomedicals. Cleveland is also home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

Cleveland residents are called Clevelanders. The city has many nicknames, the oldest of which in contemporary use being The Forest City.

Columbus, Ohio

Columbus ( kə-LUM-bəs) is the state capital of and the most populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio. With a population of 879,170 as of 2017 estimates, it is the 14th-most populous city in the United States and one of the fastest growing large cities in the nation. This makes Columbus the third-most populous state capital in the US (after Phoenix, Arizona and Austin, Texas) and the second-most populous city in the Midwest (after Chicago, Illinois). It is the core city of the Columbus, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses ten counties. With a population of 2,078,725, it is Ohio's second-largest metropolitan area.

Columbus is the county seat of Franklin County. The municipality has also annexed portions of adjoining Delaware, Pickaway and Fairfield counties. Named for explorer Christopher Columbus, the city was founded in 1812 at the confluence of the Scioto and Olentangy rivers, and assumed the functions of state capital in 1816.

The city has a diverse economy based on education, government, insurance, banking, defense, aviation, food, clothes, logistics, steel, energy, medical research, health care, hospitality, retail, and technology. Columbus is home to the Battelle Memorial Institute, the world's largest private research and development foundation; Chemical Abstracts Service, the world's largest clearinghouse of chemical information; NetJets, the world's largest fractional ownership jet aircraft fleet; and The Ohio State University, one of the largest universities in the United States. As of 2013, the city has the headquarters of five corporations in the U.S. Fortune 500: Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company, American Electric Power, L Brands, Big Lots, and Cardinal Health. The food service corporations Wendy's, Donatos Pizza, Bob Evans, Max & Erma's, and White Castle and the nationally known companies Red Roof Inn, Rogue Fitness, and Safelite are also based in the metropolitan area.

In 2016, Money Magazine ranked Columbus as one of "The 6 Best Big Cities", calling it the best in the Midwest, citing a highly educated workforce and excellent wage growth. In 2012, Columbus was ranked in BusinessWeek's 50 best cities in the United States. In 2013, Forbes gave Columbus an "A" grade as one of the top cities for business in the U.S., and later that year included the city on its list of Best Places for Business and Careers. Columbus was also ranked as the No. 1 up-and-coming tech city in the nation by Forbes in 2008, and the city was ranked a top-ten city by Relocate America in 2010. In 2007, fDi Magazine ranked the city no. 3 in the U.S. for cities of the future, and the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium was rated no. 1 in 2009 by USA Travel Guide.

Dave Chappelle

David Khari Webber Chappelle (; born August 24, 1973) is an American stand-up comedian, actor, writer, and producer. His comedy focuses on racism, relationship problems, social problems, politics, current events, and pop culture.

After beginning his film career in 1993 as Ahchoo in Mel Brooks's Robin Hood: Men in Tights, Chappelle landed supporting roles in box office hits including The Nutty Professor, Con Air, You've Got Mail, Blue Streak and Undercover Brother. His first lead role was in the 1998 comedy film Half Baked, which he co-wrote with Neal Brennan. Chappelle also starred in the ABC TV series Buddies.

In 2003, Chappelle became more widely known for his sketch comedy television series, Chappelle's Show, also co-written with Brennan, which ran until his retirement from the show two years later. After leaving the show, Chappelle returned to performing stand-up comedy across the U.S. By 2006, Chappelle was called the "comic genius of America" by Esquire and, in 2013, "the best" by a Billboard writer. In 2017, Rolling Stone ranked him No. 9 in their "50 Best Stand Up Comics of All Time."In 2016, he signed a $20 million-per-release comedy-special deal with Netflix and in 2017, he produced and then released four of his specials in one year.Chappelle received his first Emmy Award in 2017 for his guest appearance on Saturday Night Live. In 2018, he received a Grammy Award for his Netflix specials The Age of Spin & Deep in the Heart of Texas. Equanimity, his Netflix special, was nominated in 2018 for three Emmys and received the award for Outstanding Variety Special (Pre-Recorded).

