In its broadest sense, the term "officer" refers to non-commissioned officers and warrant officers. However, when used without further detail, the term almost always refers to commissioned officers, the more senior portion of a force who derive their authority from a commission from the head of state.
|Field marshal or
General of the Army
the air force
|Admiral||General||Air chief marshal|
|Vice admiral||Lieutenant general||Air marshal|
|Rear admiral||Major general||Air vice-marshal|
|Commander||Lieutenant colonel||Wing commander|
junior grade or
|Second lieutenant||Pilot officer|
|Officer cadet||Officer cadet||Flight cadet|
|Warrant officer or
chief petty officer
|Warrant officer or
|Leading seaman||Corporal or
The proportion of officers varies greatly. Commissioned officers typically make up between an eighth and a fifth of modern armed forces personnel. In 2013, officers were the senior 17% of the British armed forces, and the senior 13.7% of the French armed forces. In 2012, officers made up about 18% of the German armed forces, and about 17.2% of the United States armed forces.
Historically, however, armed forces have generally had much lower proportions of officers. During the First World War, fewer than 5% of British soldiers were officers (partly because World War One junior officers suffered very high casualty rates). In the early twentieth century, the Spanish army had the highest proportion of officers of any European army, at 12.5%, which was at that time considered unreasonably high by many Spanish and foreign observers.
Within a nation's armed forces, armies (which are larger) tend to have a lower proportion of officers, but a higher total number of officers, while navies and air forces have higher proportions of officers, especially since military aircraft are flown by officers. For example, 13.9% of British army personnel and 22.2% of the RAF personnel were officers in 2013, but the army had a larger total number of officers.
Having a command authority is one requirement for combatant status under the laws of war, though this authority need not have obtained an official commission or warrant. In such case, those persons holding offices of responsibility within the organization are deemed to be the officers, and the presence of these officers connotes a level of organization sufficient to designate a group as being combatant.
Commissioned officers generally receive training as leadership and management generalists, in addition to training relating to their specific military occupational specialty or function in the military. Many advanced militaries require university degrees as a prerequisite for commissioning, even from the enlisted ranks. Others, including the Australian Defence Force, the British Armed Forces (BAF), Nepal Army, the Pakistani Armed Forces (PAF), the Swiss Armed Forces, the Singapore Armed Forces, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), the Swedish Armed Forces, and the New Zealand Defence Force, are different in not requiring a university degree for commissioning—although a significant number of officers in these countries are graduates. In the Israel Defense Forces, a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank of lieutenant colonel. The IDF often sponsors the studies for its majors, while aircrew and naval officers obtain academic degrees as a part of their training programmes.
In the United Kingdom, there are three routes of entry for British Armed Forces officers. The first, and primary route are those who receive their commission directly into the officer grades following completion at their relevant military academy. In the second method, an individual may gain their commission after first enlisting and serving in the junior ranks, and typically reaching one of the senior non-commissioned officer ranks (which start at sergeant (Sgt), and above), as what are known as 'direct entry' or DE officers (and are typically and informally known as an 'ex-ranker'). The third route is similar to the second, in that they convert from an enlisted to a commission; but these are only taken from the highest ranks of SNCOs, and are known as 'late entry' or LE officers. LE officers, whilst holding the same Queen's commission, generally work in different roles from the DE officers. In the infantry, a number of warrant officer class 1s are commissioned as LE officers.
In the British Army, commissioning for DE officers occurs after a 44-week course at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst for regular officers or the Army Reserve Commissioning Course, which consists of four two-week modules (A-D) for Army Reserve officers. The first two modules may be undertaken over a year for each module at an Officers' Training Corps, the last two must be undertaken at Sandhurst. For Royal Navy and Royal Air Force officer candidates, a 30-week period at Britannia Royal Naval College or a 24-week period at RAF College Cranwell, respectively. Royal Marines officers receive their training in the Command Wing of the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines during a gruelling 15-month course. The courses consist of not only tactical and combat training, but also leadership, management, etiquette, and international affairs training.
Commissioned officers are typically the only persons, in an armed forces environment, able to act as the commanding officer (according to the most technical definition of the word) of a military unit. A superior officer is an officer with a higher rank than another officer, who is a subordinate officer relative to the superior.
Non-commissioned officers (NCOs), to include naval and coast guard petty officers and chief petty officers, in positions of authority can be said to have control or charge rather than command per se (although the word "command" is often used unofficially to describe any use of authority).
Most officers in the Armed Forces of the United States are typically commissioned through one of three major commissioning programs:
Graduates of the United States service academies attend their institutions for no less than four years and, with the exception of the USMMA, are granted active-duty commissions immediately upon completion of their training. They make up approximately 20% of the U.S. armed forces officer corps.
