Office

An office is generally a room or other area where an organization's employees perform administrative work in order to support and realize objects and goals of the organization. The word "office" may also denote a position within an organization with specific duties attached to it (see officer, office-holder, official); the latter is in fact an earlier usage, office as place originally referring to the location of one's duty. When used as an adjective, the term "office" may refer to business-related tasks. In law, a company or organization has offices in any place where it has an official presence, even if that presence consists of (for example) a storage silo rather than an establishment with desk-and-chair. An office is also an architectural and design phenomenon: ranging from a small office such as a bench in the corner of a small business of extremely small size (see small office/home office), through entire floors of buildings, up to and including massive buildings dedicated entirely to one company. In modern terms an office is usually the location where white-collar workers carry out their functions. As per James Stephenson, "Office is that part of business enterprise which is devoted to the direction and co-ordination of its various activities."

Offices in classical antiquity were often part of a palace complex or of a large temple. The High Middle Ages (1000–1300) saw the rise of the medieval chancery, which was usually the place where most government letters were written and where laws were copied in the administration of a kingdom. With the growth of large, complex organizations in the 18th century, the first purpose-built office spaces were constructed. As the Industrial Revolution intensified in the 18th and 19th centuries, the industries of banking, rail, insurance, retail, petroleum, and telegraphy grew dramatically, requiring a large number of clerks, and as a result more office space was assigned to house their activities. The time-and-motion study, pioneered in manufacturing by F. W. Taylor (1856-1915) led to the "Modern Efficiency Desk" of 1915 with a flat top and drawers below, designed to allow managers an easy view of the workers.[1] However, by the middle of the 20th century, it became apparent that an efficient office required discretion in the control of privacy, and gradually the cubicle system evolved.[2]

The main purpose of an office environment is to support its occupants in performing their jobs. Work spaces in an office are typically used for conventional office activities such as reading, writing and computer work. There are nine generic types of work space, each supporting different activities. In addition to individual cubicles, one can find meeting rooms, lounges, and spaces for support activities, such as photocopying and filing. Some offices also have a kitchen area where workers can make their lunches. There are many different ways of arranging the space in an office and whilst these vary according to function, managerial fashions and the culture of specific companies can be even more important. While offices can be built in almost any location and in almost any building, some modern requirements for offices make this more difficult, such as requirements for light, networking, and security. The major purpose of an office building is to provide a workplace and working environment - primarily for administrative and managerial workers. These workers usually occupy set areas within the office building, and usually are provided with desks, PCs and other equipment they may need within these areas.

Channel 1 Israel DSC0021
A typical modern office
London MMB »095 15 Westferry Circus
Modern approach for a creative office: a coworking space in London
Health professional answers phone
Office work

History

The structure and shape of the office is impacted by both management thought as well as construction materials and may or may not have walls or barriers. The word stems from the Latin officium, and its equivalents in various, mainly romance, languages. An officium was not necessarily a place, but rather an often mobile 'bureau' in the sense of a human staff or even the abstract notion of a formal position, such as a magistrature. The relatively elaborate Roman bureaucracy would not be equaled for centuries in the West after the fall of Rome, even partially reverting to illiteracy, while the East preserved a more sophisticated administrative culture, both under Byzantium and under Islam.

Offices in classical antiquity were often part of a palace complex or a large temple. There was usually a room where scrolls were kept and scribes did their work. Ancient texts mentioning the work of scribes allude to the existence of such "offices". These rooms are sometimes called "libraries" by some archaeologists and the general press because one often associates scrolls with literature. In fact they were true offices since the scrolls were meant for record keeping and other management functions such as treaties and edicts, and not for writing or keeping poetry or other works of fiction.

Middle Ages

The High Middle Ages (1000–1300) saw the rise of the medieval chancery, which was usually the place where most government letters were written and where laws were copied in the administration of a kingdom. The rooms of the chancery often had walls full of pigeonholes, constructed to hold rolled up pieces of parchment for safekeeping or ready reference, a precursor to the bookshelf. The introduction of printing during the Renaissance did not change these early government offices much.

Office 1719
An early European office

Medieval illustrations, such as paintings or tapestries, often show people in their private offices handling record-keeping books or writing on scrolls of parchment. All kinds of writings seemed to be mixed in these early forms of offices. Before the invention of the printing press and its distribution there was often a very thin line between a private office and a private library since books were read or written in the same space at the same desk or table, and general accounting and personal or private letters were also done there.

It was during the 13th century that the English form of the word first appeared when referring to a position involving duties (ex. the office of the ...). Geoffrey Chaucer appears to have first used the word in 1395 to mean a place where business is transacted in The Canterbury Tales.

As mercantilism became the dominant economic theory of the Renaissance, merchants tended to conduct their business in the same buildings, which might include retail sales, warehousing and clerical work. During the 15th century, population density in many cities reached the point where stand-alone buildings were used by merchants to conduct their business, and there was a developing a distinction between church, government/military, and commerce uses for buildings.[2]

Emergence of the modern office

With the growth of large, complex organizations such as the Royal Navy and the East India Company in the 18th century, the first purpose-built office spaces were constructed. The Old Admiralty (Ripley Building) was built in 1726 as a three-storey U-shaped brick building and was the first purpose built office building in Great Britain. As well as offices, the building housed a board room and apartments for the Lords of the Admiralty. In the 1770s, many scattered offices for the Royal Navy were gathered into Somerset House, the first block purpose-built for office work.[3]

East India House by Thomas Malton the Younger
The sprawling complex of the extended East India House c.1800. The company employed an army of bureaucrats to administer its territories in India.