Dayton, Ohio

Dayton () is the sixth-largest city in the state of Ohio and the county seat of Montgomery County. A small part of the city extends into Greene County. The 2017 U.S. census estimate put the city population at 140,371, while Greater Dayton was estimated to be at 803,416 residents. This makes Dayton the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Ohio and 63rd in the United States. Dayton is within Ohio's Miami Valley region, just north of Greater Cincinnati.

Ohio's borders are within 500 miles (800 km) of roughly 60 percent of the country's population and manufacturing infrastructure, making the Dayton area a logistical centroid for manufacturers, suppliers, and shippers. Dayton also hosts significant research and development in fields like industrial, aeronautical, and astronautical engineering that have led to many technological innovations. Much of this innovation is due in part to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and its place in the community. With the decline of heavy manufacturing, Dayton's businesses have diversified into a service economy that includes insurance and legal sectors as well as healthcare and government sectors.

Along with defense and aerospace, healthcare accounts for much of the Dayton area's economy. Hospitals in the Greater Dayton area have an estimated combined employment of nearly 32,000 and a yearly economic impact of $6.8 billion. It is estimated that Premier Health Partners, a hospital network, contributes more than $2 billion a year to the region through operating, employment, and capital expenditures. In 2011, Dayton was rated the #3 city in the nation by HealthGrades for excellence in healthcare. Many hospitals in the Dayton area are consistently ranked by Forbes, U.S. News & World Report, and HealthGrades for clinical excellence.Dayton is also noted for its association with aviation; the city is home to the National Museum of the United States Air Force and is the birthplace of Orville Wright. Other well-known individuals born in the city include poet Paul Laurence Dunbar and entrepreneur John H. Patterson. Dayton is also known for its many patents, inventions, and inventors, most notably the Wright brothers' invention of powered flight. In 2008, 2009, and 2010, Site Selection magazine ranked Dayton the #1 mid-sized metropolitan area in the nation for economic development. Also in 2010, Dayton was named one of the best places in the United States for college graduates to find a job.

Dean Martin

Dean Martin (born Dino Paul Crocetti; June 7, 1917 – December 25, 1995), was an American singer, actor, comedian, and producer.

One of the most popular and enduring American entertainers of the mid-20th century, Martin was nicknamed "The King of Cool" for his seemingly effortless charisma and self-assurance. He and Jerry Lewis formed the immensely popular comedy duo Martin and Lewis, with Martin serving as the straight man to Lewis' slapstick hijinks. A member of the "Rat Pack", Martin went on to become a star of concert stages, nightclubs, audio recordings, motion pictures, and television.

Martin was the host of the television variety programs The Dean Martin Show and The Dean Martin Celebrity Roasts. His relaxed, warbling, crooning voice earned him dozens of hit singles, including his signature songs "Memories Are Made of This", "That's Amore", "Everybody Loves Somebody", "You're Nobody Till Somebody Loves You", "Sway", "Ain't That a Kick in the Head?", and "Volare".

James A. Garfield

James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th president of the United States, serving from March 4, 1881 until his death by assassination six and a half months later. Garfield had served nine terms in the House of Representatives, and had been elected to the Senate before his candidacy for the White House, though he declined the Senate seat once elected president. He was the first sitting member of Congress to be elected to the presidency, and remains the only sitting House member to gain the White House.Garfield was raised by his widowed mother in humble circumstances on an Ohio farm. He worked at various jobs, including on a canal boat, in his youth. Beginning at age 17, he attended several Ohio schools, then studied at Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts, graduating in 1856. A year later, Garfield entered politics as a Republican. He married Lucretia Rudolph in 1858, and served as a member of the Ohio State Senate (1859–1861). Garfield opposed Confederate secession, served as a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War, and fought in the battles of Middle Creek, Shiloh, and Chickamauga. He was first elected to Congress in 1862 to represent Ohio's 19th District. Throughout Garfield's extended congressional service after the Civil War, he firmly supported the gold standard and gained a reputation as a skilled orator. Garfield initially agreed with Radical Republican views regarding Reconstruction, but later favored a moderate approach for civil rights enforcement for freedmen.

