October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 70 days remain until the end of the year.
|October 22 in recent years
| 2018 (Monday)
| 2017 (Sunday)
| 2016 (Saturday)
| 2015 (Thursday)
| 2014 (Wednesday)
| 2013 (Tuesday)
| 2012 (Monday)
| 2011 (Saturday)
| 2010 (Friday)
| 2009 (Thursday)
- 451 – The Chalcedonian Creed, regarding the divine and human nature of Jesus, is adopted.
- 794 – Emperor Kanmu relocates the Japanese capital to Heian-kyō (now Kyoto).
- 906 – Ahmad ibn Kayghalagh leads a raid against the Byzantine Empire, taking 4,000–5,000 captives.
- 1383 – King Fernando dies without a male heir to the Portuguese throne, sparking a period of civil war and disorder.
- 1575 – Foundation of Aguascalientes City in New Spain.
- 1633 – The Ming dynasty defeats the Dutch East India Company.
- 1707 – Four British naval vessels run aground on the Isles of Scilly because of faulty navigation. In response, the first Longitude Act is enacted in 1714.
- 1730 – Construction of the Ladoga Canal is completed.
- 1746 – The College of New Jersey (later renamed Princeton University) receives its charter.
- 1777 – American Revolutionary War: American defenders of Fort Mercer on the Delaware River repulse repeated Hessian attacks in the Battle of Red Bank.
- 1784 – Russia founds a colony on Kodiak Island, Alaska.
- 1797 – André-Jacques Garnerin makes the first recorded parachute jump, from one thousand meters (3,200 feet) above Paris.
- 1836 – Sam Houston is inaugurated as the first President of the Republic of Texas.
- 1844 – Millerites, followers of anticipate the end of the world in conjunction with the Second Advent of Christ. The following day became known as the Great Disappointment.
- 1859 – Spain declares war on Morocco.
- 1866 – A plebiscite ratifies the annexion of Veneto and Mantua to Italy, which had occurred three days before, on October 19.
- 1875 – First telegraphic connection in Argentina.
- 1877 – The Blantyre mining disaster in Scotland kills 207 miners.
- 1878 – The Bramall Lane stadium sees the first rugby match played under floodlights.
- 1879 – Using a filament of carbonized thread, Thomas Edison tests the first practical electric incandescent light bulb (it lasts 13½ hours before burning out).
- 1883 – The Metropolitan Opera House in New York City opens with a performance of Gounod's Faust.
- 1884 – The Royal Observatory in Britain is adopted as the prime meridian of longitude.
- 1895 – In Paris an express train derails after overrunning the buffer stop, crossing almost 30 metres (100 ft) of concourse before crashing through a wall and falling 10 metres (33 ft) to the road below.
- 1907 – A run on the stock of the Knickerbocker Trust Company sets events in motion that will spark the Panic of 1907.
- 1910 – Hawley Harvey Crippen (the first felon to be arrested with the help of radio) is convicted of poisoning his wife.
- 1923 – The royalist Leonardopoulos–Gargalidis coup d'état attempt fails in Greece, discrediting the monarchy and paving the way for the establishment of the Second Hellenic Republic.
- 1928 – Phi Sigma Alpha fraternity is founded at the University of Puerto Rico.
- 1934 – In East Liverpool, Ohio, FBI agents shoot and kill notorious bank robber Pretty Boy Floyd.
- 1941 – World War II: French resistance member Guy Môquet and 29 other hostages are executed by the Germans in retaliation for the death of a German officer.
- 1943 – World War II: in the Second firestorm raid on Germany, the RAF conducts an air raid on the town of Kassel, killing 10,000 and rendering 150,000 homeless.
- 1946 – Operation Osoaviakhim takes place, recruiting of thousands of military-related technical specialists from the Soviet occupation zone of post–World War II Germany for employment in the Soviet Union.
- 1947 – The Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan begins, having started just after the partition of India.
- 1957 – Vietnam War: First United States casualties in Vietnam.
- 1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis: President Kennedy, after internal counsel from Dwight D. Eisenhower, announces that American reconnaissance planes have discovered Soviet nuclear weapons in Cuba, and that he has ordered a naval "quarantine" of the Communist nation.