The East India House was built in 1729 on Leadenhall Street as the headquarters from which the East India Company administered its Indian colonial possessions. The Company developed a very complex bureaucracy for the task, which required thousands of office employees to process the necessary paperwork. The Company recognized the benefits of centralized administration, and required that all workers sign in and out at the central office, daily.[4]

As the Industrial Revolution intensified in the 18th and 19th centuries, the industries of banking, rail, insurance, retail, petroleum, and telegraphy dramatically grew in size and complexity. To transact business, an increasing large number of clerks were needed to handle order-processing, accounting, and document filing, with increasingly specialized office space required to house these activities. Most of the desks of the era were top heavy with paper storage bins extending above the desk-work area, giving the appearance of a cubicle and offering the workers some degree of privacy.

The relatively high price of land in the central core of cities lead to the first multi-story buildings, which were limited to about 10 stories until the use of iron and steel allowed for higher structures. The first purpose-built office block was the Brunswick Building, built in Liverpool in 1841.[5] The invention of the safety elevator in 1852 by Elisha Otis saw the rapid escalation upward of buildings.[2] By the end of the 19th century, larger office buildings frequently contained large glass atriums to allow light into the complex and improve air circulation.

20th century

Office speaking tubes 1903
An office in 1903, equipped with speaking tubes

By 1906, Sears, Roebuck and Co had opened their mail order and headquarters operation in a 3,000,000-square-foot (280,000 m2) building in Chicago, at the time the largest building in the world. The time and motion study, pioneered in manufacturing by F. W. Taylor and later applied to the office environment by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, led to the idea that managers needed to play an active role in directing the work of subordinates in order to increase the efficiency of the workplace. F.W. Taylor advocated the use of large, open floor plans, and desks that faced supervisors.[6] As a result, in 1915, the Equitable Life Insurance Company in New York City introduced the “Modern Efficiency Desk” with a flat top and drawers below, designed to allow managers an easy view of the workers. This led to a demand for a large square footages per floor in buildings, and a return to the open spaces that were seen in pre–industrial revolution buildings.[2]

Photograph of the Division of Classification and Cataloging, 1937
1937 image of the Division of Classification and Cataloging, National Archives, United States

However, by the midpoint of the 20th century, it became apparent that an efficient office required discretion in the control of privacy, which is needed to combat tedium linked to poor productivity, and to encourage creativity. In 1964, the Herman Miller (office equipment) company engaged Robert Propst, a prolific industrial designer, who came up with the concept of the Action Office which later evolved into the cubicle office furniture system.[2]

Japan 20th century office

Japanese businesses have set themselves apart from their American counterparts by implementing different techniques in the way they handle business. The Japanese office layout improves work productivity, harmony in the office, and holds every employee accountable for the work they produce. The type of office layout used in Japan is called an open plan, and relies on ergonomics to help make employees as productive as possible. The Japanese open office layout allows them to use an organizational structure known as the horizontal structure. In the typical Japanese office there are no walls dividing desks, no cubicles, and no individual offices. Also they are able to implement policies using the ringi-sho consensus.

In order to get group members to work effectively in the open office floor plan the use of island style desks are used. The most dominant feature of the Japanese island style office layout is that each group forms an island. Kageyu Noro, Goroh Fujimaki & Shinsuke Kishi, researches of ergonomics in the work place, stated,” Japanese offices have traditionally adhered to island layouts because these reflect the Japanese style of teamwork and top-down style of management.”[7] The group leader will then sit at the prominent position and ensure productivity.

Good Smile Company offices ladies
Island style seating

The group leader will assign a task to the group, and each member of the group then receives their individual task to complete. Island style seating also gives the group the benefit of being able to speak to one another at any time, and ask for help if needed. Being in such close proximity to one another in the office gives another advantage to the supervisor in that he can call an uchi-awase. Uchi-awase is an informal meeting in order to get an important message across, and also allows all members of the team to be creative in the office. “The open office layout allows for this because there are hardly any independent rooms or enclosures. If the supervisor stands at his desk he can glance at his associates and easily call them over.”, according to Durlabhji, Subhash, Norton E. Marks, and Scott Roach, authors of Japanese Business: Cultural Perspective.[8] Once all individual tasks are complete the group then combines each person’s work and the project is the put together as a whole and returned to the supervisor. The work is viewed as a team effort and that each member of the group receives equal credit for being part of a team completing the goal assigned. The group itself holds each member accountable for ensuring that the work is getting done, and that no one individual is doing more work than another. Another motivating factor is that the group's boss is also seated at the same desk, and the effect that this has on the individuals is that they must work hard just like the boss. The role of having an open layout with island type seating allows the office to be structured so the employees are put together as teams.

The type of organizational structure found within the Japanese office is known as a horizontal structure. According to Andrew, Ghillyer, author of Management Now,” Horizontal structure is an organization structure consisting of two groups: the first composed of senior management responsible for strategic decisions and policies and the second composed of empowered employees working together in different process teams; also known as a team structure.”[9] The benefit of using this type of structure is that hierarchy is flattened to reduce supervision, teams are able to self-manage, team performance, not just the individual is rewarded, and training is highly emphasized amongst all employees. With the heightened sense of empowerment and responsibility workers are motivated to complete objectives in a timely manner. Having the office structured horizontally allows for the easy communication of introducing new policies and ideas amongst the groups.

“Ringisho” is the concept of submitting proposals and making decisions off those ideas. By unifying everyone together in the Japanese office it helps to make better-informed decisions on policies of the company that all managers and employees have input on. The idea behind this is to get a hold of various thinking individuals to see if there is a good way in writing their policies that come to benefit the company better. Richard Lewis, author of When Cultures Collide, states “Suggestions, ideas and inventions make their way up the company hierarchy by a process of collecting signatures among workers and middle managers. Many people are involved. Top executives take the final step in ratifying items that have won sufficient approval.”[10] With this system in place changes to policies are only passed if there is an overall consensus to pass it. Allowing each group to have a say on which policies should be implemented improves overall job satisfaction and harmony throughout the office.