At the 1880 Republican National Convention, Senator-elect Garfield attended as campaign manager for Secretary of the Treasury John Sherman, and gave the presidential nomination speech for him. When neither Sherman nor his rivals – Ulysses S. Grant and James G. Blaine – could get enough votes to secure the nomination, delegates chose Garfield as a compromise on the 36th ballot. In the 1880 presidential election, Garfield conducted a low-key front porch campaign, and narrowly defeated Democrat Winfield Scott Hancock.

Garfield's accomplishments as president included a resurgence of presidential authority against senatorial courtesy in executive appointments, energizing American naval power, and purging corruption in the Post Office, all during his extremely short time in office. Garfield made notable diplomatic and judicial appointments, including a U.S. Supreme Court justice. He enhanced the powers of the presidency when he defied the powerful New York senator Roscoe Conkling by appointing William H. Robertson to the lucrative post of Collector of the Port of New York, starting a fracas that ended with Robertson's confirmation and Conkling's resignation from the Senate. Garfield advocated agricultural technology, an educated electorate, and civil rights for African Americans. He also proposed substantial civil service reform, eventually passed by Congress in 1883 and signed into law by his successor, Chester A. Arthur, as the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act.

On July 2, 1881, he was shot at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station in Washington D.C. by Charles J. Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker. The wound was not immediately fatal for Garfield, but his doctors' uncleaned and unprotected hands are said to have led to infection that caused his death on September 19. Guiteau was convicted of the murder and was executed in June 1882; he tried to name his crime as simple assault by blaming the doctors for Garfield's death. With his term cut short by his death after only 200 days, and much of it spent in ill health trying to recover from the attack, Garfield is little-remembered other than for his assassination. Historians often forgo listing him in rankings of U.S. presidents due to the short length of his presidency.

John Glenn

Colonel John Herschel Glenn Jr. (July 18, 1921 – December 8, 2016) was a United States Marine Corps aviator, engineer, astronaut, businessman, and politician. He was the first American to orbit the Earth, circling it three times in 1962. Following his retirement from NASA, he served from 1974 to 1999 as a Democratic United States Senator from Ohio.

Before joining NASA, Glenn was a distinguished fighter pilot in World War II, China and Korea. He shot down three MiG-15s, and was awarded six Distinguished Flying Crosses and eighteen Air Medals. In 1957, he made the first supersonic transcontinental flight across the United States. His on-board camera took the first continuous, panoramic photograph of the United States.

He was one of the Mercury Seven, military test pilots selected in 1959 by NASA as the nation's first astronauts. On February 20, 1962, Glenn flew the Friendship 7 mission, becoming the first American to orbit the Earth, and the fifth person and third American in space. He received the NASA Distinguished Service Medal in 1962 and the Congressional Space Medal of Honor in 1978, was inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame in 1990, and was the last surviving member of the Mercury Seven.

Glenn resigned from NASA in January 1964. He planned to run for a U.S. Senate seat from Ohio, but an injury in February 1964 forced his withdrawal. He retired from the Marine Corps the following year. He lost a close primary election in 1970. A member of the Democratic Party, Glenn first won election to the Senate in 1974 and served for 24 years until January 1999. In 1998, while still a sitting Senator, Glenn flew on the Discovery space shuttle's STS-95 mission, and became the oldest person to fly in space and the only person to fly in both the Mercury and Space Shuttle programs. He received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2012. He died at the age of 95 in 2016.

John Legend

John Roger Stephens (born December 28, 1978), known professionally as John Legend, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer and actor. Prior to the release of Legend's debut album, Get Lifted, (2004) he had collaborated with already established artists. Legend has sung on Jay-Z's "Encore," Alicia Keys's "You Don't Know My Name," Dilated Peoples' "This Way," Slum Village's "Selfish," Fort Minor's "High Road," and played piano on Lauryn Hill's "Everything Is Everything." Legend's single "All of Me" from his fourth studio album Love in the Future (2013) was a Billboard Hot 100 number-one hit.

