|Office of Hawaiian Affairs|
|Headquarters||560 N. Nimitz Hwy|
In 1893, pro-American elements in Hawaii overthrew the monarchy and formed the Republic of Hawaii, which the U.S. annexed in 1898. In 1921, the US tried to make amends with the creation of the Hawaiian Homes Commissions Act which set aside 200,000 acres of land for the use of homelands for Native Hawaiians of 50% blood quantum of more. It was meant to create some compensation for forced colonization of the indigenous peoples, but in 1959 Hawaii was officially adopted as the fiftieth state of the US, with the Statehood Admissions Act defining "Native Hawaiian" as any person descended from the aboriginal people of Hawaii, living there prior to 1778. The Ceded lands (lands once owned by the Hawaiian kingdom monarchy) were transferred from the federal government to the State of Hawaii for the "betterment of the conditions of the native Hawaiians". In 1978 the Office of Hawaiian Affairs (OHA) was created in response to the growing Hawaiian sovereignty movement of the 1970s to manage that portion of the ceded lands allotted to Hawaiian Homelands, advance the lifestyle of Native Hawaiians, preserve Hawaiian culture and protect Native Hawaiian rights. It was established during the 1978 state constitutional convention Government funding has created programs, schools, scholarships and teaching curriculums through OHA. Many of these organizations, agencies and trusts like OHA, have had a good deal of legal issues over the years. In the US Supreme court case; "Rice v. Cayetano", OHA was accused of violating the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments to the United States constitution with voting provisions that were raced based. The court found for the plaintif that OHA had violated the fifteenth amendment. OHA has also been questioned for programs and services to Hawaiians of less than the fifty percent, required blood quantum (The minimum requirement to qualify for Hawaiian Homelands).
The Office of Hawaiian Affairs is governed by an elected board of nine trustees. The constitution provides an outline of that board, "There shall be a board of trustees for the Office of Hawaiian Affairs elected by qualified voters who are Hawaiians, as provided by law. The board members shall be Hawaiians. There shall be not less than nine members of the board of trustees; provided that each of the following Islands have one representative: Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai and Hawaii. The board shall select a chairperson from its members. The board of trustees provision was amended upon a United States Supreme Court ruling in the case of Rice v. Cayetano that non-Hawaiians could not be excluded from the election process, including the right of non-Hawaiians to run for such an office. Trustees are elected to a four-year term by general election of Hawaii registered voters. The board of trustees generally meets twice a month.
The constitution adds, "The board of trustees of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs shall exercise power as provided by law: to manage and administer the proceeds from the sale or other disposition of the lands, natural resources, minerals and income derived from whatever sources for native Hawaiians and Hawaiians, including all income and proceeds from that pro rata portion of the trust referred to in section 4 of this article for native Hawaiians; to formulate policy relating to affairs of native Hawaiians and Hawaiians; and to exercise control over real and personal property set aside by state, federal or private sources and transferred to the board for native Hawaiians and Hawaiians. The board shall have the power to exercise control over the Office of Hawaiian Affairs through its executive officer, the administrator of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, who shall be appointed by the board. On January 30, 1989 the board of trustees agreed that salaries should be consistent with other departments of the State of Hawaii.
OHA’s Board of Trustees (BOT) meets regularly, usually twice a month on Thursdays
The Administration for Native Americans (ANA) is a program office within the United States Department of Health and Human Services established in 1974 through the Native American Programs Act (NAPA).
