Oenoanda or Oinoanda (Greek: τὰ Οἰνόανδα) was an ancient Greek city in Lycia, in the upper valley of the River Xanthus. It is noted for the philosophical inscription by the Epicurean, Diogenes of Oenoanda. The ruins of the city lie west of the modern village İncealiler in the Fethiye district of Muğla Province, Turkey, which partly overlies the ancient site.

Οινόανδα ‹See Tfd›(in Greek)
Oinoanda 3
The Greco-Roman theatre in Oenoanda
Oenoanda is located in Turkey
Shown within Turkey
Alternative nameOinoanda
Locationİncealiler, Muğla Province, Turkey
Coordinates36°48′33″N 29°32′59″E / 36.80917°N 29.54972°ECoordinates: 36°48′33″N 29°32′59″E / 36.80917°N 29.54972°E
Associated withDiogenes


The early history of the settlement is obscure, in spite of an exploratory survey carried out, with permission of the Turkish authorities, by the British Institute at Ankara (BIAA) in 1974–76.[1] It seems that Oinoanda became a colony of Termessos about 200-190 BC and was also called Termessos Minor [2](or Termessos i pros Oinoanda). Oenoanda was the most southerly of the Kibyran Tetrapoleis in the Hellenistic Period, which was dissolved by L. Licinius Murena in 84 BCE, whereupon Oenoanda became part of the koinon of Lycia,[3] as its inscriptions abundantly demonstrate.

Diogenes carved a summary of the philosophy of Epicurus onto a portico wall, which originally extended about 80 meters. The inscription sets out Epicurus' teachings on physics, epistemology, and ethics. It was originally about 25,000 words long and filled 260 square meters of wall space. The inscription has been assigned on epigraphic grounds to the Hadrianic period, 117–138 CE.[4] The stoa was dismantled in the second half of the third century CE to make room for a defensive wall; previously the site had been undefended.[5]

The site was first noted by Hoskyns and Forbes, in 1841, and published in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, xii (1843). The extensive philosophical inscriptions of Diogenes of Oenoanda were identified later from scattered fragments, apparently from the stoa. It cannot be assumed that Diogenes erected himself.[6] Evidence for an ancient Roman Bridge at Oinoanda has surfaced in the 1990s.[7] By 2012 over 300 fragments of Diogenes' stoa had been identified, varying in size from a few letters to passages of several sentences covering more than one block.[8] New archaeological work is being conducted at the site by the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut.[9]

Oenoanda is a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.[10]


  1. ^ Alan Hall, "The Oenoanda Survey: 1974-76", Anatolian Studies 26 (1976:191-197).
  2. ^ Rousset D., De Lycie en Cabalide, fouilles de Xanthos X, Droz, Genève 2010
  3. ^ Strabo, xiii.4.17.
  4. ^ Smith 1996, pp. 43–8
  5. ^ Hall 1976:196.
  6. ^ C.W. Chilton, Diogenes of Oenoanda: The Fragments (1971); Hall 1976:196 note 23.
  7. ^ N. P. Milner: "A Roman Bridge at Oinoanda", Anatolian Studies, 48 (1998), pp.117–123
  8. ^ "The Oinoanda campaign of 2012 Archived 2013-07-01 at the Wayback Machine", German Archaeological Institute (DAI) website (accessed 27 June 2014)
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-02-21. Retrieved 2009-06-29.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ Catholic Hierarchy

External links

Balbura (Lycia)

Balbura or Balboura (Ancient Greek: Βάλβουρα) was a town of ancient Lycia, the site of which is at Çölkayiği. The acropolis hill is about 90 metres above the plain of Katara, and the plain is 1,500 feet (460 m) above the level of the sea. The ruins occupy a considerable space on both sides of the stream. There are two theatres at Balbura; one is on the south side of the acropolis hill, and the other is in a hollow in the front of the mountain on the south side of the stream: the hollow in the mountain formed the cavea. There are also remains of several temples at Katara; and of Christian churches. The ethnic name Βαλβουρεύς occurs on two inscriptions at least at Katara. The site was discovered by Hoskyn and Forbes. Balbura was part of a district called Cabalia, named Cabalis by Strabo with two other cities, Bubon and Oenoanda.

Balbura minted coins during the Hellenistic Age and during the reign of Caligula.

Bridge at Oinoanda

The Bridge at Oinoanda (or Oenoanda), or Bridge of Kemerarası, is an Ottoman arch bridge over the Xanthos river close to the Lycian site of Oinoanda in modern-day Turkey. It stands on or near the spot of a Roman bridge, whose existence became known in the 1990s through the find of an ancient bridge inscription.

