Odia language

Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ Oṛiā ; formerly romanized as Oriya)[5] is a classical Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Indian state of Odisha.[6]

It is the official language in Odisha (Orissa)[7] where native speakers make up 82% of the population,[8] also spoken in parts of West Bengal,[9] Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh,[10] and Andhra Pradesh.[11] Odia is one of the many official languages of India; it is the official language of Odisha and the second official language of Jharkhand.[12][13][14] The language is also spoken by a sizeable population of at least 1 million people in Chhattisgarh.

Odia is the sixth Indian language to be designated a Classical Language in India on the basis of having a long literary history and not having borrowed extensively from other languages.[15][16][17][18] The earliest known inscription in Odia dates back to the 10th century AD.[19]

Odia
ଓଡ଼ିଆ, Oṛiā
Odia
Pronunciation[oɽɪˈaː]
Native toIndia
RegionOdisha
EthnicityOdias
Native speakers
37.5 million (2011)[1]
Odia script
Odia Braille
Official status
Official language in
 India (Odisha[2] and Jharkhand)
Language codes
ISO 639-1or
ISO 639-2ori
ISO 639-3oriinclusive code
Individual codes:
ory – Odia
spv – Sambalpuri
ort – Adivasi Odia (Kotia)
dso – Desiya (duplicate of [ort])[3]
Glottologmacr1269  partial match[4]
Linguasphere59-AAF-x

Geographical distribution

India

Odia is mainly spoken in the state of Odisha, but there are significant Odia-speaking populations in the neighbouring states, such as Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Jharkhand, and Chhattisgarh; as well as in the neighbouring country of Bangladesh.[20]

Due to the increasing migration of labour, the west Indian state of Gujarat also has a significant population of Odia speakers. Significant numbers of Odia speakers can also be found in the cities of Vishakhapatnam, Hyderabad, Pondicherry, Bangalore, Chennai, Goa, Mumbai, Raipur, Jamshedpur, Baroda, Ahmedabad, New Delhi, Kolkata, Kharagpur, Guwahati, Shillong, Pune, and Silvassa.[21]

Foreign countries

The Odia diaspora constitute a sizeable number in several countries around the world, totalling the number of Odia speakers on a global scale to 55 million.[22] It has a significant presence in eastern countries such as Bangladesh, Indonesia, mainly carried by the sadhaba, ancient traders from Odisha who carried the language along with the culture during the old-day trading,[23] and in western countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia and England as well. The language has also spread to Burma, Malaysia, Fiji, Sri Lanka and Middle East countries.[22]

Spoken Standard of Odia

Spoken Standard of Odia is different than the Literary standard of Odia, which is used in literature and communication among people speaking different Dialects . It is spoken mainly in the eastern half of the state of Odisha, in districts like Khordha, Puri, Cuttack, Jajpur, Jagatsinghpur, Kendrapada, Dhenkanal, Angul and Nayagarh district with not much variation.[24]

Major forms or dialects

Minor non literary and tribal forms or dialects

Odia's minor dialects include:[26]

  • Sundargadi Odia  : Variation of Odia Spoken in Sundargarh district of Odisha and in adjoining pockets of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.
  • Kalahandia Odia  : Variation of Odia spoken in undivided Kalahandi District and neighboring districts of Chhattisgarh.
  • Kurmi: Spoken in Northern Odisha and South west Bengal.
  • Sounti: Spoken in Northern Odisha and South west Bengal.
  • Bathudi: Spoken in Northern Odisha and South west Bengal.
  • Kondhan: A tribal dialect spoken in Western Odisha..
  • Laria: Spoken in bordering areas of Chatishgarh and Western Odisha.
  • Aghria: Spoken mostly by the ingenious people of Aghria caste in Western Odisha.
  • Bhulia: Spoken in Western part of Odisha by Bhulia or Weaver community.
  • Sadri: A mixture of Odia and Hindi language with major regional tribal influence.
  • Bodo Parja / Jharia: Tribal dialect of Odia spoken mostly in Koraput district of Southern Odisha .
  • Matia: Tribal dialect of Odia spoken in Southern Odisha.
  • Bhuyan: Tribal dialect of Odia spoken in Southern Odisha.
  • Reli: Spoken in Southern Odisha and bordering areas of Andhra Pradesh.
  • Kupia: Spoken by Valmiki caste people in the Indian state of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, mostly in Hyderabad, Mahabubnagar, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, East Godavari and Visakhapatnam districts.