The mission of ANA is to promote the goal of self self-sufficiency and cultural preservation by providing social and economic development opportunities through financial assistance, training, and technical assistance to eligible tribes and Native American communities, including American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, and other Native Pacific Islanders. ANA also oversees the Native Hawaiian Revolving Loan Fund, which is administered by the Office of Hawaiian affairs.All ANA funding opportunity announcements (FOAs) are published at www.Grants.gov. ANA project funding is available in short-term development terms of 12, 24, or 36, depending on the specific FOA. All ANA community projects must be completed by the end of the project period or supported by alternative funds. Training and technical assistance is available to applicants for project and proposal development and to grantees for project implementation and reporting.Program areas include Social & Economic Development Strategies (SEDS), Native Languages, and Environmental Regulatory Enhancement.ANA is led by a Presidentially appointed, Senate-confirmed Commissioner, who oversees ANA’s discretionary funding programs, serves as an advocate for Native Americans, and coordinates activities within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to develop policies, programs, and budgets affecting Native Americans all under the authority of NAPA.In order to maximize resources on behalf of Native communities, ANA partners with related programs in the Administration for Children and Families and the Department of Health and Human Services, as well as with other Federal agencies and nonprofit organizations.Arakaki v. State of Hawai'i
Arakaki v. State of Hawai'i, 314 F.3d 1091 (9th Cir. 2002), was a lawsuit challenging the requirement that candidates for election to the Office of Hawaiian Affairs board of trustees be Native Hawaiians.
In 2000, after being barred from applying for nomination papers in June because he was not of Hawaiian ancestry, Kenneth R. Conklin was one of 13 plaintiffs in a controversial lawsuit Arakaki v. State of Hawai'i challenging the requirement that candidates for election to the Office of Hawaiian Affairs board of trustees be Hawaiian. The suit, argued by attorneys H. William Burgess and co-counsel Patrick W. Hanifin, claimed the restriction violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, the Fifteenth Amendment, and the Voting Rights Act. In August, U.S. District Judge Helen Gillmor issued a judgment allowing non-Hawaiians to run for OHA trustee. Conklin then ran unsuccessfully for OHA trustee in November 2000, placing 4th out of 20 candidates for one "at large" seat. (The winner, Haunani Apoliona, took 58,264 votes or 15.7%, and Conklin took 18,115 votes or 4.9% - there were also 117,597 blank votes or 31.7%)Constitution of Hawaii
The Constitution of the State of Hawaii (Hawaiian: Kumukānāwai o Hawaiʻi) refers to various legal documents throughout the history of the Hawaiian Islands that defined the fundamental principles of authority and governance within its sphere of jurisdiction. Numerous constitutional documents have been promulgated for the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, Republic of Hawaiʻi, Territory of Hawaiʻi and State of Hawaiʻi. The first constitution was drafted by Kamehameha III. A few notable constitutions are the Bayonet Constitution of 1887 which stripped King Kalakaua of some decision making abilities without concurrence of his cabinet, and the Proposed 1893 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii, a replacement of the Bayonet Constitution promulgated by Queen Liliuokalani, which set off a chain of events that eventually resulted in the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Other notable documents include the Constitution of 1978 that created the Office of Hawaiian Affairs and declared the Hawaiian language to be one of the official languages of the state.Earl I. Anzai
Earl I. Anzai (Family Name 安斎 October 4, 1941) served as Attorney General of Hawaii from 1999 to 2002, appointed by Governor of Hawaii Benjamin J. Cayetano. A career Democrat, Anzai also served as state budget director from 1995 to 1999 and Office of Hawaiian Affairs special counsel from 1990 to 1994. From 1968 to 1970, he worked for the federal government in the United States Government Accountability Office. He was admitted to the Hawaii State Bar in October 1981.Government of Hawaii
The Government of Hawaii (Hawaiian: Aupuni o Hawaiʻi) is the governmental structure as established by the Constitution of Hawaii, the 50th state to have joined the United States.Hawaii v. Office of Hawaiian Affairs
Hawaii v. Office of Hawaiian Affairs, 556 U.S. 163 (2009), was a United States Supreme Court case about the former crown lands of the Hawaiian monarchy, and whether the state's right to sell them was restricted by the 1993 Apology Resolution. The Court, in an opinion by Justice Samuel Alito, ruled unanimously that the state had the power to sell the lands free of encumbrances.Hawaiian Renaissance