- 1963 – A BAC One-Eleven prototype airliner crashes in UK with the loss of all on board.
- 1964 – Jean-Paul Sartre is awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, but turns down the honor.
- 1964 – An all-party Parliamentary Committee selects the design which will become the new official flag of Canada.
- 1966 – The Supremes become the first all-female music group to attain a No. 1 selling album (The Supremes A' Go-Go).
- 1966 – The Soviet Union launches Luna 12.
- 1968 – Apollo program: Apollo 7 safely splashes down in the Atlantic Ocean after orbiting the Earth 163 times.
- 1975 – The Soviet unmanned space mission Venera 9 lands on Venus.
- 1976 – Red Dye No. 4 is banned by the US Food and Drug Administration after it is discovered that it causes tumors in the bladders of dogs.
- 1981 – The United States Federal Labor Relations Authority votes to decertify the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO) for its strike the previous August.
- 1983 – Two correctional officers are killed by inmates at the United States Penitentiary in Marion, Illinois. The incident inspires the Supermax model of prisons.
- 1999 – Maurice Papon, an official in the Vichy France government during World War II, is jailed for crimes against humanity.
- 2001 – Grand Theft Auto III is released, popularizing a genre of open-world, action-adventure video games, as well as spurring controversy around violence in video games.
- 2005 – Tropical Storm Alpha forms in the Atlantic Basin, making the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season the most active Atlantic hurricane season on record with 22 named storms.
- 2005 – Bellview Airlines Flight 210 crashes in Nigeria, killing all 117 people on board.
- 2006 – A Panama Canal expansion proposal is approved by 77.8% of voters in a National referendum.
- 2007 – A raid on Anuradhapura Air Force Base is carried out by 21 Tamil Tiger commandos. All except one die in this attack. Eight Sri Lanka Air Force planes are destroyed and 10 damaged.
- 2008 – India launches its first unmanned lunar mission Chandrayaan-1.
- 2013 – The Australian Capital Territory becomes the first Australian jurisdiction to legalize same-sex marriage with the Marriage Equality (Same Sex) Act 2013
- 2014 – Michael Zehaf-Bibeau attacks the Parliament of Canada, killing a soldier and injuring three other people.
- 955 – Qian Weijun, king of Wuyue (d. 991)
- 1071 – William IX, Duke of Aquitaine (d. 1126)
- 1197 – Juntoku, Japanese emperor (d. 1242)
- 1511 – Erasmus Reinhold, German astronomer and mathematician (d. 1553)
- 1559 – Jacques Sirmond, French scholar (d. 1651).
- 1587 – Joachim Jungius, German mathematician and philosopher (d. 1657).
- 1592 – Gustav Horn, Count of Pori (d. 1657)
- 1659 – Georg Ernst Stahl, German chemist and physician (d. 1734)
- 1689 – John V, Portuguese king (d. 1750)
- 1701 – Maria Amalia of Austria (d. 1756)
- 1729 – Johann Reinhold Forster, German pastor and botanist (d. 1798)
- 1761 – Antoine Barnave, French politician and orator (d. 1793).
- 1749 – Cornelis van der Aa, Dutch historian and bookseller (d. 1816)
- 1778 – Javier de Burgos, Spanish jurist and politician (d. 1848)
- 1781 – Louis Joseph, Dauphin of France (d. 1789).
- 1783 – Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, Ottoman-French polymath and naturalist (d. 1840).
- 1809 – Volney Howard, American lawyer, jurist, and politician, Texas Attorney General (d. 1889)
- 1811 – Franz Liszt, Hungarian pianist and composer (d. 1886)
- 1818 – Leconte de Lisle, French poet and author (d. 1894)
- 1821 – Collis Potter Huntington, American businessman (d. 1900)
- 1832 – August Labitzky, Czech composer and conductor (d. 1903)
- 1844 – Sarah Bernhardt, French actress and manager (d. 1923)
- 1844 – Louis Riel, Canadian scholar and politician (d. 1885)
- 1847 – Koos de la Rey, South African general (d. 1914)
- 1850 – Charles Kingston, Australian politician, 20th Premier of South Australia (d. 1908)
- 1858 – Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein (d. 1921)
- 1859 – Prince Ludwig Ferdinand of Bavaria (d. 1949).