History

Script Tree of India
Script Tree of India
Evolution of Oriya Language
A detailed chart depicting evolution of the Odia script as displayed in a museum at Ratnagiri, Odisha

Odia is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-Aryan language family. It is thought to be directly descended from an OdraMagadhi Prakrit similar to Ardha Magadhi, which was spoken in east India over 1,500 years ago, and is the primary language used in early Jain texts.[27] Odia appears to have had relatively little influence from Persian and Arabic, compared to other major North Indian languages.

The history of the Odia language is divided into eras:

  • Old Odia (12th century and earlier): Inscriptions from 10th century onwards provide evidence for the existence of the Old Odia language, although the earliest known inscription that actually contains Odia lines is dated to 1249 CE.[28]
  • Early Middle Odia (1200–1400): The earliest use of prose can be found in the Madala Panji of the Jagannath Temple at Puri, which dates back to the 12th century. Such works as Shishu Veda, Amara Kosha, Gorakha Samhita, Kalasha Chautisha, and Saptanga are written in this form of Odia.[29][30][31]
  • Middle Odia (1400–1700): Sarala Das writes the Vilanka Ramayana.[32][33] Towards the 16th century, poets emerged around the Vaishnava leader Achyutananda, These five poets are Balaram Das, Jagannatha Dasa, Achyutananda, Ananta Dasa and Jasobanta Dasa.
  • Late Middle Odia (1700–1850): Ushabhilasa of Sisu Sankara Das, the Rahasya Manjari of Deba Durlabha Dasa and the Rukmini Bibha of Kartika Dasa were written. A new form of metrical epic-poems (called Chhanda-Kabya) evolved during the beginning of the 17th century when Ramachandra Pattanayaka wrote Haravali. Upendra Bhanja took a leading role in this period- his creations Baidehisha Bilasa, Koti Brahmanda Sundari, Labanyabati were landmarks in Odia Literature. Dinakrushna Dasa's Rasokallola and Abhimanyu Samanta Singhara's Bidagdha Chintamani are prominent Kavyas of this time. Four major poets emerged in the end of the era are Baladeba Rath, Bhima Bhoi, Brajanath Badajena and Gopala Krushna Pattanaik.
  • Modern Odia (1850 till present day): The first Odia printing typeset was cast in 1836 by the Christian missionaries which made a great revolution in Odia literature and language.
East-Hem 200ad
Eastern Hemisphere in the year 200.

Charyapada of 8th Century and its affinity with Odia language

The beginnings of Odia poetry coincide with the development of charya sahitya, the literature started by Vajrayana Buddhist poets such as in the Charyapada. This literature was written in a specific metaphor called twilight language and prominent poets included Luipa, Tilopa and Kanha. Quite importantly, the Ragas that have mentioned for singing the Charyapadas are found abundantly in latter Odia literature.

Poet Jayadeva's literary contribution

Jayadeva was a Sanskrit poet. He was born in an Utkala Brahmin family of Puri in circa 1200 AD. He is most known for his composition, the epic poem Gita Govinda, which depicts the divine love of the Hindu deity Krishna and his consort, Radha, and is considered an important text in the Bhakti movement of Hinduism. About the end of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th, the influence of Jayadeva's literary contribution changed the pattern of versification in Odia.

Phonology

Pronunciation of Odia alphabet.

Odia has twenty-eight consonant phonemes, two semivowel phonemes and six vowel phonemes.

Odia vowel phonemes
Front Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a ɔ

All vowels except /o/ also have nasal counterparts, but these are not always contrastive. Final vowels are standard and pronounced, e.g. Odia [pʰulɔ] contra Bengali [pʰul] "flower".[34]

Odia consonant phonemes
Bilabial Alveolar
/Dental
Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ (ŋ)
Stop/
Affricate
voiceless p t ʈ k
voiceless aspirated ʈʰ tʃʰ
voiced b d ɖ ɡ
voiced aspirated ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
Fricative s h
Flap ɾ ɺ̢[35]
Lateral approximant l

The velar nasal [ŋ] is given phonemic status in some analyses. Nasals assimilate for place in nasal–stop clusters. /ɖ ɖʱ/ have the flap allophones [ɽ ɽʱ] in intervocalic position and in final position (but not at morpheme boundaries). Stops are sometimes deaspirated between /s/ and a vowel or an open syllable /s/+vowel and a vowel. Some speakers distinguish between single and geminate consonants.[36]

Morphology

Unlike Hindi, Odia retains most of the cases of Sanskrit, though the nominative and vocative have merged (both without a separate marker), as have the accusative and dative. There are three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter) and two grammatical numbers (singular and plural). There are three true tenses (present, past and future), others being formed with auxiliaries.