The way Japanese offices are structured allow them to be more efficient when conducting business. The efficiency at which they operate has been noticed by such companies General Motors, Ford, Motorola, and Chrysler Company. They continue to look for other ways to be more efficient and productive with the office layout and employee productivity.

Office spaces

The main purpose of an office environment is to support its occupants in performing their job—preferably at minimum cost and to maximum satisfaction. With different people performing different tasks and activities, however, it is not always easy to select the right office spaces. To aid decision-making in workplace and office design, one can distinguish three different types of office spaces: work spaces, meeting spaces and support spaces. For new, or developing businesses, remote satellite offices and project rooms, serviced offices can provide a simple solution and provide all of the former types of space.

Work spaces

Work spaces in an office are typically used for conventional office activities such as reading, writing and computer work. There are nine generic types of work space, each supporting different activities.

Open office

open office

Team space

team space

Cubicle

cubicle

Open office: An open work space for more than ten people, suitable for activities which demand frequent communication or routine activities which need relatively little concentration

Team space: A semi-enclosed work space for two to eight people; suitable for teamwork which demands frequent internal communication and a medium level of concentration

Cubicle: A semi-enclosed work space for one person, suitable for activities which demand medium concentration and medium interaction

Private office

private office

Shared office

shared office

Team room

team room

Private office: An enclosed work space for one person, suitable for activities which are confidential, demand a lot of concentration or include many small meetings

Shared office: An enclosed work space for two or three people, suitable for semi-concentrated work and collaborative work in small groups

Team room: An enclosed work space for four to ten people; suitable for teamwork which may be confidential and demands frequent internal communication

Study booth

study booth

Work lounge

work lounge

Touch down

touch down

Study booth: An enclosed work space for one person; suitable for short-term activities which demand concentration or confidentiality

Work lounge: A lounge-like work space for two to six people; suitable for short-term activities which demand collaboration and/or allow impromptu interaction

Touch down: An open work space for one person; suitable for short-term activities which require little concentration and low interaction

Meeting spaces

Meeting spaces in an office typically use interactive processes, be it quick conversations or intensive brainstorms. There are six generic types of meeting space, each supporting different activities.

Small meeting room

small meeting room

Large meeting room

large meeting room

Small meeting space

Small meeting space

Small meeting room: An enclosed meeting space for two to four persons, suitable for both formal and informal interaction

Large meeting room: An enclosed meeting space for five to twelve people, suitable for formal interaction

Small meeting space: An open or semi-open meeting space for two to four persons; suitable for short, informal interaction

Large meeting space

large meeting space

Brainstorm room

brainstorm room

Meeting point

meeting point

Large meeting space: An open or semi-open meeting space for five to twelve people; suitable for short, informal interaction

Brainstorm room: An enclosed meeting space for five to twelve people; suitable for brainstorming sessions and workshops

Meeting point: An open meeting point for two to four persons; suitable for ad hoc, informal meetings

Support spaces

Support spaces in an office are typically used for secondary activities such as filing documents or taking a break. There are twelve generic types of support space, each supporting different activities.

Filing space

filing space

Storage sapce

storage space

Print and copy area

print and copy area

Filing space: An open or enclosed support space for the storage of frequently used files and documents

Storage space: An open or enclosed support space for the storage of commonly used office supplies

Print and copy area: An open or enclosed support space with facilities for printing, scanning and copying

Mail area

mail area

Pantry area

pantry area

Break area

break area

Mail area: An open or semi-open support space where employees can pick up or deliver their personal mail

Pantry area: An open or enclosed support space where people can get coffee and tea as well as soft drinks and snacks

Break area: A semi-open or enclosed support space where employees can take a break from their work

Locker area

locker area

Smoking room

smoking room

Office library

library

Locker area: An open or semi-open support space where employees can store their personal belongings

Smoking room: An enclosed support space where employees can smoke a cigarette

Library: A semi-open or enclosed support space for reading of books, journals and magazines

Games room

games room

Waiting area

waiting area

Circulation space

circulation space

Games room: An enclosed support space where employees can play games (e.g. computer games, pool, darts)

Lactation room: as of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, a requirement for companies in the United States.

Waiting area: An open or semi-open support space where visitors can be received and can wait for their appointment

Circulation space: Support space which is required for circulation on office floors, linking all major functions

Office structure

TradeMe offices
Open plan TradeMe offices, above NZX, Wellington, New Zealand

There are many different ways of arranging the space in an office and whilst these vary according to function, managerial fashions, and the culture of specific companies can be even more important. Choices include, how many people will work within the same room. At one extreme, each individual worker will have their own room; at the other extreme a large open plan office can be made up of one main room with tens or hundreds of people working in the same space. Open plan offices put multiple workers together in the same space, and some studies have shown that they can improve short term productivity, i.e. within a single software project. At the same time, the loss of privacy and security can increase the incidence of theft and loss of company secrets. A type of compromise between open plan and individual rooms is provided by the cubicle desk, possibly made most famous by the Dilbert cartoon series, which solves visual privacy to some extent, but often fails on acoustic separation and security. Most cubicles also require the occupant to sit with their back towards anyone who might be approaching; workers in walled offices almost always try to position their normal work seats and desks so that they can see someone entering, and in some instances, install tiny mirrors on things such as computer monitors.

Office buildings

Salinas Office
A small office building in Salinas, California, United States
View to One World Trade Center
The One World Trade Center in Manhattan is a high-rise office building, the tallest of its kind in the U.S.

While offices can be built in almost any location and in almost any building, some modern requirements for offices make this more difficult. These requirements can be both legal (e.g. light levels must be sufficient) or technical (e.g. requirements for computer networking). Alongside, other requirements such as security and flexibility of layout, has led to the creation of special buildings which are dedicated only or primarily for use as offices. An office building, also known as an office block or business center is a form of commercial building which contains spaces mainly designed to be used for offices.