Bubon (Lycia)

Bubon or Boubon (Ancient Greek: Βούβων) was a city of ancient Lycia noted by Stephanus of Byzantium; the ethnic name, he adds, ought to be Βουβώνιος, but it is Βουβωνεύς, for the Lycians rejoice in this form. The truth of this observation of Stephanus is proved by the inscription found on the spot: Βουβωνέων ἡ Βουλὴ καὶ ὁ Δῆμος. Bubon is placed in the map in Spratt's Lycia, near 37° N. lat. west of Balbura, near a place named Ibecik, which location is confirmed by modern scholars. Bubon is mentioned by Pliny, Ptolemy, and Hierocles. Pliny mentions a kind of chalk (creta) that was found about Bubon. The city stood on a hill side. The ruins are not striking. There is a small theatre built of sandstone, and on the summit of the hill was the acropolis. Bubon is in a mountainous tract and it commands the entrance to the pass over the mountains. Bubon, along with Balbura and Oenoanda formed the district Cabalia.


Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.


Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Diogenes of Oenoanda

Diogenes of Oenoanda (Greek: Διογένης ὁ Οἰνοανδεύς) was an Epicurean Greek from the 2nd century AD who carved a summary of the philosophy of Epicurus onto a portico wall in the ancient Greek city of Oenoanda in Lycia (modern day southwest Turkey). The surviving fragments of the wall, originally extended about 80 meters, form an important source of Epicurean philosophy. The inscription, written in Greek, sets out Epicurus' teachings on physics, epistemology, and ethics. It was originally about 25,000 words long and filled 260 square meters of wall space. Less than a third of it has been recovered.


Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. His materialism led him to a general attack on superstition and divine intervention. Following Aristippus—about whom very little is known—Epicurus believed that what he called "pleasure" (ἡδονή) was the greatest good, but that the way to attain such pleasure was to live modestly, to gain knowledge of the workings of the world, and to limit one's desires. This would lead one to attain a state of tranquility (ataraxia) and freedom from fear as well as an absence of bodily pain (aponia). The combination of these two states constitutes happiness in its highest form. Although Epicureanism is a form of hedonism insofar as it declares pleasure to be its sole intrinsic goal, the concept that the absence of pain and fear constitutes the greatest pleasure, and its advocacy of a simple life, make it very different from "hedonism" as colloquially understood.

Epicureanism was originally a challenge to Platonism, though later it became the main opponent of Stoicism. Epicurus and his followers shunned politics. Epicureans shunned politics because it could lead to frustrations and ambitions which can directly conflict with the epicurean pursuit for peace of mind and virtues. After the death of Epicurus, his school was headed by Hermarchus; later many Epicurean societies flourished in the Late Hellenistic era and during the Roman era (such as those in Antiochia, Alexandria, Rhodes, and Ercolano). Its best-known Roman proponent was the poet Lucretius. By the end of the Roman Empire, being opposed by philosophies (mainly Neo-Platonism) that were now in the ascendant, Epicureanism had all but died out, but would be resurrected in the Age of Enlightenment.

Some writings by Epicurus have survived. Some scholars consider the epic poem On the Nature of Things by Lucretius to present in one unified work the core arguments and theories of Epicureanism. Many of the scrolls unearthed at the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum are Epicurean texts. At least some are thought to have belonged to the Epicurean Philodemus.

Interpretation of Dreams (Antiphon)

The Interpretation of Dreams or Dream-book, written by a certain Antiphon of Athens, is an influential ancient treatise on dreams, of which only a few fragments survive.

It is not certain whether the Antiphon who wrote the treatise was the same figure as the Antiphon who wrote the Sophistic works of Antiphon, who is sometimes identified with Antiphon the Orator. The recent scholarly edition of Pendrick, however, sees it as probable that this treatise was written by the same author as the Sophistic works, as does the edition of Laks and Most. Some earlier scholars, though, including E. R. Dodds, take the view that Antiphon the dream-interpreter was a separate person.The treatise is notable, in the words of Pendrick, because it "was apparently the first literary work written on the subject of dream-interpretation—or at least the first to have achieved wide circulation". Cicero refers to it, as do Diogenes of Oenoanda and Artemidorus.


Kibyra or Cibyra (Greek: Κιβύρα), also referred to as Cibyra Magna, is an ancient city and an archaeological site in south-west Turkey, near the modern town of Gölhisar, in Burdur Province. It was the chief city of a district Cibyratis.