Literature

The earliest literature in Odia language can be traced to the Charyapadas composed in the 7th to 9th centuries.[37] Before Sarala Das, the most important works in Odia literature are the Shishu Veda, Saptanga, Amara Kosha, Rudrasudhanidhi, Kesaba Koili, Kalasha Chautisha etc.[29][30][31] In the 14th century, the poet Sarala Dasa's wrote the Sarala Mahabharata, Chandi Purana, and Vilanka Ramayana, in praise of the goddess Durga. Rama-bibaha, written by Arjuna Dasa, was the first long poem written in the Odia language.

The following era is termed the Panchasakha Age and stretches until the year 1700. The period begins with the writings of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu whose Vaishnava influence brought in a new evolution in Odia literature. Notable religious works of the Panchasakha Age include those of Balarama Dasa, Jagannatha Dasa, Yasovanta, Ananta and Acyutananda. The authors of this period mainly translated, adapted, or imitated Sanskrit literature. Other prominent works of the period include the Usabhilasa of Sisu Sankara Dasa, the Rahasya-manjari of Deva-durlabha Dasa and the Rukmini-bibha of Kartikka Dasa. A new form of novels in verse evolved during the beginning of the 17th century when Ramachandra Pattanayaka wrote Haravali. Other poets like Madhusudana, Bhima Bhoi, Dhivara, Sadasiva and Sisu Isvara-dasa composed another form called kavyas (long poems) based on themes from Puranas, with an emphasis on plain, simple language.

However, during the Bhanja Age (also known as the Age of Riti Yuga) beginning with turn of the 18th century, verbally tricky Odia became the order of the day. Verbal jugglery, obscenity and eroticism characterise the period between 1700 and 1850, particularly in the works of the era's eponymous poet Upendra Bhanja (1670–1720). Bhanja's work inspired many imitators of which the most notable is Arakshita Das. Family chronicles in prose relating religious festivals and rituals are also characteristic of the period.

The first Odia printing typeset was cast in 1836 by Christian missionaries. Although the handwritten Odia script of the time closely resembled the Bengali and Assamese scripts, the one adopted for the printed typesets was significantly different, leaning more towards the Tamil script and Telugu script. Amos Sutton produced an Oriya Bible (1840), Oriya Dictionary (1841–43) and[38] An Introductory Grammar of Oriya (1844).[39]

Odia has a rich literary heritage dating back to the thirteenth century. Sarala Dasa who lived in the fourteenth century is known as the Vyasa of Odisha. He translated the Mahabharata into Odia. In fact, the language was initially standardised through a process of translating classical Sanskrit texts such as the Mahabharata, Ramayana and Srimad Bhagabata Gita. The translation of the Srimad Bhagabata Gita by Jagannatha Dasa was particularly influential on the written form of the language. Odia has had a strong tradition of poetry, especially devotional poetry.

Other eminent Odia poets include Kabi Samrat Upendra Bhanja and Kabisurya Baladev Ratha.

Prose in the language has had a late development.

Three great poets and prose writers, Kabibar Radhanath Ray (1849–1908), Fakir Mohan Senapati (1843–1918) and Madhusudan Rao (1853–1912) made Odia their own. They brought in a modern outlook and spirit into Odia literature. Around the same time the modern drama took birth in the works of Rama Sankara Ray beginning with Kanci-Kaveri (1880).

Among the contemporaries of Fakir Mohan, four novelists deserve special mention: Aparna Panda, Mrutyunjay Rath, Ram Chandra Acharya and Brajabandhu Mishra. Aparna Panda's Kalavati and Brajabandhu Mishra's Basanta Malati were both published in 1902, the year in which Chha Mana Atha Guntha came out in the book form. Brajabandhu Mishra's Basanta Malati, which came out from Bamanda, depicts the conflict between a poor but highly educated young man and a wealthy and highly egoistic young woman whose conjugal life is seriously affected by ego clashes. Through a story of union, separation and reunion, the novelist delineates the psychological state of a young woman in separation from her husband and examines the significance of marriage as a social institution in traditional Indian society. Ram Chandra Acharya wrote about seven novels during 1924-1936. All his novels are historical romances based on the historical events in Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Odisha. Mrutyunjay Rath's novel, Adbhuta Parinama, published in 1915, centres round a young Hindu who gets converted to Christianity to marry a Christian girl.