The primary purpose of an office building is to provide a workplace and working environment primarily for administrative and managerial workers. These workers usually occupy set areas within the office building, and usually are provided with desks, PCs and other equipment they may need within these areas.

An office building will be divided into sections for different companies or may be dedicated to one company. In either case, each company will typically have a reception area, one or several meeting rooms, singular or open-plan offices, as well as toilets.

Many office buildings also have kitchen facilities and a staff room, where workers can have lunch or take a short break. Many office spaces are now also serviced office spaces, which means that those occupying a space or building can share facilities.

Office and retail rental rates

Rental rates for office and retail space are typically quoted in terms of money per floor-area–time, usually money per floor-area per year or month. For example, the rate for a particular property may be $29 per square-foot per year ($29/s.f/yr) - $290 per square-meter–year ($290/m2/a), and rates in the area could range $20–$50/s.f./yr ($200–$500/m2·a).

In many countries, rent is typically paid monthly even if usually discussed in terms of years.

Examples:

  • A particular 2,000 s.f. space is priced at $15/s.f./yr = (2,000 s.f.) × ($15/s.f./a) / (12 mo/yr) = $2500/month
  • A 200 m2 space priced at $150/m2·a = (200 m2) × ($150/m2·a) / (12 mo/a) = $2500/month

In a gross lease, the rate quoted is an all-inclusive rate. One pays a set amount of rent per time and the landlord is responsible for all other expenses such as costs of utilities, taxes, insurance, maintenance, and repairs.

The triple net lease is one in which the tenant is liable for a share of various expenses such as property taxes, insurance, maintenance, utilities, climate control, repairs, janitorial services and landscaping.

Office rents in the United States are still recovering from the high vacancy rates that occurred in the wake of the 2008 depression.[11]

Grading

The Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) classifies office space into three categories: Class A, Class B, and Class C.[12] According to BOMA, Class A office buildings have the "most prestigious buildings competing for premier office users with rents above average for the area". BOMA states that Class A facilities have "high quality standard finishes, state of the art systems, exceptional accessibility and a definite market presence". BOMA describes Class B office buildings as those that compete "for a wide range of users with rents in the average range for the area". BOMA states that Class B buildings have "adequate systems" and finishes that "are fair to good for the area", but that the buildings do not compete with Class A buildings for the same prices. According to BOMA Class C buildings are aimed towards "tenants requiring functional space at rents below the average for the area".[13] The lack of specifics allows considerable room for "fudging" the boundaries of the categories. Oftentimes, the above categories are further modified by adding the plus or minus sign to create subclasses, such as Class A+ or Class B-.[14]

In order to differentiate between modern A class buildings and aging A class buildings, the notion of triple A class, and double A class is used. A triple A class building that is 20 years old may be referred to as double A building or simply an A Class building, typically dependent on the number of new A class buildings that have been built since it was constructed.

See also

Physical

Soft issues

References

  1. ^ Moran, Joe (2010) [2007]. "3: A lifetime behind a desk". Queuing for Beginners: The Story of Daily Life From Breakfast to Bedtime. London: Profile Books. p. 36. ISBN 9781847650658. Retrieved 2018-09-08. [...] the Modern Efficiency Desk, first made in 1915 by Steelcase Inc. for the New York offices of Equitable Assurance. This desk, which was a simple, rectangular table with small drawers, replaced the cabinet-like desks, with their high backs made up of little drawers and cubby holes, which dominated office life before the First World War. At their new efficiency desks, office workers could be watched, monitored and subjected to time-and-motion studies.
  2. ^ a b c d e Long, Kim (2004). User Effective Buildings. Denver: Aardex Corporation. pp. 14–16. ISBN 0975552406.
  3. ^ Hamilton, C.I (2011). The Making of the Modern Admiralty:British Naval Policy-Making, 1805-1927. Cambridge University Press. p. 15. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17.
  4. ^ "How the office was invented". BBC. Archived from the original on 2013-07-22. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
  5. ^ "Liverpool Firsts". Archived from the original on 2013-12-20. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
  6. ^ "Psychology of the Office Space". University of Southern California Master of Science in Applied Psychology. Archived from the original on 27 January 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
  7. ^ Noro, Kageyu; Fujimaki, Goroh; Kishi, Shinsuke (2003). "Evidence-based ergonomics: a comparison of Japanese and American office layouts". International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics. Taylor and Francis. 9 (4): 527&ndash, 538. doi:10.1080/10803548.2003.11076588. PMID 14675524.
  8. ^ Durlabhji, Subhash; Marks, Norton E.; Roach, Scott (1993). Japanese business: cultural perspectives. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 237&ndash, 238. ISBN 9780791412527.
  9. ^ Ghillyer, Andrew (2012). Management Now: Skills for 21st Century Management. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. p. 154. ISBN 9780071315265.
  10. ^ Lewis, Richard D. (2015). When cultures collide: leading across cultures (3rd ed.). Bostion: Nicholas Brealey. p. 511. ISBN 9781904838029.
  11. ^ "This Recovery Explained" (PDF). The Steven L. Newman Real Estate Institute. Spring 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-05-17.
  12. ^ Kennedy Smith (30 June 2006). "Categorization of office space is flexible". St. Louis Daily Record & St. Louis Countian. Retrieved 9 September 2010.
  13. ^ "Building Class Definitions". Archived from the original on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  14. ^ "CLASS A+ OFFICE SPACE" (PDF). cbre.us. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 21 September 2016.

Further reading

External links

Akshay Kumar

Rajiv Hari Om Bhatia (born 9 September 1967), known professionally as Akshay Kumar, is a Canadian actor of Indian origin, producer, television personality, martial artist, stuntman and philanthropist who works in Bollywood films. In a career spanning over twenty five years, Kumar has appeared in over a hundred films and has won several awards, including the National Film Award for Best Actor for his performance in Rustom (2017), and two Filmfare Awards for Ajnabee (2001) and Garam Masala (2005).