In Greek mythology, Leto (; Greek: Λητώ Lētṓ; Λατώ, Lātṓ in Doric Greek) is a daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe, the sister of Asteria.The island of Kos is claimed as her birthplace. In the Olympian scheme, Zeus is the father of her twins, Apollo and Artemis, which Leto conceived after her hidden beauty accidentally caught the eyes of Zeus. Classical Greek myths record little about Leto other than her pregnancy and her search for a place where she could give birth to Apollo and Artemis, since Hera in her jealousy caused all lands to shun her. Finally, she found an island that was not attached to the ocean floor so it was not considered land and she could give birth. This is her only active mythic role: once Apollo and Artemis are grown, Leto withdraws, to remain a dim and benevolent matronly figure upon Olympus, her part already played. In Roman mythology, Leto's Roman equivalent is Latona, a Latinization of her name, influenced by Etruscan Letun.In Crete, at the city of Dreros, Spyridon Marinatos uncovered an eighth-century post-Minoan hearth house temple in which there were found three unique figures of Apollo, Artemis and Leto made of brass sheeting hammered over a shaped core (sphyrelata). Walter Burkert notes that in Phaistos she appears in connection with an initiation cult.

Leto was identified from the fourth century onwards with the principal local mother goddess of Anatolian Lycia, as the region became Hellenized. In Greek inscriptions, the children of Leto are referred to as the "national gods" of the country. Her sanctuary, the Letoon near Xanthos predated Hellenic influence in the region, however, and united the Lycian confederacy of city-states. The Hellenes of Kos also claimed Leto as their own. Another sanctuary, more recently identified, was at Oenoanda in the north of Lycia. There was a further Letoon at Delos.

Leto's primal nature may be deduced from the natures of her father and mother, who may have been Titans of the sun and moon. Her Titan father is called "Coeus", and though H. J. Rose considers his name and nature uncertain, he is in one Roman source given the name Polus, which may relate him to the sphere of heaven from pole to pole. The name of Leto's mother, "Phoebe" (Φοίβη "pure, bright"), is identical to the epithet of her son Apollo, Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων, throughout Homer.

List of Epicurean philosophers

This is a list of Epicurean philosophers, ordered (roughly) by date. The criteria for inclusion in this list are fairly mild. See also Category:Epicurean philosophers.

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.

Lucius Septimius Flavianus Flavillianus

Lucius Septimius Flavianus Flavilatus was from Oenoanda in the region of Lycia and lived in the 3rd century AD.

Some of his achievements are documented by inscriptions in the base of a statue, discovered on the site of Oenoanda in 2002. He was an early recruit to the Roman army, and also a champion in wrestling and pankration.

Around 212, he won a boys' wrestling competition. An inscription records

Lucius Septimius Flavianus Flavillianus, paradoxos, having been crowned in the boys' wrestling, when Aurelius Kroisos, son of Simonides, son of Kroisos, son of Tlepolemos was agnothete of the thirteenth panegyris of the Meleagreia - the fatherland honoured propitiously.

Lycia et Pamphylia

Lycia et Pamphylia was the name of a province of the Roman empire, located in southern Anatolia. It was created by the emperor Vespasian (reigned AD 69- 79), who merged Lycia and Pamphylia into a single administrative unit. In 43 AD, the emperor Claudius had annexed Lycia. Pamphylia had been a part of the province of Galatia.

The borders drawn by Vespasian ran west of the River Indus (which flowed from its upper valley in Caria) from the Pisidian plateau up to Lake Ascanius (Burdur Gölü), to the south of Apamea. In the north and east it formed a line which followed the shores of the lakes Limna (Hoyran Gölü) and Caralis (Beyşehir Gölü), turned south towards the Gulf of Adalla (mare Pamphylium) and followed the Taurus Mountains (Toros Daǧlari) for some ten miles towards east up to Isauria. It then followed Cilicia Trachea to reach the sea to the west of Iotape. The borders were dawn taking into account geographical and economic factors. The whole of the basins of the rivers Xanthus, Cestrus (Ak Su) and Eurymedon (Köprü Irmak) were included. The main cities were at the mouth of the latter two rivers. In Pisidia e in Pamphylia they were in part followed by the few roads into the interior of Anatolia. The most important one was the road from Attalea (Antalya) to Apamea. In Lycia the road from Patara towards Laodicea on the Lycus followed the coast. Important cities were Side, Ptolemais, Gagae and Myra on the coast, Seleucia, inland and Cremna, Colbhasa and Comama,on the Pisidian Plateau, where Augustus had founded Roman colonies (settlements). on the Milyas plateau there were Oenoanda, Tlos, Nisa, Podalia, Termessus and Trebenna. Other important cities in Lycia were Pednelissus, Ariassus e Sagalassus; along the Eurymedon, Aspendus and Perge, which had a sanctuary of Artemis. The most important city in the region was Patara, at the mouth of the Xanthus.