In addition to the service academies, officers in the U.S. Armed Forces may also be commissioned through the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC), which is by far the largest source of officers for the U.S. Army and the U.S. Air Force during peacetime:
ROTC is composed of small training programs at several hundred American colleges and universities. There is no Marine Corps ROTC program per se, but there exists a Marine Corps Option for selected midshipmen in the Naval ROTC programs at civilian colleges and universities or at non-Federal military colleges such as The Citadel and the Virginia Military Institute.
In addition to the service academies and ROTC, officers in the U.S. armed forces may also be commissioned via Officer Candidate programs for college graduates:
A smaller number of officers may be commissioned via other programs, such as the Marine Corps Platoon Leaders Class (PLC) during summers while attending college. PLC is a sub-element of Marine Corps OCS and college and university students enrolled in PLC undergo military training at Marine Corps Officer Candidate School in two segments: the first of six weeks between their sophomore and junior year and the second of seven weeks between their junior and senior year. There is no routine military training during the academic year for PLC students as is the case for ROTC cadets and midshipmen, but PLC students are routinely visited and their physical fitness periodically tested by Marine Corps Officer Selection Officers (OSOs) from the nearest Marine Corps officer recruiting activity. PLC students are placed in one of three general tracks: PLC-Air for prospective Marine Naval Aviators and Marine Naval Flight Officers; PLC-Ground for prospective Marine infantry, armor, artillery and combat support officers; and PLC-Law, for prospective Marine Corps judge advocate general officers. Upon graduation from college, PLC students are commissioned as active duty 2nd Lieutenants in the US Marine Corps Reserve, with the option to augment their commissions to the Regular Marine Corps after five to ten years of commissioned service.
In addition to ROTC, Army National Guard (ARNG) officers may also be commissioned through state-based Officer Candidate Schools. These schools train and commission college graduates, prior-servicemembers, and enlisted Guard soldiers specifically for the National Guard.
In the United States Armed Forces, officers without a four-year university degree at the bachelor's level can, under certain circumstances, also be commissioned. In the Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard, these are typically the officers in the Limited Duty Officer (LDO) and Chief Warrant Officer (CWO) programs. Officers in this category constitute less than 2% of all officers.
Graduates of junior military colleges can also be commissioned with 2-year associate degrees, conditioned on subsequently completing a 4-year bachelor's degree within a defined time.
The Air Force, in contrast, now requires all commissioned officers, regardless of background or enlisted rank, to possess a minimum of a bachelor's degree prior to commissioning.
Direct commission is another route to becoming a commissioned officer. Credentialed civilian professionals such as scientists, pharmacists, physicians, nurses, clergy, and attorneys are directly commissioned upon entry into the military or another federal uniformed service. However, these officers generally do not exercise command authority outside of their specific branches (e.g., U.S. Army Medical Corps; U.S. Navy Judge Advocate General's Corps, etc.).
Although significantly represented in the retired senior commissioned officer ranks of the US Navy, a much smaller cohort of current active duty and active Reserve officers (all of the latter being Captains or Flag Officers as of 2017) were commissioned via the Navy's since discontinued Aviation Officer Candidate School (AOCS) program for college graduates. AOCS focused on producing line officers for Naval Aviation who would become Naval Aviators and Naval Flight Officers upon completion of flight training, followed by a smaller cohort who would become Naval Air Intelligence Officers and Aviation Maintenance Duty Officers. Designated as Aviation Officer Candidates (AOCs), individuals in the AOCS program were primarily non-prior military service college graduates, augmented by a smaller cohort of college-degreed Active Duty, Reserve or former enlisted personnel. In the late 1970s, a number of Air Force ROTC graduates who had lost their flight training slots prior to going on active duty due to a post-Vietnam Reduction in Force (RIF) resigned their inactive USAF commissions and also attended AOCS for follow-on naval flight training. AOCs were active duty personnel in pay grade E-5 (unless having held a higher Active Duty or Reserve enlisted grade) for the duration of their 14-week program. Upon graduation, they were commissioned as Ensigns in the then-US Naval Reserve on Active Duty, with the option to augment their commissions to the Regular Navy after 4 to 6 years of commissioned service.