Kumar is one of the most prolific actors of Indian cinema, having starred in 108 films, including 28 commercially successful films. He was the first Bollywood actor whose films' domestic net lifetime collections crossed ₹2,000 crore (US$280 million) by 2013, and ₹3,000 crore (US$420 million) by 2016. Having done so, he has established himself as one of the prominent actors of Hindi cinema. When he began his acting career in the 1990s, he primarily starred in action films. Later, Kumar also gained fame for his drama, romantic and comic roles.

Apart from acting, Kumar has worked as a stunt actor; he has often performed many dangerous stunts in his films, which has earned him the sobriquet "Indian Jackie Chan". In 2008, he hosted the show Fear Factor – Khatron Ke Khiladi. In 2009, he founded the Hari Om Entertainment production company and Grazing Goat Pictures production company in 2012. In 2014, Kumar launched the TV reality show Dare 2 Dance. He also owns the team Khalsa Warriors in the World Kabaddi League. As of August 2018, he is the seventh-highest-paid actor in the world, according to Forbes.In 2008, the University of Windsor conferred an Honorary Doctorate on Kumar in recognition of his contribution to Indian cinema. In 2009, he was awarded the Padma Shri by the Government of India. In 2011, The Asian Awards honored Kumar for his outstanding achievement in cinema.

Chief executive officer

The chief executive officer (CEO), or just chief executive (CE), is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and even some government organizations (e.g., Crown corporations). The CEO of a corporation or company typically reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues, or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs typically aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc.

In the early 21st century, top executives typically had technical degrees in science, engineering, or law.

Incumbent

The incumbent is the current holder of an office. This term is usually used in reference to elections, in which races can often be defined as being between an incumbent and non-incumbent(s). For example, in the Hungarian presidential election, 2017, János Áder was the incumbent, because he had been the president in the term before the term for which the election sought to determine the president. A race without an incumbent is referred to as an open seat.

Jennifer Aniston

Jennifer Joanna Aniston (born February 11, 1969) is an American actress, film producer, and businesswoman. The daughter of actors John Aniston and Nancy Dow, she began working as an actress at an early age with an uncredited role in the 1987 film Mac and Me. After her career grew successfully in the 1990s, Aniston has remained a well-known public figure and established herself as one of the leading and highest-paid actresses in Hollywood as of 2018.

Aniston rose to fame portraying Rachel Green on the television sitcom Friends (1994–2004), for which she earned Primetime Emmy, Golden Globe, and Screen Actors Guild awards. The character was widely popular while the series aired and was later recognized as one of the greatest female characters in American television. Aniston has since played lead roles in numerous comedies and romantic comedies. Her box office hits include Bruce Almighty (2003), The Break-Up (2006), Marley & Me (2008), Just Go with It (2011), Horrible Bosses (2011), and We're the Millers (2013), each of which grossed over $200 million in worldwide box office receipts. Her most critically acclaimed roles include the dramedy The Good Girl (2002), for which she was nominated for an Independent Spirit Award, and the drama Cake (2014), for which she received nominations for the Golden Globe, Critics' Choice and Screen Actors Guild awards.

Aniston co-founded production company Echo Films in 2008. Divorced from actor Brad Pitt, to whom she was married for five years, she is separated from actor Justin Theroux, whom she married in 2015.

John Krasinski

John Burke Krasinski (; born October 20, 1979) is an American actor, screenwriter, film producer, and director. He is the recipient of a number of accolades, including four Primetime Emmy Award nominations and two Screen Actors Guild Awards. Time named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2018.Educated in theatre arts at Brown University and the National Theater Institute, Krasinski played minor roles in movies and off-Broadway plays before he was cast in 2005 as Jim Halpert on the NBC sitcom The Office, a role for which he received critical acclaim. He also served as a producer and occasional director of the series throughout its nine-season run.

His film credits include

License to Wed (2007), Leatherheads (2008), Away We Go (2009), It's Complicated (2009), Something Borrowed (2011), Big Miracle (2012), Promised Land (2012), Aloha (2015), and 13 Hours: The Secret Soldiers of Benghazi (2016). Krasinski directed and starred in the drama Brief Interviews with Hideous Men (2009) and the comedy-drama film The Hollars (2016). In 2018, Krasinski co-wrote, directed, and starred in the critically acclaimed horror film A Quiet Place. That year, he began portraying the title character in the Amazon thriller series Jack Ryan, which he also produces. Krasinski was nominated for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Drama Series at the Screen Actors Guild Awards for his portrayal of Jack Ryan.

In addition to acting in television series and films, Krasinski has performed voice-over work in both animated and documentary films such as Monsters University and a small role in Shrek the Third. He established a production company, Sunday Night Productions, in 2013. Krasinski is married to English actress Emily Blunt, and they have two daughters together.

Julia Roberts

Julia Fiona Roberts (born October 28, 1967) is an American actress and producer. She became a Hollywood star after headlining the romantic comedy Pretty Woman (1990), which grossed $464 million worldwide. She has won three Golden Globe Awards, from eight nominations, and has been nominated for four Academy Awards for her film acting, winning the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance in Erin Brockovich (2000).

Her films have collectively brought box office receipts of over US$2.8 billion, making her one of the most successful actresses in terms of box office receipts. Her most successful films include Mystic Pizza (1988), Steel Magnolias (1989), Pretty Woman (1990), Sleeping with the Enemy (1991), The Pelican Brief (1993), My Best Friend's Wedding (1997), Notting Hill (1999), Runaway Bride (1999), Ocean's Eleven (2001), Ocean's Twelve (2004), Charlie Wilson's War (2007), Valentine's Day (2010), Eat Pray Love (2010), Money Monster (2016), and Wonder (2017). Roberts was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Limited Series or Movie for her performance in the HBO television film The Normal Heart (2014). In 2018, she starred in the Amazon psychological thriller series Homecoming.