- 1865 – Kristjan Raud, Estonian painter and illustrator (d. 1943)
- 1870 – Ivan Bunin, Russian author and poet, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1953)
- 1870 – Lord Alfred Douglas, English author and poet (d. 1945)
- 1873 – Gustaf John Ramstedt, Finnish linguist and diplomat (d. 1950)
- 1873 – Rama Tirtha, Indian philosopher and educator (d. 1906)
- 1875 – David van Embden, Dutch economist and politician (d. 1962)
- 1878 – Jaan Lattik, Estonian pastor and politician, 9th Estonian Minister of Foreign Affairs (d. 1967)
- 1881 – Clinton Davisson, American physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1958)
- 1881 – Karl Bernhard Zoeppritz, German geophysicist and seismologist (d. 1908)
- 1882 – Edmund Dulac, French-English illustrator (d. 1953)
- 1882 – N. C. Wyeth, American painter and illustrator (d. 1945)
- 1885 – Giovanni Martinelli, Italian tenor and actor (d. 1969)
- 1886 – Erik Bergman, Swedish minister (d. 1970)
- 1887 – John Reed, American journalist and poet (d. 1920)
- 1893 – Ernst Öpik, Estonian astronomer and astrophysicist (d. 1985)
- 1893 – Luis Otero, Spanish footballer (d. 1955).
- 1894 – Mei Lanfang, Chinese actor and singer (d. 1961)
- 1895 – Johnny Morrison, professional baseball player (d. 1966)
- 1896 – Charles Glen King, American biochemist and academic (d. 1988)
- 1896 – José Leitão de Barros, Portuguese film director and playwright (d. 1967).
- 1897 – Marjorie Flack, American author and illustrator (d. 1958)
- 1898 – Dámaso Alonso, Spanish poet and philologist (d. 1990).
- 1899 – Salarrué, Salvadoran writer and painter (d. 1975).
- 1900 – Ashfaqulla Khan, Indian activist (d. 1927)
- 1903 – George Wells Beadle, American geneticist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1989)
- 1903 – Curly Howard, American comedian and vaudevillian (d. 1952)
- 1904 – Constance Bennett, American actress, singer, and producer (d. 1965)
- 1904 – Saúl Calandra, Argentine football player (d. 1973).
- 1904 – Karl Guthe Jansky, American physicist and radio engineer (d. 1950).
- 1905 – Joseph Kosma, Hungarian-French pianist and composer (d. 1969)
- 1906 – Kees van Baaren, Dutch composer and educator (d. 1970)
- 1906 – Aurelio Baldor, Cuban mathematician and lawyer (d. 1978).
- 1907 – Jimmie Foxx, American baseball player, coach, and manager (d. 1967)
- 1907 – Günther Treptow, German tenor (d. 1981).
- 1908 – John Gould, American journalist and author (d. 2003).
- 1908 – José Escobar Saliente, Spanish cartoonist (d. 1994).
- 1912 – George N. Leighton, American soldier and judge (d. 2018)
- 1913 – Robert Capa, Hungarian-American photographer and journalist (d. 1954)
- 1913 – Bảo Đại, Vietnamese emperor (d. 1997)
- 1913 – Hans-Peter Tschudi, Swiss lawyer and politician, 63rd President of the Swiss Confederation (d. 2002)
- 1915 – Yitzhak Shamir, Belarusian-Israeli civil servant and politician, 7th Prime Minister of Israel (d. 2012)
- 1917 – Joan Fontaine, British-American actress (d. 2013)
- 1918 – Lou Klein, American baseball player, coach, and manager (d. 1976)
- 1919 – Kathleen Ankers, English-American actress and set designer (d. 2001)
- 1919 – Doris Lessing, British novelist, poet, playwright, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2013)
- 1920 – Timothy Leary, American psychologist and author (d. 1996)
- 1921 – Georges Brassens, French singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 1981)
- 1921 – Alexander Kronrod, Russian mathematician and computer scientist (d. 1986)
- 1921 – Harald Nugiseks, Estonian sergeant (d. 2014)
- 1923 – Bert Trautmann, German footballer and manager (d. 2013)
- 1925 – Slater Martin, American basketball player and coach (d. 2012)
- 1925 – Edith Kawelohea McKinzie, Hawaiian genealogist, author, and hula expert (d. 2014)
- 1925 – Robert Rauschenberg, American painter and illustrator (d. 2008)
- 1927 – Allan Hendrickse, South African minister and politician (d. 2005)
- 1928 – Clare Fischer, American pianist, composer and arranger (d. 2012)
- 1928 – Nelson Pereira dos Santos, Brazilian director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2018)
- 1929 – Michael Birkett, 2nd Baron Birkett, English director and producer (d. 2015)
- 1929 – Dory Previn, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 2012)
- 1929 – Lev Yashin, Russian footballer (d. 1990)
- 1930 – Estela de Carlotto, Argentine human rights activist.
