Official development aid (ODA) is a term coined by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to measure aid. The DAC first used the term in 1969. It is widely used as an indicator of international aid flow. It includes some loans.
Most ODA comes from the 30 members of the DAC, or about $135 billion in 2013. A further $15.9 billion came from the European Commission and non-DAC countries gave an additional $9.4 billion. Although development aid rose in 2013 to the highest level ever recorded, a trend of a falling share of aid going to the neediest sub-Saharan African countries continued.
The full definition of ODA is:
Flows of official financing administered with the promotion of the economic development and welfare of developing countries as the main objective, and which are concessional in character with a grant element of at least 25 percent (using a fixed 10 percent rate of discount). By convention, ODA flows comprise contributions of donor government agencies, at all levels, to developing countries (“bilateral ODA”) and to multilateral institutions. ODA receipts comprise disbursements by bilateral donors and multilateral institutions.— OECD, Glossary of Statistical Terms 
In other words, ODA needs to contain the three elements:
(a) undertaken by the official sector (official agencies, including state and local governments, or their executive agencies)
(b) with promotion of economic development and welfare as the main objective; and
(c) at concessional financial terms (if a loan, having a grant element of at least 25 per cent).
This definition is used to exclude development aid from the two other categories of aid from DAC members:
If a donor country accords a grant or a concessional loan to Afghanistan it is classified as ODA, because it is on the Part I list.
If a donor country accords a grant or a concessional loan to Bahrain it is classified as OA, because it is on the Part II list.
If a donor country gives military assistance to any other country or territory it is classified as OOF, because it is not aimed at development.
ODA volumes may be measured absolutely, by the amount transferred, or relatively, as a proportion of the donor country's economy. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the top 15 countries (DAC and non-DAC members) giving the highest amounts (in absolute terms) in 2015 are as follows: The European Union accumulated a higher portion of GDP as a form of foreign aid than any other economic union.
The OECD also lists countries by the amount of ODA they give as a percentage of their gross national income. Seven countries met the longstanding UN target for an ODA/GNI ratio of 0.7% in 2015. The top 15 DAC and non-DAC countries for 2015 are shown below:
World Bank reports that Iraq was the top recipient of development aid in 2005 followed by Nigeria. However, this is due to the significant debt relief deals that were granted to these nations that year - when donor countries write off a portion of a recipient country's debt, it is counted as official development assistance from the donor country.
The OECD reports that in 2009 Africa received the largest amount of ODA, at $28 billion. Of that, $25 billion went to countries south of the Sahara, with Sudan receiving approximately $1.9 billion and Ethiopia getting $1.8 billion. Asia received the second largest amount at $24 billion. The top ODA receiving countries in order were Afghanistan ($5.1 billion), Iraq ($2.6 billion) and Vietnam ($2.1 billion) 
Official development assistance has been criticized by several economists for being an inappropriate way of helping poor countries. The Hungarian economist Peter Thomas Bauer has been one of the most vocal of them. Another notable economist arguing against ODA is Dambisa Moyo in her book Dead Aid. She contends that a country accustomed to receiving ODA may become perpetually dependent on such aid.
Donor countries are most commonly compared by the amount of Official Development Assistance given and their quantity of aid as a percent of GDP. However, there is an increasing focus placed on the quality of aid, rather than simply the quantity. The Commitment to Development Index is one such measure that ranks the largest donors on a broad range of their "development friendly" policies. It takes into account the quality of aid, in addition to the quantity, penalizing countries for tied aid. Aid also does not operate in a vacuum; a country's policies on issues such as trade or migration also have a significant impact on developing countries.
In international relations, aid (also known as international aid, overseas aid, foreign aid or foreign assistance) is – from the perspective of governments – a voluntary transfer of resources from one country to another.