In 2007, Legend received the Hal David Starlight Award from the Songwriters Hall of Fame. Legend won the Academy Award for Best Original Song and Golden Globe Award in 2015 for co-writing the song "Glory" from the film Selma. He has also won ten Grammy Awards. In 2017, Legend received a Tony Award for co-producing Jitney for the Broadway stage. In 2018, Legend portrayed Jesus Christ in the NBC adaptation of the Andrew Lloyd Webber/Tim Rice rock opera Jesus Christ Superstar. He received a Primetime Emmy Award nomination for his acting role, and won for his role as a producer of the show, making him one of 15 people and the first black man to have won an Emmy, Grammy, Oscar and Tony. Legend is also the second youngest to achieve the EGOT status.

Marilyn Manson

Brian Hugh Warner (born January 5, 1969), known by his stage name, Marilyn Manson, is an American singer, songwriter, actor, record producer, visual artist, author, and former music journalist. He is known for his controversial stage personality and image as the lead singer of the band Marilyn Manson, which he co-founded with guitarist Daisy Berkowitz and of which he remains the only constant member. Like other members of the band, his stage name was formed by combining and juxtaposing the names of two American pop cultural icons of the 1960s: actress Marilyn Monroe and criminal Charles Manson.

Manson is best known for records released in the 1990s, most notably Antichrist Superstar and Mechanical Animals, which (along with his public image) earned him a reputation in mainstream media as a controversial figure and negative influence on young people. In the U.S. alone, three of the band's albums have been awarded platinum status and three more went gold, and the band has had eight releases debut in the top ten, including two number-one albums. Manson has been ranked number 44 in the "Top 100 Heavy Metal Vocalists" by Hit Parader, and, along with his band, has been nominated for four Grammy Awards.

Manson made his film debut in 1997 as an actor in David Lynch's Lost Highway. Since then, he has appeared in a variety of minor roles and cameos. He was interviewed in Michael Moore's political documentary about gun violence, Bowling for Columbine, discussing possible motivations for the 1999 Columbine massacre; he denied allegations that his music was a contributory factor. From September 13 to 14, 2002, his first art show, The Golden Age of Grotesque, was held at the Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibitions center. He unveiled a series of 20 paintings in 2010 entitled Genealogies of Pain, an exhibition showcased at Kunsthalle gallery in Vienna, on which he collaborated with Lynch.

OCLC

OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services (around $200 million annually as of 2016). OCLC also maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system.

Ohio River

The Ohio River, which flows westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States. At the confluence, the Ohio is considerably bigger than the Mississippi (by long-term mean discharge, Ohio at Cairo: 281,500 cu ft/s (7,960 m3/s); Mississippi at Thebes: 208,200 cu ft/s (5,897 m3/s)) and, thus from a hydrological perspective, is the main stream of the whole river system.

The 981-mile (1,579 km) river flows through or along the border of six states, and its drainage basin includes parts of 15 states. Through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes many of the states of the southeastern U.S. It is the source of drinking water for three million people.The name "Ohio" comes from the Seneca, Ohi:yo', lit. "Good River". The river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major transportation and trading route. Its waters connected communities. In the five centuries before European conquest, the Mississippian culture built numerous regional chiefdoms and major earthwork mounds in the Ohio Valley, such as Angel Mounds near Evansville, Indiana, as well as in the Mississippi Valley and the Southeast. The Osage, Omaha, Ponca and Kaw lived in the Ohio Valley, but under pressure from the Iroquois to the northeast, migrated west of the Mississippi River in the 17th century to territory now defined as Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma.

In 1669, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle led a French expedition to the Ohio River, becoming the first Europeans to see it. After European-American settlement, the river served as a border between present-day Kentucky and Indian Territories. It was a primary transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U.S. In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated: "The Ohio is the most beautiful river on earth. Its current gentle, waters clear, and bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted."During the 19th century, the river was the southern boundary of the Northwest Territory. It is sometimes considered as the western extension of the Mason–Dixon Line that divided Pennsylvania from Maryland, and thus part of the border between free and slave territory, and between the Northern and Southern United States or Upper South. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement.

The Ohio River is a climatic transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical and humid continental climate areas. It is inhabited by fauna and flora of both climates. In winter, it regularly freezes over at Pittsburgh but rarely farther south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohio's confluence with the Mississippi, it is ice-free year-round.