One of the great writers in the 19th century was Pandit Krushna Chandra Kar (1907-1995) from Cuttack, who wrote many books for children like Pari Raija, Kuhuka Raija, Panchatantra, Adi Jugara Galpa Mala, etc. He was last felicitated by the Sahitya Academy in the year 1971-72 for his contributions to Odia literature, development of children's fiction, and biographies.

One of the prominent writers of the 19th and 20th centuries was Muralidhar Mallick (1927–2002). His contribution to Historical novels is beyond words. He was last felicitated by the Sahitya Academy in the year 1998 for his contributions to Odia literature. His son Khagendranath Mallick (born 1951) is also a writer. His contribution towards poetry, criticism, essays, story and novels is commendable. He was the former President of Utkal Kala Parishad and also former President of Odisha Geeti Kabi Samaj. Presently he is a member of the Executive Committee of Utkal Sahitya Samaj. Another illustrious writer of the 20th century was Mr. Chintamani Das. A noted academician, he was written more than 40 books including fiction, short stories, biographies and storybooks for children. Born in 1903 in Sriramachandrapur village under Satyabadi block, Chintamani Das is the only writer who has written biographies on all the five 'Pancha Sakhas' of Satyabadi namely Pandit Gopabandhu Das, Acharya Harihara, Nilakantha Das, Krupasindhu Mishra and Pandit Godabarisha. Having served as the Head of the Odia department of Khallikote College, Berhampur, Chintamani Das was felicitated with the Sahitya Akademi Samman in 1970 for his outstanding contribution to Odia literature in general and Satyabadi Yuga literature in particular. Some of his well-known literary creations are 'Bhala Manisha Hua', 'Manishi Nilakantha', 'Kabi Godabarisha', 'Byasakabi Fakiramohan', 'Usha', 'Barabati'.

20th century writers in Odia include Pallikabi Nanda Kishore Bal (1875–1928), Gangadhar Meher (1862–1924), Chintamani Mahanti and Kuntala-Kumari Sabat Utkala-Bharati, besides Niladri Dasa and Gopabandhu Das (1877–1928). The most notable novelists were Umesa Sarakara, Divyasimha Panigrahi, Gopala Praharaja and Kalindi Charan Panigrahi. Sachi Kanta Rauta Ray is the great introducer of the ultra-modern style in modern Odia poetry. Others who took up this form were Godabarisha Mohapatra, Mayadhara Manasimha, Nityananda Mahapatra and Kunjabihari Dasa. Prabhasa Chandra Satpathi is known for his translations of some western classics apart from Udayanatha Shadangi, Sunanda Kara and Surendranatha Dwivedi. Criticism, essays and history also became major lines of writing in the Odia language. Esteemed writers in this field were Professor Girija Shankar Ray, Pandit Vinayaka Misra, Professor Gauri Kumara Brahma, Jagabandhu Simha and Harekrushna Mahatab. Odia literature mirrors the industrious, peaceful and artistic image of the Odia people who have offered and gifted much to the Indian civilization in the field of art and literature. Now Writers Manoj Das's creations motivated and inspired people towards a positive lifestyle .Distinguished prose writers of the modern period include Fakir Mohan Senapati, Madhusudan Das, Godabarisha Mohapatra, Kalindi Charan Panigrahi, Surendra Mohanty, Manoj Das, Kishori Charan Das, Gopinath Mohanty, Rabi Patnaik, Chandrasekhar Rath, Binapani Mohanty, Bhikari Rath, Jagadish Mohanty, Sarojini Sahoo, Yashodhara Mishra, Ramchandra Behera, Padmaja Pal. But it is poetry that makes modern Odia literature a force to reckon with. Poets like Kabibar Radhanath Ray, Sachidananda Routray, Guruprasad Mohanty, Soubhagya Misra, Ramakanta Rath, Sitakanta Mohapatra, Rajendra Kishore Panda, Pratibha Satpathy have made significant contributions towards Indian poetry.