Aid may serve one or more functions: it may be given as a signal of diplomatic approval, or to strengthen a military ally, to reward a government for behaviour desired by the donor, to extend the donor's cultural influence, to provide infrastructure needed by the donor for resource extraction from the recipient country, or to gain other kinds of commercial access. Countries may provide aid for further diplomatic reasons. Humanitarian and altruistic purposes are often reasons for foreign assistance.Aid may be given by individuals, private organizations, or governments. Standards delimiting exactly the types of transfers considered "aid" vary from country to country. For example, the United States government discontinued the reporting of military aid as part of its foreign aid figures in 1958. The most widely used measure of aid is "Official Development Assistance" (ODA).Development Assistance Committee
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) Development Assistance Committee (DAC) is a forum to discuss issues surrounding aid, development and poverty reduction in developing countries. It describes itself as being the "venue and voice" of the world's major donor countries.The Development Co-operation Directorate (DCD), sometimes called the "Secretariat of the DAC", is the OECD Directorate within which the DAC operates.Development aid
Development aid or development cooperation (also development assistance, technical assistance, international aid, overseas aid, official development assistance (ODA), or foreign aid) is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries. It can be further defined as "aid expended in a manner that is anticipated to promote development, whether achieved through economic growth or other means". It is distinguished from humanitarian aid by focusing on alleviating poverty in the long term, rather than a short term response.
The term development cooperation, which is used, for example, by the World Health Organization (WHO), is used to express the idea that a partnership should exist between donor and recipient, rather than the traditional situation in which the relationship was dominated by the wealth and specialised knowledge of one side. Most development aid comes from the Western industrialised countries but some poorer countries also contribute aid.
Aid may be bilateral: given from one country directly to another; or it may be multilateral: given by the donor country to an international organisation such as the World Bank or the United Nations Agencies (UNDP, UNICEF, UNAIDS, etc.) which then distributes it among the developing countries. The proportion is currently about 70% bilateral 30% multilateral.About 80–85% of developmental aid comes from government sources as official development assistance (ODA). The remaining 15–20% comes from private organisations such as "non-governmental organisations" (NGOs), foundations and other development charities (e.g., Oxfam). In addition, remittances received from migrants working or living in diaspora form a significant amount of international transfer.
Some governments also include military assistance in the notion "foreign aid", although many NGOs tend to disapprove of this.
Official development assistance is a measure of government-contributed aid, compiled by the Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) since 1969. The DAC consists of 34 of the largest aid-donating countries.East Asia Climate Partnership
The East Asia Climate Partnership (EACP) is Korea’s international initiative for global cooperative development. Led by the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA), a Korean government agency responsible for providing overseas grant aid, the East Asia Climate Partnership (EACP) helps tackle climate change in developing countries and promotes green growth in Asia.Egyptian Fund for Technical Cooperation with Africa
The Egyptian Fund for Technical Cooperation with Africa (Arabic: الصندوق المصري للتعاون الفني مع أفريقيا) commonly known by the acronym "EFTCA" is the Egyptian governmental instrument that coordinates official development assistance and development cooperation programs with African countries. The head of the (EFTCA) is the Egyptian Minister of Foreign Affairs while its director general is ambassador Ahmed Darwish who is considered the real manager.Foreign aid to Vietnam
The World Bank’s assistance program of foreign aid to Vietnam has three objectives: to support Vietnam’s transition to a market economy, to enhance equitable and sustainable development, and to promote good governance. From 1993 through 2004, Vietnam received pledges of US$29 billion of Official Development Assistance (ODA), of which about US$14 billion, or 49 percent, has been disbursed. In 2004 international donors pledged ODA of US$2.25 billion, of which US$1.65 billion was disbursed. Three donors accounted for 80 percent of disbursements in 2004: Japan, the World Bank, and the Asian Development Bank. During the period 2006–10, Vietnam hopes to receive US$14 billion–US$15 billion of ODA.International Fund for Agricultural Development
The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD; French: Fonds international de développement agricole (FIDA)) is an international financial institution and a specialised agency of the United Nations dedicated to eradicating poverty and hunger in rural areas of developing countries. It was established as an international financial institution in 1977 through United Nations General Assembly Resolution 32/107 (15 December 1977) as one of the major outcomes of the 1974 World Food Conference. Seventy-five percent of the world's poor live in rural areas in developing countries, yet only 4% of official development assistance goes to agriculture.
The strategic policy of IFAD is detailed in Strategic Framework for IFAD 2011–2015: Enabling the Rural Poor to Overcome Poverty. Its headquarters is in Rome, Italy, and is a member of the United Nations Development Group. The President of the IFAD is Gilbert F. Houngbo from Togo, who was elected for a four-year term in 2017.International economic cooperation policy of Japan
Japan emerged as one of the largest foreign aid donors in the world during the 1980s.
In 1991 Japan was the second largest foreign aid donor worldwide, behind the United States. Japan's ratio of foreign aid to GNP in this year was 0.32%, behind the 0.35% average for the OECD's Development Assistance Committee member countries, but ahead of the United States ratio of 0.20%.