The First, Second, and Third Hawaiian Renaissance (also often called the Hawaiian Cultural Renaissance) was the Hawaiian resurgence of a distinct cultural identity that draws upon traditional kānaka maoli culture, with a significant divergence from the tourism-based culture which Hawaiʻi was previously known for worldwide (along with the rest of Polynesia).Hinaleimoana Wong-Kalu
Hinaleimoana Kwai Kong Wong-Kalu, also known as Kumu Hina, is a Native Hawaiian māhū - a traditional third gender person who occupies "a place in the middle" between male and female - as well as a modern transgender woman. She is known for her work as a kumu hula ("hula teacher"), as a filmmaker, and as a community leader in the field of Kanaka Maoli language and cultural preservation. She teaches Kanaka Maoli philosophy and traditions and promotes cross-cultural alliances throughout the Pacific Islands. Described as a "powerful performer with a clear, strong voice", she has been hailed as "a cultural icon".Wong-Kalu was born in the Nuuanu district of Oʻahu. She attended Kamehameha School (1990) and the University of Hawaiʻi at Manoa (1996–2004) where she began her activism. She was a founder of the Kulia Na Mamo transgender health project, cultural director of a Hawaiian public charter school, and candidate for the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, one of the first transgender candidates for statewide political office in the United States. She also served as the Chair of the O'ahu Island Burial Council, which oversees the management of Native Hawaiian burial sites and ancestral remains. She is a recipient of the National Education Association Ellison Onizuka Human and Civil Rights Award, Native Hawaiian Community Educator of the year, and a White House Champion of Change.Wong-Kalu was the subject of the feature documentary film Kumu Hina, directed by Dean Hamer and Joe Wilson. Kumu Hina premiered as the closing night film in the Hawaii International Film Festival in 2014 and won several awards including best documentary at the Frameline Film Festival and the GLAAD Media Award for Outstanding Documentary. It was nationally broadcast on PBS in 2015 where it won the Independent Lens Audience Award. Wong-Kalu wrote an educational children's version of the film, A Place in the Middle, which premiered at the Berlin International Film Festival and Toronto International Film Festival for Kids and is featured on PBS learning media. Switching to the other side of the lens, Wong Kalu co-directed and produced the short film, Lady Eva and feature documentary Leitis in Waiting about the struggle of the Indigenous transgender community in the South Pacific Kingdom of Tonga. Her films on this subject screened and won awards at AFI Docs and the LA, Margaret Mead, FIFO and Commonwealth film festivals and are being broadcast on PBS/Pacific Heartbeat, ARTE, Maori TV, TV France and NITV.Kanaiolowalu
Kanaiolowalu (Hawaiian: Kana'iolowalu) is the Native Hawaiian Roll Commission's enrollment list of Native Hawaiians in a registry of people eligible to develop a government. The Native Hawaiian Roll Commission was established by Act 195 signed by Governor of Hawaii, Neil Abercrombie on July 7, 2011.Kinaʻu Boyd Kamaliʻi
Kina′u Boyd Kamali′i (October 24, 1930 – October 28, 2005) was an American politician from the state of Hawaii.
Kamali′i served as administrator of the Hawaii State Health and Planning Agency. She was also a trustee in the Office of Hawaiian Affairs from 1992 to 1996 and was chairwoman of the Native Hawaiian Study Commission from 1981 to 1983. From 1974 to 1982 and from 1984 to 1986, Kamali′I served in the Hawaii House of Representatives and was involved with the Republican Party.Legal status of Hawaii
The legal status of Hawaii—as opposed to its political status—is a settled legal matter as it pertains to United States law, but there has been scholarly and legal debate. While Hawaii is internationally recognized as a state of the United States of America while also being broadly accepted as such in mainstream understanding, there have been essays written denying the legality of this status. The argument is that Hawaii is an independent nation under military occupation. The legality of control of Hawaii by the United States has also been raised in the losing side in cases in the U.S. Supreme Court, and in U.S. District Court.List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 556
This is a list of all the United States Supreme Court cases from volume 556 of the United States Reports:
Bartlett v. Strickland, 556 U.S. 1 (2008) (Docket No. 07-689)
Vaden v. Discover Bank, 556 U.S. 49 (2008) (Docket No. 07-773)
Vermont v. Brillon, 556 U.S. 81 (2008) (Docket No. 08-88)
Kansas v. Colorado, 556 U.S. 98 (2008) (Docket No. 105, Orig.)