Roberts was the highest-paid actress in the world throughout most of the 1990s and in the first half of the 2000s. Her fee for 1990's Pretty Woman was US$300,000; in 2003, she was paid an unprecedented $25 million for her role in Mona Lisa Smile (2003). As of 2017, Roberts's net worth was estimated to be $170 million. She has been named the world's most beautiful woman by People a record five times.

List of Presidents of the United States

The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States, indirectly elected to a four-year term by the people through the Electoral College. The officeholder leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

Since the office was established in 1789, 44 men have served as president. The first, George Washington, won a unanimous vote of the Electoral College. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms in office and is therefore counted as the 22nd and 24th President of the United States; the 45th and current president is Donald Trump (since January 20, 2017). There are currently four living former presidents. The most recent former president to die was George H. W. Bush on November 30, 2018.

The presidency of William Henry Harrison, who died 31 days after taking office in 1841, was the shortest in American history. Franklin D. Roosevelt served the longest, over twelve years, before dying early in his fourth term in 1945. He is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms. Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected president more than twice and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once.Of those who have served as the nation's president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, Warren G. Harding, and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley and John F. Kennedy), and one resigned (Richard Nixon facing impeachment). John Tyler was the first vice president to assume the presidency during a presidential term, and set the precedent that a vice president who does so becomes the fully functioning president with his own presidency, as opposed to a caretaker president. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution put Tyler's precedent into law in 1967. It also established a mechanism by which an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency could be filled. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill a vacancy under this provision when he selected Gerald Ford for the office following Spiro Agnew's resignation in 1973. The following year, Ford became the second to do so when he chose Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him after he acceded to the presidency. As no mechanism existed for filling an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency prior to 1967, the office was left vacant until filled through the next ensuing presidential election.

Throughout most of its history, American politics has been dominated by political parties. The Constitution is silent on the issue of political parties, and at the time it came into force in 1789, there were no parties. Soon after the 1st Congress convened, factions began rallying around dominant Washington Administration officials, such as Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. Greatly concerned about the capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency. He was, and remains, the only U.S. president never affiliated with a political party. Since Washington, every president has been affiliated with a political party at the time they assumed office.

List of highest-grossing Indian films

This is a ranking of the highest grossing Indian films which includes films from various languages based on the conservative global box office estimates as reported by reputable sources. There is no official tracking of domestic box office figures within India, and Indian sites publishing data are frequently pressured to increase their domestic box office estimates.Indian films have been screened in markets around the world since the early 20th century. As of 2003, there are markets in over 90 countries where films from India are screened. During the first decade of the 21st century, there was a steady rise in the ticket price, a tripling in the number of theaters and an increase in the number of prints of a film being released, which led to a large increase in the box office collections.The majority of highest-grossing Indian films are Bollywood (Hindi) films. As of 2014, Bollywood represents 43% of the net box office revenue in India, while Tamil and Telugu cinema represent 36%, and other regional industries constitute 21%. See List of highest-grossing films in India for domestic gross figures and List of highest-grossing Indian films in overseas markets for overseas gross figures.

List of highest-grossing films

Films generate income from several revenue streams, including theatrical exhibition, home video, television broadcast rights and merchandising. However, theatrical box office earnings are the primary metric for trade publications in assessing the success of a film, mostly because of the availability of the data compared to sales figures for home video and broadcast rights, but also because of historical practice. Included on the list are charts of the top box office earners (ranked by both the nominal and real value of their revenue), a chart of high-grossing films by calendar year, a timeline showing the transition of the highest-grossing film record, and a chart of the highest-grossing film franchises and series. All charts are ranked by international theatrical box office performance where possible, excluding income derived from home video, broadcasting rights and merchandise.

Traditionally, war films, musicals and historical dramas have been the most popular genres, but franchise films have been among the best performers in the 21st century. Five Harry Potter films and five films from Peter Jackson's Middle-earth series are included in the nominal earnings chart, while the Star Wars, Jurassic Park and Pirates of the Caribbean franchises feature prominently. There is also strong interest in the superhero genre, with six films in the Marvel Cinematic Universe featuring among the nominal top-earners. Marvel Comics has also had success with its Spider-Man and X-Men properties, while films based on Batman and Superman from DC Comics have generally performed well. Although the nominal earnings chart is dominated by films adapted from pre-existing properties and sequels, it is headed by Avatar and Titanic (both directed by James Cameron), which are original works. Animated family films have performed consistently well, with Disney films enjoying lucrative re-releases prior to the home-video era. Disney also enjoyed later success with films such as Frozen (the highest-grossing animated film), Zootopia and The Lion King, as well as with its Pixar brand, of which Incredibles 2, Toy Story 3, and the Finding Nemo films have been the best performers. Beyond Disney and Pixar animation, the Despicable Me, Shrek and Ice Age series have met with the most success.

While inflation has eroded away the achievements of most films from the 1960s and 1970s, there are franchises originating from that period that are still active. Besides the Star Wars and Superman franchises, James Bond and Star Trek films are still being released periodically; all four are among the highest-grossing franchises. Some of the older films that held the record of highest-grossing film still have respectable grosses by today's standards, but no longer compete numerically against today's top-earners in an era of much higher individual ticket prices. When properly adjusted for inflation, however, on that comparative scale Gone with the Wind—which was the highest-grossing film outright for twenty-five years—is still the highest-grossing film of all time. All grosses on the list are expressed in U.S. dollars at their nominal value, except where stated otherwise.

Microsoft Excel

Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet developed by Microsoft for Windows, macOS, Android and iOS. It features calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables, and a macro programming language called Visual Basic for Applications. It has been a very widely applied spreadsheet for these platforms, especially since version 5 in 1993, and it has replaced Lotus 1-2-3 as the industry standard for spreadsheets. Excel forms part of Microsoft Office.