The foreign aid program began in the 1960s out of the reparations payments Japan was obliged to pay to other Asian countries for war damage. The program's budget remained quite low until the late 1970s, when Japan came under increasing pressure from other industrial countries to play a larger role. During the 1980s, Japan's foreign aid budget grew quickly, despite the budget constraints imposed by the effort to reduce the fiscal deficit. From 1984 to 1991, the Official Development Assistance (ODA) budget increased at an average annual rate of 22.5%, reaching US$11.1 billion by 1991. Part of this rise was the result of exchange rate movements (with given yen amounts committed in the budget becoming larger dollar amounts). During the 1980s, foreign aid rose at a lower, but still strong, rate of between 4% and 12% annually in the government budget, with an average annual rate of growth from 1979 to 1988 of 8.6%.
During the 1970s, the government took positive measures to increase its Official Development Assistance (ODA) to developing countries and to contribute to the stabilization of the international trade and monetary system. These measures were generally welcomed abroad, although some countries felt that the steps taken were not executed as rapidly or were not as extensive as similar efforts by some other advanced industrialized nations. Japan's ODA increased tenfold during the decade and stood at US$3.3 billion in 1980, but this ODA as a percentage of GNP was still below the average of other donor countries.
In the 1980s, Japan's ODA continued to rise rapidly. ODA net disbursements, in nominal terms, averaged around US$3 billion per year in the early 1980s and then jumped to US$5.6 billion in 1986 and US$9.1 billion in 1990. Japan's share of total disbursements from major aid donors also grew significantly, from nearly 11.8% in 1979 to about 15% in the mid-1980s, and later to more than 19% in 1989 dropping back to under 17% in 1990. Japan's ODA as a percentage of its GNP, however, did not increase substantially during the 1980s, remaining at about 0.3%.
Japan continued to concentrate its economic assistance in Asia (about 60% of total commitments in 1990), reflecting its historical and economic ties to the region. Japan made modest increases in aid to Africa with the announcement in 1989 of a US$600 million grant program for the next three years. In 1990, Japan also pledged large amounts of assistance to Eastern Europe, but most of that aid was to be in the form of market rate credits and investment insurance, which did not qualify as ODA. In other regions, Japan appeared likely to continue allocating relatively small shares of assistance. Nevertheless, by 1987 Japan had become the largest bilateral donor in twenty-nine countries, nearly double the number in which that had been the case ten years earlier.
The continued growth of Japan's foreign aid appears to be motivated by two fundamental factors. First, Japanese policy is aimed at assuming international responsibilities commensurate with its position as a global economic power. Second, many believed, the growing Japanese foreign aid program comes largely in response to pressure from the United States and other allies for Japan to take on a greater share of the financial burdens in support of shared security, political, and economic interests.
Such assistance consisted of grants and loans and of support for multilateral aid organizations. In 1990 Japan allocated US$6.9 billion of its aid budget to bilateral assistance and US$2.3 billion to multilateral agencies. Of the bilateral assistance, US$3.0 billion went for grants and US$3.9 billion for concessional loans.
Japan's foreign aid program has been criticized for better serving the interests of Japanese corporations than those of developing countries. In the past, tied aid (grants or loans tied to the purchase of merchandise from Japan) was high, but untied aid expanded rapidly in the 1980s, reaching 71% of all aid by 1986. This share compared favorably with other Development Assistance Committee countries and with the United States corresponding figure of 54%. Nevertheless, complaints continued that even Japan's untied aid tended to be directed toward purchases from Japan. Aid in the form of grants (the share of aid disbursed as grants rather than as loans) was low relative to other Development Assistance Committee countries and remained so late in the 1980s.
Bilateral assistance was concentrated in the developing countries of Asia, although modest moves took place in the 1980s to expand the geographical scope of aid. In 1990 some 59.3% of bilateral development assistance was allocated to Asia, 11.4% to Africa, 10.2% to the Middle East, and 8.1% to Latin America. Asia's share was down somewhat, from 75% in 1975 and 70% in 1980, but still accounted for by far the largest share of bilateral aid. During the 1980s, increased aid went to Pakistan and Egypt, partly in response to pressure from the United States to provide such aid for strategic purposes. Japan had little involvement in Africa, but the severe drought of the 1980s brought an increase in the share of development assistance for that continent.