AOCS also included the embedded Aviation Reserve Officer Candidate (AVROC) and Naval Aviation Cadet (NAVCAD) programs. AVROC was composed of college students who would attend officer training in two segments similar to Marine Corps PLC, but would do so between their junior and senior year and again following graduation, receiving their commission upon completion of the second segment. NAVCADs were enlisted personnel who held associate degrees, but lacked bachelor's degrees. NAVCADs would complete the entire AOCS program, but would not be commissioned until completion of flight training and receiving their wings. After their initial operational tour, they would be assigned to a college or university full-time for no more than two years in order to complete their bachelor's degree. AVROC and NAVCAD were discontinued when AOCS was merged into OCS in the mid-1990s.
Another discontinued commissioning program is the Air Force's Aviation Cadet program. Originally created by the US Army Signal Corps in 1907 to train pilots for its then-fledgling aviation program, it was later used by the subsequent US Army Air Service, US Army Air Corps and US Army Air Forces to train pilots, navigators, bombardiers and observers through World War I, the interwar period, World War II, and the immediate postwar period between September 1945 and September 1947. With the establishment of the US Air Force as an independent service in September 1947, it then became a source for USAF pilots and navigators. Cadets had to be between the ages of 19 and 25 and possess either at least two years of college/university level education or three years of a scientific or technical education. In its final iteration, cadets received the pay of enlisted pay grade E-5 and were required to complete all pre-commissioning training and flight training before receiving their wings as pilots or navigators and their commissions as 2nd Lieutenants on active duty in the US Air Force Reserve on the same day. Aviation cadets were later offered the opportunity to apply for a commission in the Regular Air Force and attend a college or university to complete a 4-year degree. As the Air Force's AFROTC and OTS programs began to grow, and with the Air Force's desire for a 100% college-degreed officer corps, the Aviation Cadet program was slowly phased out. The last Aviation Cadet Pilot graduated in October 1961 and the last Aviation Cadet Navigators in 1965. By the 1990s, the last of these officers had retired from the active duty Regular Air Force, the Air Force Reserve and the Air National Guard.
In countries whose ranking systems are based upon the models of the British Armed Forces (BAF), officers from the rank of Second Lieutenant (army), Sub-Lieutenant (navy) or Pilot Officer (air force) to the rank of General, Admiral or Air Chief Marshal respectively, are holders of a commission granted to them by the appropriate awarding authority. In United Kingdom (UK) and other Commonwealth realms, the awarding authority is the monarch (or a Governor General representing the monarch) as head of state. The head of state often is granted the power to award commissions, or has commissions awarded in his or her name.
In Commonwealth nations, commissioned officers are given commissioning scrolls (also known as commissioning scripts) signed by the Sovereign or the Governor General acting on the monarch's behalf. Upon receipt, this is an official legal document that binds the mentioned officer to the commitment stated on the scroll.
Non-commissioned members rise from the lowest ranks in most nations. Education standards for non-commissioned members are typically lower than for officers (with the exception of specialised military and highly-technical trades; such as aircraft, weapons or electronics engineers). Enlisted members only receive leadership training after they are promoted to positions of responsibility, or as a prerequisite for such. In the past (and in some countries today but to a lesser extent), non-commissioned members were almost exclusively conscripts, whereas officers were volunteers.
In some branches of many armed forces, there exists a third grade of officer known as a warrant officer. In the armed forces of the United States, warrant officers are initially appointed by the Secretary of the service and then commissioned by the President of the United States upon promotion to chief warrant officer. In many other countries (as in the armed forces of the Commonwealth nations), warrant officers often fill the role of very senior non-commissioned officers. Their position is affirmed by warrant from the bureaucracy directing the force—for example, the position of regimental sergeant major in regiments of the British Army is held by a warrant officer appointed by the British government.
In the U.S. military, a warrant officer is a technically-focused subject matter expert, such as helicopter pilot or information technology specialist. There are no warrant officers in the U.S. Air Force; the last warrant officers retired in the 1980s, and ranks became dormant. All other U.S. Armed Forces have warrant officers, with warrant accession programs unique to each individual service's needs. Although Warrant Officers normally have more years in service than regular commissioned officers, they are below regular commissioned officers in the rank hierarchy. In certain instances, commissioned chief warrant officers can command units.
A non-commissioned officer (NCO) is an enlisted member of the armed forces holding a position of some degree of authority who has (usually) obtained it by advancement from within the non-commissioned ranks. Officers who are non-commissioned usually receive management and leadership training, but their function is to serve as supervisors within their area of trade specialty. Senior NCOs serve as advisers and leaders from the duty section level to the highest levels of the armed forces establishment, while lower NCO grades are not yet considered management specialists. The duties of an NCO can vary greatly in scope, so that an NCO in one country may hold almost no authority, while others such as the United States and the United Kingdom consider their NCOs to be "the backbone of the military" due to carrying out the orders of those officers appointed over them.