Microsoft Office

Microsoft Office is a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft. It was first announced by Bill Gates on August 1, 1988, at COMDEX in Las Vegas. Initially a marketing term for an office suite (bundled set of productivity applications), the first version of Office contained Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint. Over the years, Office applications have grown substantially closer with shared features such as a common spell checker, OLE data integration and Visual Basic for Applications scripting language. Microsoft also positions Office as a development platform for line-of-business software under the Office Business Applications brand. On July 10, 2012, Softpedia reported that Office is used by over a billion people worldwide.Office is produced in several versions targeted towards different end-users and computing environments. The original, and most widely used version, is the desktop version, available for PCs running the Windows and macOS operating systems. The current desktop version is Office 2019 for Windows and macOS, released on September 24, 2018.More recently, Microsoft developed Office Mobile, which are free-to-use versions of Office applications for mobile devices. Microsoft also produces and runs Office Online, a web-based version of core Office apps, which is included as part of a Microsoft account.

Microsoft Word

Microsoft Word (or simply Word) is a word processor developed by Microsoft. It was first released on October 25, 1983 under the name Multi-Tool Word for Xenix systems. Subsequent versions were later written for several other platforms including IBM PCs running DOS (1983), Apple Macintosh running the Classic Mac OS (1985), AT&T Unix PC (1985), Atari ST (1988), OS/2 (1989), Microsoft Windows (1989), SCO Unix (1994), and macOS (formerly OS X; 2001).

Commercial versions of Word are licensed as a standalone product or as a component of Microsoft Office, Windows RT or the discontinued Microsoft Works suite. Microsoft Word Viewer and Office Online are freeware editions of Word with limited features.

Salman Khan

Abdul Rashid Salim Salman Khan born 27 December 1965, is an Indian film actor, producer, occasional playback singer and television personality. In a film career spanning almost thirty years, Khan has received numerous awards, including two National Film Awards as a film producer, and two Filmfare Awards for acting. He has a significant following in Asia and the Indian diaspora worldwide, and is cited in the media as one of the most commercially successful actors of both world and Indian cinema. According to the Forbes 2018 list of Top-Paid 100 Celebrity Entertainers in world, Khan was the highest ranked Indian with 82nd rank with earnings of $37.7 million.The eldest son of screenwriter Salim Khan, Khan began his acting career with a supporting role in Biwi Ho To Aisi (1988) and achieved breakthrough with a leading role in Maine Pyar Kiya (1989). Khan went on to establish himself in Bollywood in the 1990s with roles in several top-grossing productions, including the romantic drama Hum Aapke Hain Koun..! (1994), the action thriller Karan Arjun (1995), the comedy Biwi No.1 (1999), and the family drama Hum Saath-Saath Hain (1999). After a brief period of decline in the 2000s, Khan achieved greater stardom in the 2010s by playing the lead role in successful films Dabangg (2010), Ready (2011), Ek Tha Tiger (2012), Kick (2014), Sultan (2016) and Tiger Zinda Hai (2017), all of which rank among the highest-grossing Indian films of all time. He's the only actor to star in the highest-grossing Bollywood films of ten separate years. According to the Forbes 2015 list of Top-Paid 100 Celebrity Entertainers in world, Khan was the highest ranked Indian with 71st rank with earnings of $33.5 million.In addition to his acting career, Khan is a stage performer and a philanthropist through his charity, Being Human Foundation. Khan's off-screen life is marred by controversy and legal troubles. In 2015 he was convicted of culpable homicide for a negligent driving case in which he ran over five people with his car, killing one, but his conviction was set aside on appeal. On 5 April 2018, Khan was convicted in a blackbuck poaching case and sentenced to five years imprisonment. He is currently out on bail while an appeal is being heard.

Steve Carell

Steven John Carell (; born August 16, 1962) is an American actor, comedian, writer and director. He is best known for his portrayal of gaffe-prone boss Michael Scott on the American version of The Office (2005–2013), on which he also worked as an occasional producer, writer and director.

Carell was a correspondent on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart from 1999 to 2005. He has starred in Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy (2004), The 40-Year-Old Virgin (2005), Evan Almighty (2007), Get Smart (2008), Crazy, Stupid, Love (2011), The Incredible Burt Wonderstone and The Way, Way Back (both 2013). He has also voice acted in Over the Hedge (2006), Horton Hears a Who! (2008) and the Despicable Me franchise (2010–2017). In 2016, Carell co-created the TBS comedy series Angie Tribeca with his wife, Nancy Carell.

Carell was nominated as "America's funniest man" in Life magazine, and received the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Television Series Musical or Comedy for his work on the first season of The Office. His role as wrestling coach and convicted murderer John Eleuthère du Pont in the drama film Foxcatcher (2014) earned him, among various honors, nominations for the Academy Award for Best Actor, the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama and the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role. He also received acclaim for his roles in Little Miss Sunshine (2006), The Big Short (2015), and Battle of the Sexes (2017), the latter two earning him his eighth and ninth Golden Globe Award nominations, respectively.

The Office (U.S. TV series)

The Office is an American television sitcom that aired on NBC from March 24, 2005, to May 16, 2013, lasting nine seasons. It is an adaptation of the original BBC series of the same name and was adapted for American television by Greg Daniels, a veteran writer for Saturday Night Live, King of the Hill, and The Simpsons. It was co-produced by Daniels' Deedle-Dee Productions, and Reveille Productions (later Shine America), in association with Universal Television. The original executive producers were Greg Daniels, Howard Klein, Ben Silverman, Ricky Gervais, and Stephen Merchant, with numerous others being promoted in later seasons.