The five largest recipients of Japanese ODA in 1990 were in Asia: Indonesia (US$1.1 billion), People's Republic of China (US$832 million), Thailand (US$448.8 million), the Philippines (US$403.8 million), and Bangladesh (US$370.6 million). Earlier in the 1980s, China had been the largest single recipient for several successive years. These large aid amounts made Japan the largest single source of development assistance for most Asian countries. For the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, for example, Japan supplied 55% of net ODA received in 1987, compared with 11% from the United States and only 10% from the multilateral aid agencies.
The rapid economic growth and rising competitiveness of China readjusted Sino-Japanese relations, and ODA and yen loans to China will gradually phase out until the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.
The largest use of Japan's bilateral aid is for economic infrastructure (transportation, communications, river development, and energy development), which accounted for 31.5% of the total in 1990. Smaller shares went to development of the production sector (17.1%) and social infrastructure (19.7%). In general, large construction projects predominate in Japan's bilateral foreign aid. Within the category of social infrastructure, education absorbed 6.7% of the bilateral aid in 1990, water supply and sanitation made up 3.4%, and only 2% went for health. Food aid (0.4% of total bilateral aid in 1990) and debt relief (4.3%) also were included in Japan's official development assistance.Irish Aid
Irish Aid (Irish: Cúnamh Éireann) is the Government of Ireland's official international development aid programme. Irish Aid is managed by the Development Co-Operation and Africa Division (DCAD) of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) . The Irish Government allocated €651 million to official development assistance (ODA) in 2017, mainly focused on overseas aid to reduce poverty and hunger, and to improve education, healthcare and governance in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Latin America. The Irish Aid programme is an integral part of Ireland's foreign policy.Japan Bank for International Cooperation
The Japan Bank for International Cooperation (国際協力銀行, Kokusai Kyōryoku Ginkō), JBIC, is a Japanese public financial institution and export credit agency that was created on October 1, 1999, through the merger of the Japan Export-Import Bank (JEXIM) and the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (OECF).JBIC became the international wing of the Japan Finance Corporation (JFC) (日本政策金融公庫, Nihon seisaku kin-yu kohko) (administered by the Ministry of Finance) established on October 1, 2008. It became independent again from JFC on April 1, 2012. The bank is wholly owned by the Japanese government, and its budget and operations are regulated by the JBIC law. It is headquartered in Tokyo and operates in 18 countries with 21 offices. The main purpose of the institution is to promote economic cooperation between Japan and overseas countries by providing resources to foreign investments and by fostering international commerce. It has a major role in promoting Japanese exports and imports, and the country's activities overseas. The bank's presence can be seen both in developed and developing countries. It tries to contribute to the stability of the international financial order and to the promotion of sustainable development. It follows a policy of not competing with ordinary financial institutions. The bank was one of the instruments of Japan's official development assistance (ODA), which contributes to the execution of the country's foreign policy. As it aims at sustainable development, JBIC is concerned about social and environmental issues, and requires environmental impact assessment studies to provide funding to any project.Japan International Cooperation Agency
The Japan International Cooperation Agency (独立行政法人国際協力機構, dokuritsu gyōseihōjin kokusai kyōryoku kikō, JICA) is a governmental agency that coordinates Official Development Assistance (ODA) for the government of Japan. It is chartered with assisting economic and social growth in developing countries, and the promotion of international cooperation. In October, 2003, Sadako Ogata, former United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, became the President. It has been led by Professor Shinichi Kitaoka, the former President of the International University of Japan.Japan–Sweden relations
Japan–Sweden relations are the bilateral relations of Japan and the Kingdom of Sweden. Contacts between the two countries can be traced back to the 18th century when Carl Peter Thunberg, a disciple of the botanist Carl Linnaeus, came to Japan for plant collecting and researching. This made him the first Swedish national to visit Japan.The formal diplomatic relations of Japan and Sweden was established by the signing of Swedish-Japanese Treaty in 1868, which was also the first treaty Meiji Government made with a foreign state. During the first decade of the 20th century, the two countries started opening legations in Tokyo and Stockholm, then promoted to embassies in 1957.Japan is Sweden's second largest trading partner in Asia, and some Swedish policies on welfare, population ageing and international affairs like peacekeeping and official development assistance have been taken concern, or even example of, by Japan. The bilateral relations are also strengthened through state visits, royal visits, cultural or academic exchanges from both side.List of countries by Official Development Assistance received
This is a list of countries based on the official development assistance (ODA) they have received for the given year.