Anita Desai's novella, Translator Translated, from her collection The Art of Disappearance, features a translator of a fictive Odian short story writer; the novella contains a discussion of the perils of translating works composed in regional Indian languages into English.

Four writers in Odia - Gopinath Mohanty, Sachidananda Routray, Sitakant Mahapatra and Pratibha Ray - have been awarded the Jnanpith, a prestigious Indian literary award.

Language sample

The first article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Odia:

ସବୁ ମନୁଷ୍ୟ ଜନ୍ମକାଳରୁ ସ୍ୱାଧୀନ। ସେମାନଙ୍କର ମର୍ଯ୍ୟାଦା ଓ ଅଧିକାର ସମାନ। ସେମାନଙ୍କଠାରେ ପ୍ରଜ୍ଞା ଓ ବିବେକ ନିହିତ ଅଛି। ସେମାନେ ପରସ୍ପର ପ୍ରତି ଭାତୃଭାବ ପୋଷଣ କରି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରିବା ଦରକାର।
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Scheduled Languages in descending order of speaker's strength - 2011" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  2. ^ Bureau, Odishatv. "Odia as official language from tomorrow; linguists doubtful on efficacy of Act | Odisha Television Limited". odishatv.in. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
  3. ^ Hammarström (2015) Ethnologue 16/17/18th editions: a comprehensive review: online appendices
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Macro-Oriya". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. ^ "PRS | Bill Track | The Constitution (113th Amendment) Bill, 2010". www.prsindia.org. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  6. ^ "World Languages - Countries A to G - Internet World Stats". www.internetworldstats.com. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  7. ^ "Constitution amended: Orissa is Odisha, Oriya is Odia". hindustantimes.com/. 6 September 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  8. ^ Mahapatra, B.P. (2002). Linguistic Survey of India: Orissa (PDF). Kolkata, India: Language Division, Office of the Registrar General. p. 14. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  9. ^ "Ordeal of Oriya-speaking students in West Bengal to end soon". 21 May 2009. Retrieved 30 January 2019 – via www.thehindu.com.
  10. ^ Pioneer, The. "Govt to provide study facility to Odia-speaking people in State". The Pioneer. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 September 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "Oriya gets its due in neighbouring state- Orissa- IBNLive". Ibnlive.in.com. 4 September 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  13. ^ Naresh Chandra Pattanayak (1 September 2011). "Oriya second language in Jharkhand - Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  14. ^ "Bengali, Oriya among 12 dialects as 2nd language in Jharkhand". daily.bhaskar.com. 31 August 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  15. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  16. ^ "Odia gets classical language status". The Hindu. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  17. ^ "Odia becomes sixth classical language". The Telegraph. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  18. ^ "Milestone for state as Odia gets classical language status". The Times of India. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  19. ^ Pattanayak, Debi Prasanna; Prusty, Subrat Kumar. Classical Odia (PDF). Bhubaneswar: KIS Foundation. p. 54. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  20. ^ James Minahan (2012). Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 233. ISBN 978-1-59884-659-1.
  21. ^ "Official and Regional Languages of India". 25 January 2011. Archived from the original on 8 March 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  22. ^ a b Institute of Social Research and Applied Anthropology (2003). Man and Life. 29. Institute of Social Research and Applied Anthropology. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  23. ^ Subhakanta Behera (2002). Construction of an identity discourse: Oriya literature and the Jagannath cult (1866-1936). Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  24. ^ Oriya at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  25. ^ CENSUS OF INDIA 2011. "LANGUAGE" (PDF). Government of India. p. 7.
  26. ^ Rabindra Nath Pati, Jagannatha Dash (2002). Tribal and Indigenous People of India: Problems and Prospects. New Delhi: APH PUBLISHING CORPORATION. pp. 51–59. ISBN 81-7648-322-2.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  27. ^ Misra, Bijoy (April 11, 2009). Oriya Language and Literature (PDF) (Lecture). Languages and Literature of India. Harvard University.
  28. ^ B. P. Mahapatra (1989). Constitutional languages. Presses Université Laval. p. 389. ISBN 978-2-7637-7186-1. Evidence of Old Oriya is found from early inscriptions dating from the 10th century onwards, while the language in the form of connected lines is found only in the inscription dated 1249 A.D.
  29. ^ a b Patnaik, Durga (1989). Palm Leaf Etchings of Orissa. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. p. 11. ISBN 978-8170172482.
  30. ^ a b Panda, Shishir (1991). Medieval Orissa: A Socio-economic Study. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. p. 106. ISBN 978-8170992615.
  31. ^ a b Patnaik, Nihar (1997). Economic History of Orissa. New Delhi: Indus Publishing. p. 149. ISBN 978-8173870750.
  32. ^ Sukhdeva (2002). Living Thoughts of the Ramayana. Jaico Publishing House. p. 7. ISBN 978-81-7992-002-2.
  33. ^ Sujit Mukherjee (1998). A Dictionary of Indian Literature: Beginnings-1850. Orient Blackswan. p. 420. ISBN 978-81-250-1453-9.
  34. ^ Ray (2003:488–489)
  35. ^ Masica (1991:97)
  36. ^ Ray (2003:490–491)
  37. ^ Medieval Indian Literature: Surveys and selections. Sahitya Akademi. 1 January 1997. ISBN 9788126003655.
  38. ^ Biswamoy Pati Situating social history: Orissa, 1800-1997 p30
  39. ^ The Encyclopaedia Of Indian Literature (Volume Two) (Devraj To Jyoti): 2 p1030 ed. Amaresh Datta - 2006 "Amos Sutton also prepared a dictionary named Sadhu bhasharthabhidhan, a vocabulary of current Sanskrit terms with Odia definitions which was also printed in Odisha Mission Press in 1844."