The series depicts the everyday lives of office employees in the Scranton, Pennsylvania branch of the fictional Dunder Mifflin Paper Company. To simulate the look of an actual documentary, it was filmed in a single-camera setup, without a studio audience or a laugh track. The series debuted on NBC as a midseason replacement and aired 201 episodes over the course of its run. The Office initially featured Steve Carell, Rainn Wilson, John Krasinski, Jenna Fischer, and B. J. Novak as the main cast; the series experienced numerous changes to its ensemble cast during its run. Notable stars outside the original main cast include Ed Helms, Mindy Kaling, and Ellie Kemper.

The Office was met with varied reviews during its first season, but the following four seasons received widespread acclaim from television critics. These seasons were included on several critics' year-end top TV series lists, winning several awards such as a Peabody Award in 2006, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, a Golden Globe Award for Carell's performance, and four Primetime Emmy Awards, including one for Outstanding Comedy Series in 2006. Later seasons were criticized for a decline in quality, with many seeing Carell's departure in season seven as a contributing factor. However, earlier writers oversaw the final season and ended the series' run with a positive reception. The series finale was viewed by an estimated 5.69 million viewers, preceded by an hour-long series retrospective.

UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter.

It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.

UNESCO has 193 member states and 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; national and regional offices also exist.

UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences, culture and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy, technical, and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press, regional and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage (World Heritage Sites) and to preserve human rights, and attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide. It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group.UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication.The broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)—underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities.

United States Postal Service

The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states. It is one of the few government agencies explicitly authorized by the United States Constitution.

The U.S. Mail traces its roots to 1775 during the Second Continental Congress, when Benjamin Franklin was appointed the first postmaster general. The Post Office Department was created in 1792 from Franklin's operation, elevated to a cabinet-level department in 1872, and transformed in 1971 into the U.S. Postal Service as an independent agency.

The USPS as of 2017 has 644,124 active employeees and operated 211,264 vehicles in 2014. The USPS is the operator of the largest civilian vehicle fleet in the world. The USPS is legally obligated to serve all Americans, regardless of geography, at uniform price and quality. The USPS has exclusive access to letter boxes marked "U.S. Mail" and personal letterboxes in the United States, but now has to compete against private package delivery services, such as United Parcel Service and FedEx.Since the early 1980s, many of the direct tax subsidies to the Post Office, with the exception of subsidies for costs associated with the disabled and overseas voters, have been reduced or eliminated in favor of indirect subsidies, in addition to the advantages associated with a government-enforced monopoly on the delivery of first-class mail. Since the 2006 all-time peak mail volume, after which Congress passed the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act which mandated that $5.5 billion per year be paid to fully prefund employee retirement health benefits, revenue dropped sharply due to recession-influenced declining mail volume, prompting the postal service to look to other sources of revenue while cutting costs to reduce its budget deficit.

Vice President of the United States

The Vice President of the United States (informally referred to as VPOTUS, VP, or Veep) is the second-highest officer in the executive branch of the U.S. federal government, after the President of the United States, and ranks first in the presidential line of succession. The vice president is also an officer in the legislative branch, as President of the Senate. In this capacity, the vice president presides over Senate deliberations (or delegates this task to a member of the Senate), but may only vote to break a tie. The vice president also presides over joint sessions of Congress.The vice president is indirectly elected together with the president to a four-year term of office by the people of the United States through the Electoral College. Section 2 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, ratified in 1967, created a mechanism for intra-term vice presidential succession, establishing that vice presidential vacancies will be filled by the president and confirmed by both houses of Congress. Previously, whenever a vice president had succeeded to the presidency or had died or resigned from office, the vice presidency remained vacant until the next presidential and vice presidential terms began.The vice president is also a statutory member of the National Security Council, and the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. The Office of the Vice President assists and organizes the vice president's official functions. The role of the vice presidency has changed dramatically since the office was created during the 1787 constitutional Convention. Especially over the past 100 years, the vice presidency has evolved into a position of domestic and foreign policy political power, and is now widely seen as an integral part of a president's administration. As the vice president's role within the executive branch has expanded, his role within the legislative branch has contracted; for example, he presides over the Senate only infrequently.The Constitution does not expressly assign the vice presidency to any one branch, causing a dispute among scholars about which branch of government the office belongs to: 1) the executive branch; 2) the legislative branch; 3) both; or 4) neither. The modern view of the vice president as an officer of the executive branch (isolated almost totally from the legislative branch) is due in large part to the assignment of executive authority to the vice president by either the president or Congress.Mike Pence of Indiana is the 48th and current vice president. He assumed office on January 20, 2017.

Will Smith

Willard Carroll Smith Jr. (born September 25, 1968) is an American actor and rapper. In April 2007, Newsweek called him "the most powerful actor in Hollywood". Smith has been nominated for five Golden Globe Awards and two Academy Awards, and has won four Grammy Awards.

In the late 1980s, Smith achieved modest fame as a rapper under the name The Fresh Prince. In 1990, his popularity increased dramatically when he starred in the NBC television series The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, which ran for six seasons until 1996. After the series ended, Smith transitioned from television to film and went on to star in numerous blockbuster films. He is the only actor to have eight consecutive films gross over $100 million in the domestic box office, eleven consecutive films gross over $150 million internationally, and eight consecutive films in which he starred open at the number one spot in the domestic box office tally.Smith has been ranked as the most bankable star worldwide by Forbes. As of 2014, 17 of the 21 films in which he has had leading roles have accumulated worldwide gross earnings of over $100 million each, with five taking in over $500 million each in global box office receipts. As of 2016, his films have grossed $7.5 billion at the global box office.

For his performances as boxer Muhammad Ali in Ali (2001) and stockbroker Chris Gardner in The Pursuit of Happyness (2006), Smith received nominations for the Academy Award for Best Actor.

ZIP Code

A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service (USPS) in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; it was chosen to suggest that the mail travels more efficiently and quickly (zipping along) when senders use the code in the postal address. The basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location.

The term ZIP Code was originally registered as a servicemark by the U.S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.