Under the administrative reforms of emperor Diocletian (reigned AD 284-305), which doubled the number of Roman provinces by reducing their size, the Lycia et Pamphylia province was split into two separate provinces. The provinces were grouped into twelve dioceses which were under the four Praetorian prefectures of the empire. Lycia and Pamphylia were under of Diocese of Asia (Dioecesis Asiana), of the Praetorian Prefecture of Oriens (the East).


Milyas (Ancient Greek: Μιλυάς) was the mountainous country in the north of ancient Lycia, the south of Pisidia, and a portion of eastern Phrygia. The boundaries of this country, however, were never properly fixed, and the whole of it is sometimes described as a part of Lycia. After the accession of the dynasty of the Seleucidae in Syria, the name Milyas was limited to the south-western part of Pisidia, bordering upon Lycia, that is, the territory extending from Termessus northward to the foot of Mount Cadmus.This district, the western part of which bore the name of Cabalia, is afterwards described, sometimes as a part of Lycia (as by Ptolemy) and sometimes as part of Pamphylia or Pisidia (as by Pliny the Elder). After the conquest of Antiochus the Great, the Romans gave the country to Eumenes, though Pisidian princes still continue to be mentioned as its rulers.

The greater part of Milyas was rugged and mountainous, but it also contained a few fertile plains. The inhabitants were called Milyae (Μιλύαι). This name, which does not occur in the Homeric poems, probably belonged to the remnants of the ancient Solymi, the original inhabitants of Lycia, who had been driven into the mountains by the immigrating Cretans. The host important towns in Milyas were Cibyra, Oenoanda, Balbura, and Bubon, which formed the Cibyratian tetrapolis. Some authors also mention a town of Milyas, which must have been situated north of Termessus in Pisidia.


Phellus (Ancient Greek: Φέλλος, Turkish: Phellos) is an town of ancient Lycia, now situated on the mountainous outskirts of the small town of Kaş in the Antalya Province of Turkey. The city was first referenced as early as 7 BC by Greek geographer and philosopher Strabo in Book XII of his Geographica (which detailed settlements in the Anatolia region), alongside the port town of Antiphellus; which served as the settlement's main trade front.

Its exact location, particularly in regard to Antiphellus, was misinterpreted for many years. Strabo incorrectly designates both settlements as inland towns, closer to each other than is actually evident today. Additionally, upon its rediscovery in 1840 by Sir Charles Fellows, the settlement was located near the village of Saaret, west-northwest of Antiphellus. Verifying research into its location in ancient text proved difficult for Fellows, with illegible Greek inscriptions providing the sole written source at the site. However, Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt details in his 1847 work Travels in Lycia that validation is provided in the words of Pliny the Elder, who places Phellus north of Habessus (Antiphellus' pre-Hellenic name).

Roman philosophy

Ancient Roman philosophy was heavily influenced by the ancient Greeks, in particular, the Stoics and the Epicureans.


The stoichedon style of epigraphy (from στοιχηδόν, a Greek adverb meaning "in a row") was the practice of engraving ancient Greek inscriptions in capitals in such a way that the letters were aligned vertically as well as horizontally. Texts of this form give the appearance of being composed in a grid with the same number of letters in each line and each space in the grid filled with a single letter; hence, there are no spaces between words, and no spaces or punctuation between sentences. The majority are Attic, but it was widely used in the Greek world, and the earliest examples are from not later than the mid-6th century BCE; the first is perhaps the Phrasikleia Kore or the Salaminian Decree. It was the dominant style of inscription in Athens during the 5th and 4th centuries BCE and was the preferred style for official state proclamations. The last stoichedon text dates from the 3rd century CE and is the genealogical inscription from the Heroon of Oenoanda in Lycia. The idiom was less common in Latin epigraphy, a rare exception is the Sator square.

This form of inscription is of particular interest to scholars of Greek epigraphy due to the chance it affords to reconstruct fragmentary texts. Few, if any, Greek tablets survive intact; however, the language and tenor of inscriptions are often formulaic and with a knowledge of the precise number of missing letters it is possible to make an informed guess about the lost text.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia


This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.