Further reading

  • Tripathi, Kunjabihari (1962). The Evolution of Oriya Language and Script (PDF). Cuttack: Utkal University. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  • Masica, Colin (1991). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2.
  • Neukom, Lukas; Patnaik, Manideepa (2003). A Grammar of Oriya. Arbeiten des Seminars für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Zürich. Zurich: University of Zurich. ISBN 9783952101094.
  • Ray, Tapas S. (2003). "Oriya". In Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh (eds.). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. pp. 485–522. ISBN 978-0-7007-1130-7.
  • Rabindra Nath Pati, Jagannatha Dash (2002). Tribal and Indigenous People of India: Problems and Prospects. India: APH PUBLISHING CORPORATION. pp. 51–59. ISBN 81-7648-322-2.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • Ghosh, A. (2003). An ethnolinguistic profile of Eastern India: a case of South Orissa. Burdwan: Dept. of Bengali (D.S.A.), University of Burdwan.
  • Mohanty, Prasanna Kumar (2007). The History of: History of Oriya Literature (Oriya Sahityara Adya Aitihasika Gana).
  • "Oriya Language and Literature" (PDF). Odia.org. Retrieved 29 November 2012.

External links

Board of Secondary Education, Odisha

The Board of Secondary Education, Odisha (Odia: ମାଧ୍ୟମିକ ଶିକ୍ଷା ପରିଷଦ, ଓଡିଶା) (abbreviated BSE) is a board of education for public and private schools under the state government of Odisha, India.

Cinema of Odisha

The Odia film industry (Odia: ଓଡ଼ିଆ ସିନେମା), colloquially known as Ollywood, is the Odia language Indian film industry, based in Cuttack, Odisha. The name is a portmanteau of the words Odia and Ollywood.

Dahi baigana

Dahi baigana (Odia: ଦହି ବାଇଗଣ) is an Odia dish prepared from dahi (yogurt) and eggplant especially during festivals. This dish can be prepared without using onion and garlic when they are not allowed in some auspicious festivals.

Dharitri (newspaper)

Dharitri is an India daily newspaper published in the Odia language from the capital city of Bhubaneswar. The newspaper was founded on 24 November 1974 by the Samajbadi Society in Bhubaneswar.

Kalindi Charan Panigrahi

Kalindi Charan Panigrahi (2 July 1901 – 15 May 1991) was a noted Odia poet, novelist, story writer, dramatist, and essayist. He was one of the members of the Odia literary group Sabuja Goshthi (the Green Group).

Influenced by the romantic thoughts of Rabindranath Tagore, during the thirties when the progressive Marxist movements was in full flow in Odia Literature, Kalindi Charana Panigrahi, the older brother of Bhagabati Charana Panigrahi, the founder of Marxist trend in Odisha, formed a group in 1920 called "Sabuja Samiti", along with two of his writer friends Annada Shankar Ray and Baikuntha Patnaik. Perhaps it was the very short existed period in Odia Literature, and later submerged with either Gandhian thoughts or Marxian thoughts. Later Kalindi Charana Panigrahi wrote his famous novel Matira Manisha, being influenced by Gandhism. He was for a period, the editor of English Journals, Bhanja Pradipa and Mayurbhanja Chronicle.