Ohio State Buckeyes football

The Ohio State Buckeyes football team competes as part of the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision, representing Ohio State University in the East Division of the Big Ten Conference. Ohio State has played their home games at Ohio Stadium in Columbus, Ohio since 1922. The Buckeyes are recognized by the university and NCAA as having won eight national championships along with 39 conference championships (including 37 Big Ten titles), seven division championships, 10 undefeated seasons, and six perfect seasons (no losses or ties). As of 2017, the football program is valued at $1.5 billion, the highest valuation of any such program in the country.The first Ohio State game was a 20–14 victory over Ohio Wesleyan University in Delaware, Ohio, on May 3, 1890. The team was a football independent from 1890 to 1901 before joining the Ohio Athletic Conference (OAC) as a charter member in 1902. The Buckeyes won two conference championships while members of the OAC and in 1912 became members of the Big Ten Conference.Ohio State won their first national championship in 1942 under head coach Paul Brown. Following World War II, Ohio State saw sparse success on the football field with three separate coaches and in 1951 hired Woody Hayes to coach the team. Under Hayes, Ohio State won over 200 games, 13 Big Ten championships and five national championships (1954, 1957, 1961, 1968, and 1970), and had four Rose Bowl wins in eight appearances. Following Hayes' dismissal in 1978, Earle Bruce and later John Cooper coached the team to a combined seven conference championships between them. Jim Tressel was hired as head coach in 2001 and led Ohio State to its seventh national championship in 2002. Under Tressel, Ohio State won seven Big Ten championships and appeared in eight Bowl Championship Series (BCS) games, winning five of them. In November 2011, Urban Meyer became head coach. Under Meyer, the team went 12–0 in his first season and set a school record with 24 consecutive victories, won three Big Ten championships (2014, 2017, and 2018), and won the first College Football Playoff National Championship of its kind in 2014.

Ohio State University

The Ohio State University, commonly referred to as Ohio State or OSU, is a large, primarily residential, public research university in Columbus, Ohio. Founded in 1870 as a land-grant university and the ninth university in Ohio with the Morrill Act of 1862, the university was originally known as the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College (Mech). The college began with a focus on training students in various agricultural and mechanical disciplines but it developed into a comprehensive university under the direction of then Governor (later, President) Rutherford B. Hayes, and in 1878 the Ohio General Assembly passed a law changing the name to "The Ohio State University". It has since grown into the third-largest university campus in the United States. Along with its main campus in Columbus, Ohio State also operates regional campuses in Lima, Mansfield, Marion, Newark, and Wooster.

The university has an extensive student life program, with over 1,000 student organizations; intercollegiate, club and recreational sports programs; student media organizations and publications, fraternities and sororities; and three student governments. Ohio State athletic teams compete in Division I (Football Bowl Subdivision for football) of the NCAA and are known as the Ohio State Buckeyes. Athletes from Ohio State have won 100 Olympic medals (44 gold, 35 silver, and 21 bronze). The university is a member of the Big Ten Conference for the majority of sports. The Ohio State men's ice hockey program competes in the Big Ten Conference, while its women's hockey program competes in the Western Collegiate Hockey Association. In addition, the OSU men's volleyball team is a member of the Midwestern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association (MIVA). OSU is one of only 14 universities that plays Division I FBS football and Division I ice hockey.

As of August 2017, the university had awarded a total of 747,216 degrees.

Pro Football Hall of Fame

The Pro Football Hall of Fame is the hall of fame for professional American football, located in Canton, Ohio. Opened in 1963, the Hall of Fame enshrines exceptional figures in the sport of professional football, including players, coaches, franchise owners, and front-office personnel, almost all of whom made their primary contributions to the game in the National Football League (NFL); the Hall inducts between four and eight new enshrinees each year. The Hall of Fame's Mission is to "Honor the Heroes of the Game, Preserve its History, Promote its Values & Celebrate Excellence EVERYWHERE."

With the election of the Class of 2018 – Bobby Beathard, Robert Brazile, Brian Dawkins, Jerry Kramer, Ray Lewis, Randy Moss, Terrell Owens and Brian Urlacher – there are a total of 318 members of the Hall of Fame.