Knowles v. Mirzayance, 556 U.S. 111 (2008) (Docket No. 07-1315)
Puckett v. United States, 556 U.S. 129 (2008) (Docket No. 07-9712)
Rivera v. Illinois, 556 U.S. 148 (2008) (Docket No. 07-9995)
Hawaii v. Office of Hawaiian Affairs, 556 U.S. 163 (2008) (Docket No. 07-1372)
Philip Morris USA Inc. v. Williams, 556 U.S. 178 (2008) (Docket No. 07-1216)
Harbison v. Bell, 556 U.S. 180 (2008) (Docket No. 07-8521)
Entergy Corp. v. Riverkeeper, Inc., 556 U.S. 208 (2008) (Docket No. 07-588)
14 Penn Plaza LLC v. Pyett, 556 U.S. 247 (2008) (Docket No. 07-581)
United States v. Navajo Nation, 556 U.S. 287 (2008) (Docket No. 07-1410)
Corley v. United States, 556 U.S. 303 (2008) (Docket No. 07-10441)
Arizona v. Gant, 556 U.S. 332 (2008) (Docket No. 07-542)
Ministry of Defense and Support for Armed Forces of Islamic Republic of Iran v. Elahi, 556 U.S. 366 (2008) (Docket No. 07-615)
Shinseki v. Sanders, 556 U.S. 396 (2008) (Docket No. 07-1209)
Nken v. Holder, 556 U.S. 418 (2008) (Docket No. 08-681)
Cone v. Bell, 556 U.S. 449 (2008) (Docket No. 07-1114)
FCC v. Fox Television Stations, Inc., 556 U.S. 502 (2008) (Docket No. 07-582)
Dean v. United States, 556 U.S. 568 (2009) (Docket No. 08-5274)
Kansas v. Ventris, 556 U.S. 586 (2009) (Docket No. 07-1356)
Burlington N. & S. F. R. Co. v. United States, 556 U.S. 599 (2009) (Docket No. 07-1601)
Arthur Andersen LLP v. Carlisle, 556 U.S. 624 (2009) (Docket No. 08-146)
Carlsbad Technology, Inc. v. HIF Bio, Inc., 556 U.S. 635 (2009) (Docket No. 07-1437)
Flores-Figueroa v. United States, 556 U.S. 646 (2009) (Docket No. 08-108)
Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 556 U.S. 662 (2009) (Docket No. 07-1015)
AT&T Corp. v. Hulteen, 556 U.S. 701 (2009) (Docket No. 07-543)
Haywood v. Drown, 556 U.S. 729 (2009) (Docket No. 07-10374)
Montejo v. Louisiana, 556 U.S. 778 (2009) (Docket No. 07-1529)
Abuelhawa v. United States, 556 U.S. 816 (2009) (Docket No. 08-192)
Bobby v. Bies, 556 U.S. 825 (2009) (Docket No. 08-598)
CSX Transp., Inc. v. Hensley, 556 U.S. 838 (2009) (Docket No. 08-1034)
Republic of Iraq v. Beaty, 556 U.S. 848 (2009) (Docket No. 07-1090)
Caperton v. A. T. Massey Coal Co., 556 U.S. 868 (2009) (Docket No. 08-22)
United States v. Denedo, 556 U.S. 904 (2009) (Docket No. 08-267)
United States ex rel. Eisenstein v. City of New York, 556 U.S. 928 (2009) (Docket No. 08-660)
Boyle v. United States, 556 U.S. 938 (2009) (Docket No. 07-1309)
Indiana State Police Pension Trust v. Chrysler LLC, 556 U.S. 960 (2009) (Docket No. 08A1096)Mililani Trask
Mililani Trask is a leader of the Hawaiian sovereignty movement and a political speaker and attorney. One of Trask's contributions to the Hawaiian sovereignty movement was her founding of Na Koa Ikaika o Ka Lāhui Hawaiʻi, a native Hawaiian non-governmental organization.Outside of Hawaiʻi, Trask has worked with the United Nations to aid indigenous people from around the world seeking independence. She was a member of the Indigenous Initiative for Peace, helped author the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and was elected vice chair of the General Assembly of Nations of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. For seven years, she worked and studied under the guidance of Mother Teresa of Calcutta. She is the younger sister of activist and writer, Professor Haunani-Kay Trask.Native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiians (Hawaiian: kānaka ʻōiwi, kānaka maoli and Hawaiʻi maoli) are the Aboriginal Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants. Native Hawaiians trace their ancestry back to the original Polynesian settlers of Hawaiʻi. In total, 527,000 Americans consider themselves Native Hawaiian.According to the 2010 U.S. Census, there were 371,000 people who identified themselves as being "Native Hawaiian" in combination with one or more other races or Pacific Islander groups. 156,000 people identified themselves as being "Native Hawaiian" alone.