- 1930 – José Guardiola, Spanish singer (d. 2012).
- 1931 – Ann Rule, American police officer and author (d. 2015)
- 1933 – Carlos Alberto Sacheri, Argentine philosopher (d. 1974).
- 1933 – Helmut Senekowitsch, Austrian footballer and manager (d. 2007)
- 1934 – Donald McIntyre, New Zealand opera singer
- 1936 – John Blashford-Snell, English soldier, author, and explorer
- 1936 – Peter Cook, English architect and academic
- 1936 – Jovan Pavlović, Serbian metropolitan (d. 2014)
- 1937 – José Larralde, Argentine singer-songwriter.
- 1937 – Manos Loïzos, Egyptian-Greek composer (d. 1982)
- 1938 – K. Indrapala, Sri Lankan historian and academic
- 1938 – Derek Jacobi, English actor
- 1938 – Christopher Lloyd, American actor, comedian and producer
- 1939 – Joaquim Chissano, Mozambican politician, 2nd President of Mozambique
- 1939 – George Cohen, English footballer
- 1939 – Jean-Pierre Desthuilliers, French poet and critic (d. 2013)
- 1939 – Tony Roberts, American actor and singer
- 1941 – Ahmet Mete Işıkara, Turkish geophysicist and earthquake scientist (d. 2013)
- 1941 – Charles Keating, English-American actor (d. 2014)
- 1942 – Bobby Fuller, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 1966)
- 1942 – Annette Funicello, American actress and singer (d. 2013)
- 1943 – Allen Coage, American-Canadian wrestler and coach (d. 2007)
- 1943 – Catherine E. Coulson, American actress (d. 2015)
- 1943 – Jan de Bont, Dutch director, producer, and cinematographer
- 1943 – Catherine Deneuve, French actress and singer
- 1943 – Seif Sharif Hamad, Zanzibari politician, 2nd Chief Minister of Zanzibar
- 1945 – Eddie Brigati, American singer-songwriter
- 1945 – Yvan Ponton, Canadian actor and game show host
- 1945 – Buzz Potamkin, American director and producer, founded Buzzco Associates (d. 2012)
- 1945 – Sheila Sherwood, English long jumper
- 1945 – Michael Stoute, Barbadian-English horse trainer
- 1945 – Leslie West, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
- 1946 – Claude Charron, Canadian educator and politician
- 1946 – Godfrey Chitalu, Zambian footballer (d. 1993)
- 1946 – Deepak Chopra, Indian-American physician and author
- 1946 – Elizabeth Connell, South African mezzo-soprano (d. 2012)
- 1946 – Kelvin MacKenzie, English journalist
- 1946 – Jaime Nebot, Ecuadorian politician
- 1947 – Raymond Bachand, Canadian lawyer and politician
- 1947 – Haley Barbour, American lawyer and politician, 62nd Governor of Mississippi
- 1948 – Mike Hendrick, English cricketer, coach, and umpire
- 1948 – Pierre Lartigue, French rally racer
- 1948 – Debbie Macomber, American author
- 1949 – Stiv Bators, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and actor (d. 1990)
- 1949 – Vasilios Magginas, Greek politician, Greek Minister of Employment (d. 2015)
- 1949 – Manfred Trojahn, German flute player, composer, and conductor
- 1949 – Arsène Wenger, French footballer and manager
- 1950 – Donald Ramotar, Guyanese politician, 8th President of Guyana
- 1952 – Julie Dash, American director, producer, and screenwriter
- 1952 – Jeff Goldblum, American actor and producer
- 1952 – Greg Hawkes, American rock musician (The Cars)
- 1953 – René Arce Islas, Mexican politician
- 1954 – Graham Joyce, English author and educator (d. 2014)
- 1956 – John Adam, Australian rugby league player
- 1956 – Frank DiPino, American baseball player and coach