His eldest daughter Nandini Satpathy was born in 1931, who later went on to become the Chief Minister of Odisha.His younger brother Bhagabati Charana Panigrahi was the founder of Communist Party in Odisha. Bhagabati's great contribution for the Independence of India is underplayed in the history, because he was illegally imprisoned, and slow-poisoned by the British. His great grandson Suparno Satpathy is a noted writer, awarded social activist, and a young political leader.

List of Odia-language films

This is a list of films produced in Oriya cinema in the Odia language.

List of Odia-language television channels

This is a list of notable television stations that broadcast in the Odia language, the official language of Odisha, India.

List of Ollywood films of 2015

A list of films produced by the Ollywood film industry and released in theaters in 2015.

List of Ollywood films of 2016

A list of films produced by the Ollywood film industry and released in theaters in 2016.

List of Ollywood films of 2017

A list of films produced by the Ollywood film industry and released in theaters in 2017.

List of Ollywood films of 2018

A list of films produced by the Ollywood film industry and released in theaters in 2018.

List of Ollywood films of 2019

The tables list the Ollywood films in Odia released in theaters in the year 2019. Premiere shows and film festival screenings are not considered as releases for this list.A list of films produced by the Ollywood film industry and released and scheduled to be released in theaters in 2019.

Odia Wikipedia

The Odia Wikipedia (Odia: ଓଡ଼ିଆ ଉଇକିପିଡ଼ିଆ) (also known as Oriya Wikipedia and orwiki) is the Odia edition of Wikipedia, a free, web-based,collaborative encyclopedia project supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. The project was started in June 2002 and reached 1,000 articles in May 2011. This is one of the first four Indic Wikipedias started in 2002, among over 20 Indic language Wikipedias. The first edit on Odia Wikipedia occurred on 3 June 2002.

Pragativadi

Pragativadi (Odia: ପ୍ରଗତିବାଦୀ) is an Odia daily newspaper published from Bhubaneswar. This is one of the most circulated news dailies in Odisha. Founded in the year 1985 by Pradyumna Bal, currently it is being edited by Samahit Bal. The newspaper being a prominent print media also has a news website and an online version of the printed newspapers freely available to all internet users.

Prahallada Nataka

Prahallada Nataka (Odia: ପ୍ରହଲ୍ଲାଦ ନାଟକ Prahallāda Nāṭaka), or simply Raja Nata, is a traditional play native to the Indian state of Odisha. The musical-drama tells the story of Vishnu's man-lion avatar, Nrusingha or Narasimha, and is based on a text by Raja Ramakrusna Chhotaraya, King of Jalantara, and his small kingdom in former southern Odisha, now in the Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh.

Prameya

The Prameya is a newspaper published in the Odia language. In 2015 and 2017 it was the third most-read newspaper in Oriya, after Sambad and Samaja. In 2015 it launched its own TV channel, Prameya News7, available through Tata Sky satellite television.

Sambad

Sambad is a regional Odia language daily newspaper. It is one of the largest circulated Odia newspapers in Odisha. It is published from the capital city of Bhubaneswar, as well as from Cuttack, Berhampur, Rourkela, Sambalpur and Balasore.

The first edition of this newspaper was published on October 4, 1984 in Bhubaneswar. Editor since foundation is Soumya Ranjan Patnaik, a businessman-politician.

The Samaja

The Samaja is an Odia daily newspaper published in Cuttack, Odisha, India; started in 1919, it is one of the oldest papers in India. Gopabandhu Das, a prominent freedom fighter and social worker started it as a weekly from Satyabadi in Puri district of Odisha to facilitate the freedom struggle and to revive the moribund Odia language. Under his leadership, and with the support of local people, the paper grew into prominence. In 1928, just before the death of Das, the paper was handed over to Lok Sevak Mandal (Servants of People Society), a non-profit organization started by freedom-fighter Lala Lajapatrai. Servants of the People Society still runs the paper.

The Samaya

The Samaya is a daily newspaper which was first published in 1996 in Bhubaneswar. Its editor was S. Hota and its publisher Ranjib Biswal.

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