The majority of Native Hawaiians reside in the state of Hawaii (two-thirds) and the rest are scattered among other states, especially in the American Southwest and with a high concentration in California.
The history of Native Hawaiians, like the history of Hawaii, is commonly classified into four major periods:
the pre-unification period (before c. 1800)
the unified monarchy and republic period (c. 1800 to 1898)
the US territorial period (1898 to 1959)
the US statehood period (1959 to present)OHA
Big textThe acronym OHA may refer to:On hand Always
DHS Office of Health Affairs, an office in the United States Department of Homeland Security
Oakland Heritage Alliance, a non-profit preservation organization in Oakland, California.
Oakland Housing Authority
Office of Hawaiian Affairs
Office of Human Affairs, a Community Action Agency serving the residents of Newport News and Hampton, Virginia.
Oklahoma Hospital Association, the state affiliate of the American Hospital Association
Omaha Housing Authority, the government agency responsible for providing public housing in Omaha, Nebraska, USA
Ontario Hockey Association that governs most junior and senior hockey in Ontario
Ontario Horticultural Association
Ontario Hospital Association
Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of companies dedicated to producing an open standard for mobile devices.
Oral hypoglycemic agents, the majority of anti-diabetic drugs
Oral Health America
Oregon Health Authority
Ormiston Horizon Academy
Oral History Association, a professional association for oral historians
Overseas housing allowance (United States military)
RNZAF Base Ohakea, New Zealand, which uses IATA code OHAOha may refer to:
Õha, village in Kaarma Parish, Saare County, Estonia
Ugo Oha, a Nigerian basketball player.S. Haunani Apoliona
S. Haunani Apoliona is an American native Hawaiian banker and activist for the Hawaiian sovereignty movement. Apoliona was elected to the Office of Hawaiian Affairs Board of Trustees and became its chairperson. She held federal offices, appointed to the President of the United States Advisory Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islanders and the United States Census Bureau Race Ethnic Advisory Council. As a businesswoman, she held a leadership position with Bank of Hawaii. Hawaii residents also know her as an entertainer and performer with the Hawaiian music group Olomana.United States federal recognition of Native Hawaiians
Federal recognition of Native Hawaiians refers to proposals for the federal government of the United States to give legal recognition to Native Hawaiians (Hawaiian: kānaka maoli), providing them with some form of indigenous sovereignty within a framework similar to that afforded to Native Americans and Alaska Natives.Native Hawaiians are the aboriginal people of the Hawaiian Islands. Since American involvement in the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, federal statutes have been enacted to address conditions of Native Hawaiians, with some feeling these should be formalized in the same manner as other indigenous populations in the United States. However, some controversy surrounds the proposal for formal recognition – many Native Hawaiian political organizations believe recognition might interfere with Hawaii's claims to independence as a constitutional monarchy through international law.Walter Meheula Heen
Walter Meheula Heen (born April 17, 1928) is an American lawyer, politician and judge. He briefly served as a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii and trustee of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs.Wao Kele o Puna
Wao Kele O Puna (Wao Kele) is Hawaiʻi's largest remaining lowland wet forest, about 15 mi (24 km) south of the city of Hilo, along the East Rift Zone of Kīlauea volcano on the Island of Hawaiʻi. The name means the upland rainforest of Puna. Puna is one of 9 districts on the island. Lava from Kīlauea continues to flow onto forest land.In 2006, the Trust for Public Land (TPL) purchased Wao Kele, ending a twenty-year struggle to prevent tapping the sizeable geothermal energy resources that lie below it. Opponents believe that the area is the home of the fire goddess Pele. It is also known as the Puna Forest Reserve, located just east of the Puʻu ʻŌʻō vent.