- 1956 – Alejandro Kuropatwa, Argentine photographer (d. 2003)
- 1957 – Henry Lauterbach, German jumper
- 1957 – Daniel Melingo, Argentine musician
- 1958 – Bobby Blotzer, American drummer (Ratt)
- 1959 – Roberto Navarro, Argentine journalist
- 1959 – Arto Salminen, Finnish journalist and author (d. 2005)
- 1959 – Marc Shaiman, American composer and songwriter
- 1960 – Darryl Jenifer, American bass player
- 1960 – Cris Kirkwood, American singer-songwriter and bass player
- 1961 – Takaaki Ishibashi, Japanese comedian, singer, and actor
- 1961 – Barbara Potter, American tennis player
- 1962 – Bob Odenkirk, American actor and comedian
- 1963 – Brian Boitano, American figure skater
- 1964 – Mick Hill, English javelin thrower and coach
- 1964 – Craig Levein, Scottish footballer
- 1964 – Dražen Petrović, Croatian basketball player (d. 1993)
- 1964 – TobyMac, American singer-songwriter and producer
- 1965 – Valeria Golino, Italian actress
- 1965 – John Wesley Harding, English singer-songwriter and guitarist
- 1965 – A. L. Kennedy, Scottish comedian, journalist, and author
- 1965 – Otis Smith, American football player and coach
- 1965 – Piotr Wiwczarek, Polish singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer
- 1966 – Yuri Arbachakov, Russian-Japanese boxer
- 1967 – Salvatore Di Vittorio, Italian composer and conductor
- 1967 – Rita Guerra, Portuguese singer
- 1967 – Oona King, Baroness King of Bow, English academic and politician
- 1967 – Ulrike Maier, Austrian skier (d. 1994)
- 1967 – Carlos Mencia, Honduran-American comedian, actor, producer, and screenwriter
- 1967 – Ron Tugnutt, Canadian ice hockey player, coach, and sportscaster
- 1968 – Stephanie Cutter, American lawyer and political consultant
- 1968 – Jay Johnston, American actor, producer, and screenwriter
- 1968 – Shelby Lynne, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
- 1968 – Stéphane Quintal, Canadian ice hockey player
- 1968 – Shaggy, Jamaican singer-songwriter and DJ
- 1969 – Julio Borges, Venezuelan politician
- 1969 – Héctor Carrasco, Dominican baseball player
- 1969 – Spike Jonze, American actor, director, producer, and screenwriter
- 1969 – Helmut Lotti, Belgian singer-songwriter
- 1969 – Coque Malla, Spanish musician and actor
- 1970 – Winston Bogarde, Dutch footballer and manager
- 1970 – Amy Redford, American actress, director, and producer
- 1971 – Amanda Coetzer, South African tennis player
- 1971 – Kornél Dávid, Hungarian basketball player
- 1971 – José Manuel Martínez, Spanish runner
- 1972 – D'Lo Brown, American wrestler and accountant
- 1972 – Saffron Burrows, English-American actress
- 1972 – Víctor Saldaño, the only Argentine man sentenced to death in the US
- 1973 – Andrés Palop, Spanish footballer and manager
- 1973 – Ichiro Suzuki, Japanese baseball player
- 1973 – Mark van der Zijden, Dutch swimmer
- 1974 – Tim Kinsella, American singer-songwriter
- 1974 – Jeff McInnis, American basketball player
- 1974 – Miroslav Šatan, Slovak ice hockey player
- 1975 – Martín Cardetti, Argentinian footballer and manager
- 1975 – Jesse Tyler Ferguson, American actor
- 1975 – Míchel Salgado, Spanish footballer
- 1976 – Luke Adams, Australian race walker
- 1976 – Laidback Luke, Dutch DJ
- 1976 – Jon Foreman, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
- 1978 – Dion Glover, American basketball player and coach