In most maritime forces (navies and coast guards), the NCO ranks are called petty officers while enlisted ranks prior to attaining NCO/petty officer status typically known as seaman, or some derivation thereof. In most traditional infantry, marine and air forces, the NCO ranks are known as sergeants and corporals, with non-NCO enlisted ranks referred to as privates and airmen.
However, some countries use the term commission to describe the promotion of enlisted soldiers, especially in countries with mandatory service in the armed forces. These countries refer to their NCOs as professional soldiers, rather than as officers.
Officers in nearly every country of the world are segregated from the enlisted soldiers, sailors, airmen, marines and coast guardsmen in many facets of military life. Facilities accommodating needs such as messing (i.e., mess hall or mess deck versus officers mess or wardroom), separate billeting/berthing, domiciles, and general recreation facilities (officer clubs versus NCO Clubs and CPO Clubs versus enlisted clubs) are separated between officers and enlisted personnel. This class system, historically correlated to socioeconomic status, is focused on discouraging fraternization and encouraging professional and ethical relations between officers and enlisted military personnel.
Officers do not routinely perform physical labor; they typically supervise enlisted personnel doing so, either directly or via non-commissioned officers. Commissioned officers will and do perform physical labor when operationally required to do so, e.g., in combat. However, it would be very unusual for an officer to perform physical labor in garrison, at home station or in homeport.
Brass is a metal alloy of copper and zinc.
Brass may also refer to:
Brass (board game), a board game set in England during the industrial revolution
Brass, English slang term for money i.e. Brass in pocket; in an alternative context, also slang for prostitute
"Brass", the metallic body of a cartridge case, usually made of brass
Horse brass, a plaque used to decorate shire horses
Monumental brass, commemorative plates laid down in British and European churches
Very important officials; in particular, high-ranking Officer (armed forces)
United States Army branch insigniaCharles D. Mize
Charles Davis Mize (December 4, 1921 – December 10, 1998) was a highly decorated officer of the United States Marine Corps with the rank of Major General. He was decorated with Navy Cross, the United States military's second-highest decoration awarded for valor in combat, during Korean War. Mize completed his career as Commanding general, 1st Marine Division. His son, David M. Mize, also served in the Marines and reached the rank of Major general as his father did.Deaths in March 2018
The following is a list of notable deaths in March 2018.
Entries for each day are listed alphabetically by surname. A typical entry lists information in the following sequence:
Name, age, country of citizenship at birth, subsequent country of citizenship (if applicable), reason for notability, cause of death (if known), and reference.Funkabwehr
Funkabwehr, or Radio Defense Corps was a radio counterintelligence organization created in 1940 by Hans Kopp, of the German Nazi Party High Command, during World War II. It acted as the principal organization for radio Counterintelligence, i.e. for the monitoring of illicit broadcasts. The formal name of the organization was the Funkabwehr der Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (German: Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, Wehrmacht Nachrichten Verbindungen Funkuberwachung) (OKW). It most notable breakthrough occurred on 26 June 1941, when tracing teams at the Funkabwehr station at Zelenogradsk made the discovery of the Rote Kapelle, the anti-Nazi resistance movement in Berlin and two Soviet espionage rings operating in German-occupied Europe and Switzerland during World War II. The Funkabwehr was dissolved on 30 April 1945.General der Nachrichtenaufklärung
The GdNA (German: Oberkommando des Heeres/General der Nachrichtenaufklärung) was the signals intelligence agency of the Wehrmacht, before and during World War II. It was the successor to the former cipher bureau known as Inspectorate 7/VI in operation between 1940 and 1942, when it was further reorganised into the Headquarters for Signal Intelligence (German: Leitstelle der Nachrichten Aufklaerung) (abbr. LNA) between 1942 and 1944, until it was finally reorganised in October 1944 into the GdNA. The agency was also known at the OKH/Gend Na, GendNa or Inspectorate 7 or more commonly OKH/GdNA. Inspectorate 7/VI was also known as In 7 or In/7 or In 7/VI and also OKH/Chi.Intelligence Center for Counter-Terrorism and Organized Crime
The Intelligence Center for Counter-Terrorism and Organized Crime (CITCO) is the Spanish domestic intelligence agency responsible for the prevention of domestic terrorism, organized crime and other violent radical organizations by managing and analyzing all internal information of the country. It was formed in October 2014.John Mason (planter)
John Mason (April 4, 1766 – March 19, 1849) was an early American merchant, banker, officer (armed forces), and planter. As a son of George Mason, a Founding Father of the United States, Mason was a scion of the prominent Mason political family.Junior officer
Junior officer, company officer or company grade officer refers to the lowest operational commissioned officer category of ranks in a military or paramilitary organization, ranking above non-commissioned officers and below senior officers.