Although development aid rose in 2013 to the highest level ever recorded, a trend of a falling share of aid going to the neediest sub-Saharan African countries continued.List of development aid country donors
International development aid is given by many non-private donors. The first table is based on official development assistance (ODA) figures published by the OECD for members of its Development Assistance Committee (DAC). Non-DAC members included in the OECD's publishing are listed separately.
Sweden made the largest contribution as a percentage of gross national income (GNI) at 1.40% and the United Nations’ ODA target of 0.7% of GNI was also exceeded by the UAE, Norway, Luxembourg, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. The European Union accumulated a higher portion of GDP as a form of foreign aid than any other economic union. The largest donor countries in 2015 were the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan and France, though China, acting outside the DAC apparatus, made higher donations overall than any individual country, with more than double the GNI percentage of the United States.Marcos Japanese ODA scandal
The Marcos Japanese ODA Scandal, referred to in Japan simply as the Marukosu giwaku (マルコス疑惑), or "Marcos scandal", refers to incidents of alleged corruption linked to Japanese Official Development Assistance to the Philippines during Philippine president Ferdinand Marcos' administration.Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation
Not to be confused with the North American Aerospace Defense Command, also abbreviated NORAD.
The Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) is a directorate under the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In matters regarding Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative (NICFI), Norad reports to the Norwegian Ministry of Climate and Environment.
Norad’s functions are laid down in the agency’s terms of references and annual letters of allocation issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Climate and Environment.
Norad works to ensure effective foreign aid, with quality assurance and evaluation. Norad finances NGOs and does its own research and projects. The current director general is Jon Lomøy. Norad used to be the official development assistance organization in Norway. As of mid-2004, the responsibility for state-to-state official development assistance has been transferred to the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, while Norad continues to fund NGO activities in developing countries, contributes to the management of development funds and endeavours to ensure that the Norwegian development cooperation is evaluated and efficient.
Norad consists of the following departments:
Director General's Office
Department for Climate, Energy, Environment and Research
Department for Education and Global Health
Department for Economic Development, Gender and Governance
Civil Society Department
Department for Quality Assurance
Department for Communication
Department of Human Resources and Administration
Evaluation DepartmentOfficial Development Assistance (Japan)
The Official Development Assistance (政府開発援助, Seifukaihatsuenjo) is an arm of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan). The goal of the office is to help developing nations with supplies, civil engineering and other assistance. The ODA was started in 1954 after Japan signed the Colombo Plan, which pledges to provide aid to nations who need it. As of 2003, the ODA has provided over $221 billion USD to 185 nations and regions.Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Swedish: Styrelsen för Internationellt Utvecklingssamarbete, Sida) is a government agency of the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Sida is responsible for organization of the bulk of Sweden's official development assistance to developing countries.
Sida also affirms respect of human rights, democracy and gender equality proclaimed by Universal Declaration of Human Rights on their missions, and together with "Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law" of Lund University, Sida gave an aide for "Equal State and Human Rights of Women in Southeast Asia" by Asia Pacific Forum held from 9 May and 3 June 2011.
Sida is also informed by the Yogyakarta Principles in Action the working for the rights for LGBTI and Swedish government mandated an "Action plan for Sida's work on sexual orientation and gender identity in international development cooperation 2007-2009". And the evaluation of the 2007–2009 action plan demonstrates the significant work done in many countries on LGBTI issues, including dialogue with civil society, other donors, and governments; inclusion in country strategies; and programme initiatives. As well as directly funding a number of LGBTI groups, Sida headquarters has actively promoted LGBTI issues in its networking with other donors and international stakeholders, and by giving radio and TV interviews, writing a newspaper article, participating in and arranging seminars at pride festivals and the World Outgames, and including LGBTI rights in newly adopted policies.Water supply and sanitation in Haiti
This article has been written in 2007, with partial updates in later years including most recently in May 2013. Please update it further. Please also see the French version of the article for further details.
Haiti faces key challenges in the water supply and sanitation sector:
Notably, access to public services is very low, their quality is inadequate and public institutions remain very weak despite foreign aid and the government's declared intent to strengthen the sector's institutions. Foreign and Haitian NGOs play an important role in the sector, especially in rural and urban slum areas.