- 1978 – Chaswe Nsofwa, Zambian footballer (d. 2007)
- 1978 – Owais Shah, Pakistani-English cricketer
- 1979 – Doni, Brazilian footballer
- 1980 – Niall Breslin, Irish singer-songwriter, guitarist, producer, and footballer
- 1980 – Luke O'Donnell, Australian rugby league player
- 1980 – Sonia Sui, Chinese and Taiwanese model
- 1981 – Michael Fishman, American actor and producer
- 1981 – Olivier Pla, French race car driver
- 1982 – Robinson Canó, Dominican baseball player
- 1982 – Tim Erfen, German footballer
- 1982 – Heath Miller, American football player
- 1982 – Mark Renshaw, Australian cyclist
- 1983 – Byul, South Korean singer
- 1983 – Anton Müller, German footballer
- 1983 – Plan B, British singer and actor
- 1984 – Horacio Agulla, Argentine rugby player
- 1984 – Aleks Marić, Australian basketball player
- 1985 – Federico Ágreda, Venezuelan musician
- 1985 – Hadise, Belgian-Turkish singer-songwriter and dancer
- 1985 – Zac Hanson, American singer-songwriter and drummer
- 1986 – Kenji Ebisawa, Japanese actor
- 1986 – Kara Lang, Canadian footballer
- 1986 – Ștefan Radu, Romanian footballer
- 1986 – Akihiro Sato, Japanese footballer
- 1987 – Tiki Gelana, Ethiopian runner
- 1987 – Donny Montell, Lithuanian singer-songwriter
- 1987 – Park Ha-sun, South Korean actress
- 1987 – Reen Yu, Taiwanese actress
- 1988 – Sarah Barrow, English diver
- 1988 – Parineeti Chopra, Indian actress
- 1988 – Elena Muhhina, Estonian figure skater
- 1988 – Aykut Demir, Turkish footballer
- 1989 – Marco Restrepo, American musician
- 1989 – Muhammad Wilkerson, American football player
- 1990 – Nicolás Francella, Argentine actor
- 1990 – Jonathan Lipnicki, American actor
- 1992 – Sofia Vassilieva, American actress
- 1992 – 21 Savage, American hip-hop artist
- 1992 – Carrie Hope Fletcher, British singer
- 1993 – Charalambos Lykogiannis, Greek footballer
- 1995 – Saidy Janko, Swiss footballer
- 1996 – B.I, South Korean singer-songwriter and dancer
- 726 – Itzamnaaj K'awiil, a Maya ruler of Dos Pilas
- 741 – Charles Martel, Frankish king (b. 688)
- 842 – Abo, Japanese prince (b. 792)
- 1383 – Ferdinand I of Portugal (b. 1345)
- 1455 – Johannes Brassart, Flemish composer
- 1493 – James Douglas, 1st Earl of Morton
- 1521 – Edward Poynings, Lord Deputy to King Henry VII of England (b. 1459)
- 1565 – Jean Grolier de Servières, French book collector (b. 1479)
- 1604 – Domingo Báñez, Spanish theologian (b. 1528)
- 1625 – Kikkawa Hiroie, Japanese daimyō (b. 1561)
- 1708 – Hermann Witsius, Dutch theologian and academic (b. 1636)
- 1751 – William IV, Prince of Orange (b. 1711)
- 1761 – Louis George, Margrave of Baden-Baden (b. 1702)
- 1755 – Elisha Williams, American minister, academic, and jurist (b. 1694)
- 1792 – Guillaume Le Gentil, French astronomer (b. 1725)
- 1847 – Sahle Selassie, Ethiopian ruler (b. 1795)
- 1853 – Juan Antonio Lavalleja, Uruguayan general and politician, President of Uruguay (b. 1784)
- 1859 – Louis Spohr, German violinist and composer (b. 1784)
- 1883 – George Coulthard, Australian cricketer and footballer (b. 1856)
- 1883 – Thomas Mayne Reid, Irish-American soldier and author (b. 1818)
- 1885 – Lewis Majendie, English politician (b. 1835)
- 1891 – Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow, Austrian physiologist and physician (b. 1846)