Toledo, Ohio

Toledo () is a city in and the county seat of Lucas County, Ohio, United States. Toledo is in northwest Ohio, at the western end of Lake Erie bordering the state of Michigan. The city was founded in 1833 on the west bank of the Maumee River, and originally incorporated as part of Monroe County, Michigan Territory. It was re-founded in 1837, after conclusion of the Toledo War, when it was incorporated in Ohio.

After the 1845 completion of the Miami and Erie Canal, Toledo grew quickly; it also benefited from its position on the railway line between New York City and Chicago. The first of many glass manufacturers arrived in the 1880s, eventually earning Toledo its nickname: "The Glass City". It has since become a city with an art community, auto assembly businesses, education, healthcare, and local sports teams.

The population of Toledo as of the 2010 Census was 287,208, making it the 71st-largest city in the United States. It is the fourth-most-populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio, after Columbus, Cleveland, and Cincinnati. The Toledo metropolitan area had a 2010 population of 651,429, and was the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the state of Ohio, behind Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, Dayton, and Akron.

Urban Meyer

Urban Frank Meyer III (born July 10, 1964) is a former American college football coach and former player, and assistant athletic director and former head football coach of the Ohio State Buckeyes. Meyer served as the head coach of the Bowling Green Falcons from 2001 to 2002, the Utah Utes from 2003 to 2004, and the Florida Gators from 2005 to 2010. Meyer retired from Ohio State as the school's head coach after the 2019 Rose Bowl.Meyer was born in Toledo, Ohio, grew up in Ashtabula, Ohio, and attended the University of Cincinnati, where he played football. During his time at the University of Florida, he coached the Gators to two BCS National Championship Game victories, during the 2006 and 2008 seasons. Meyer's winning percentage through the conclusion of the 2009 season (.842) was the highest among all active coaches with a minimum of five full seasons at a Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) program. Following his temporary retirement in 2011, he worked as a college football analyst for the television sports network ESPN. In 2014, he led the Buckeyes to their first Big Ten Conference title under his tenure as well as the program's eighth national championship. Meyer is one of three coaches (the others being Pop Warner and Nick Saban) to win a major college football national championship at two different universities.

Warren G. Harding

Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was the 29th president of the United States from 1921 until his death in 1923, a member of the Republican Party. At that time, he was one of the most popular U.S. presidents, but the subsequent exposure of scandals that took place under his administration such as Teapot Dome eroded his popular regard, as did revelations of an affair by Nan Britton, one of his mistresses. In historical rankings of the U.S. presidents, Harding is often rated among the worst.

Harding lived in rural Ohio all his life, except when political service took him elsewhere. As a young man, he bought The Marion Star, building it into a successful newspaper. In 1899, he was elected to the Ohio State Senate and after four years there successfully ran for lieutenant governor. He was defeated for governor in 1910, but was elected to the United States Senate in 1914. When Harding ran for the Republican nomination for president in 1920 he was considered a long shot until after the convention began. Then the leading candidates, such as General Leonard Wood, could not gain the needed majority and the convention deadlocked. Harding's support gradually grew until he was nominated on the 10th ballot. He conducted a front porch campaign, remaining for the most part in Marion and allowing the people to come to him. Running on a theme of a return to normalcy of the pre-WWI period, he won in a landslide over Democrat James M. Cox and Socialist Party candidate Eugene Debs and became the first sitting U.S. Senator to be elected president.

Harding appointed a number of well-regarded figures to his cabinet, including Andrew Mellon at the Treasury, Herbert Hoover at Commerce and Charles Evans Hughes at the State Department. A major foreign policy achievement came with the Washington Naval Conference of 1921–1922, in which the world's major naval powers agreed on a naval limitations program that lasted a decade. Two members of his cabinet were implicated in separate incidents of corruption: Interior Secretary Albert Fall and Attorney General Harry Daugherty. The resulting scandals did not fully emerge until after Harding's death, nor did word of his extramarital affairs, and these issues greatly damaged his reputation after his death. Harding died of a heart attack in San Francisco while on a western speaking tour, and was succeeded by his vice president, Calvin Coolidge.

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