The terms company officer or company-grade officer are used more in the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps as the ranks of captain, lieutenant grades and other subaltern ranks originated from the officers in command of a company or equivalent (cavalry squadron/troop and artillery battery).In many armed forces, a junior officer is specifically a commissioned officer holding rank equivalent to a naval lieutenant, an army captain or a flight lieutenant or below.
In the United States Armed Forces, the term junior officer is used by the Navy and the Coast Guard for officers in the ranks of ensign (O-1), lieutenant, junior grade (O-2), and lieutenant (O-3).
The U.S. commissioned officer corps is divided into ten pay grades (O-1 through O-10).
Officers in pay grades O-1 through O-3 are considered company grade officers. In the Army, Marine Corps and Air Force, these pay grades correspond to the ranks of second lieutenant (O-1), first lieutenant (O-2), and captain (O-3), and in the Navy, these pay grades correspond to ensign (O-1), lieutenant (junior grade) (O-2), and lieutenant (O-3).
Officers in pay grades O-4 through O-6 are considered field grade officers. In the Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, these pay grades correspond to the ranks of major (O-4), lieutenant colonel (O-5), and colonel (O-6), and in the Navy, lieutenant commander, commander, and captain.
The highest four pay grades are reserved for general officers in the Army, Marine Corps and Air Force and flag officers in the Navy. The ranks associated with each pay grade are as follows: in the Army, Marine Corps and Air Force, brigadier general (O-7), major general (O-8), lieutenant general (O-9) and general (O-10); in the Navy, rear admiral (lower half), rear admiral, vice admiral and admiral.List of accidents and incidents involving military aircraft (1943–1944)
This is a list of notable accidents and incidents involving military aircraft grouped by the year in which the accident or incident occurred. Not all of the aircraft were in operation at the time. For more exhaustive lists, see the Aircraft Crash Record Office or the Air Safety Network or the Dutch Scramble Website Brush and Dustpan Database. Combat losses are not included except for a very few cases denoted by singular circumstances.List of serving generals of the Bangladesh Army
This is a list of the serving generals of the Bangladesh Army.
Currently the army has one full general, five Lieutenant-Generals and fifty-five Major-Generals.Men (disambiguation)
Men is the plural of man, for an adult male human being.
Men may also refer to:
Human (homo sapiens)
Men (kendo), one of the five strikes in kendo
The Chinese name for the star Alpha Lupi
Men (1924 film), a silent film starring Pola Negri
Men..., a 1985 West German comedy film directed by Doris Dörrie
Men (deity), an ancient Phrygian god
Men (magazine), a gay pornographic magazine
Man (Middle-earth), the fictional race of mortals in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth books
"Men" (song), a 1991 single by The Forester Sisters
Men (TV series), a 1989 American television series
Men.com, a gay pornographic website
Mensa (constellation), a constellation in the southern sky, often abbreviated as "Men"
Ordinary soldiers, as distinct from Officer (armed forces) gradesMilitary Institute of Science and Technology
Military Institute of Science and Technology (Bengali: মিলিটারি ইনস্টিটিউট অফ সায়েন্স অ্যান্ড টেকনোলজি) commonly known as MIST is an advanced Engineering University of Bangladesh. It is the Institution of Bangladesh Armed Forces for Engineering education. It is a Governmental educational institution, which is under the affiliation of Bangladesh University of Professionals(BUP), a Public university governed by the Armed Forces of Bangladesh. In the beginning it was under the affiliation of University of Dhaka.
MIST is an Armed Forces institution and there are almost 2500+ students in this institution, where both military students and civil students study for taking Engineering degree.New Zealand military ranks
New Zealand military ranks are largely based on those of the United Kingdom. The three forces (army, navy, and air force) have their own rank structure, with a rank equivalency that allows seamless interoperability between the services. All three services form part of the New Zealand Defence Force.Officer
An officer is a person who has a position of authority in a hierarchical organization. The term derives from the late Latin from officiarius, meaning "official".Subaltern
A subaltern is a primarily British military term for a junior officer. Literally meaning "subordinate", subaltern is used to describe commissioned officers below the rank of captain and generally comprises the various grades of lieutenant.Ensign and Fähnrich stand for standard or standard-bearer and were, therefore, the ranks given to the junior officer who carried, or was responsible for, the flag in battle. The cornet carried the troop standard, known as a "cornet". These ranks have generally been replaced in army ranks by second lieutenant. Ensigns were generally the lowest ranking commissioned officer, except where the rank of subaltern itself existed.