- 1902 – Herman Adolfovich Trautschold, German geologist and paeontologist (b. 1817)
- 1906 – Paul Cézanne, French painter (b. 1839)
- 1914 – Konishiki Yasokichi I, Japanese sumo wrestler, the 17th Yokozuna (b. 1866)
- 1917 – Bob Fitzsimmons, English-American boxer (b. 1863)
- 1917 – Charles Pardey Lukis, founder of the Indian Journal of Medical Research and later Director-General of the Indian Medical Service (b. 1857)
- 1927 – Borisav Stanković, Serbian author (b. 1876)
- 1928 – Andrew Fisher, Scottish-Australian lawyer and politician, 5th Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1862)
- 1934 – Pretty Boy Floyd, American gangster (b. 1904)
- 1935 – Edward Carson, Irish-English lawyer and politician, Attorney General for England and Wales (b. 1854)
- 1935 – Ettore Marchiafava, Italian physician (b. 1847)
- 1941 – Guy Môquet, French militant (b. 1924)
- 1952 – Ernst Rüdin, Swiss psychiatrist, geneticist, and eugenicist (b. 1874)
- 1954 – Jibanananda Das, Bangladeshi-Indian author and poet (b. 1899)
- 1956 – Hannah Mitchell, English activist (b. 1872)
- 1959 – George Bouzianis, Greek painter and educator (b. 1885)
- 1959 – Joseph Cahill, Australian politician, 29th Premier of New South Wales (b. 1891)
- 1965 – Muriel George, English singer and actress (b. 1883)
- 1969 – Tommy Edwards, American singer-songwriter (b. 1922)
- 1972 – James K. Baxter, New Zealand poet, writer, theologian, and social commentator. (b. 1926)
- 1973 – Pablo Casals, Catalan cellist and conductor (b. 1876)
- 1979 – Nadia Boulanger, French composer and educator (b. 1887)
- 1979 – Mieko Kamiya, Japanese psychiatrist and author (b. 1914)
- 1982 – Richard Hugo, American poet (b. 1923)
- 1985 – Viorica Ursuleac, Romanian soprano and educator (b. 1894)
- 1986 – Jane Dornacker, American actress and singer (b. 1947)
- 1986 – Thorgeir Stubø, Norwegian guitarist and composer (b. 1943)
- 1986 – Ye Jianying, Chinese general and politician, Head of State of the People's Republic of China (b. 1897)
- 1986 – Albert Szent-Györgyi, Hungarian-American physiologist and biochemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1893)
- 1987 – Lino Ventura, Italian-French actor (b. 1919)
- 1988 – Cynthia Freeman, American author (b. 1915)
- 1989 – Ewan MacColl, English singer-songwriter, producer, actor, and playwright (b. 1915)
- 1989 – Jacob Wetterling, American kidnapping victim (b. 1978)
- 1990 – Louis Althusser, Algerian-French philosopher and academic (b. 1918)
- 1991 – Hachiro Kasuga, Japanese singer and actor (b. 1924)
- 1992 – Red Barber, American sportscaster (b. 1908)
- 1992 – Cleavon Little, American actor (b. 1939)
- 1993 – Innes Ireland, English race car driver and engineer (b. 1930)
- 1995 – Kingsley Amis, English novelist, poet, critic (b. 1922)
- 1995 – Mary Wickes, American actress and singer (b. 1910)
- 1997 – Leonid Amalrik, Russian animator, director, and screenwriter (b. 1905)
- 1998 – Eric Ambler, English author, screenwriter, and producer (b. 1909)
- 2001 – Helmut Krackowizer, Austrian motorcycle racer and journalist (b. 1922)
- 2002 – Richard Helms, American intelligence agent and diplomat, 8th Director of Central Intelligence (b. 1913)
- 2002 – Geraldine of Albania (b. 1915)
- 2005 – Arman, French-American painter and sculptor (b. 1928)
- 2005 – Tony Adams, Irish-American actor and producer (b. 1953)
- 2006 – Arthur Hill, Canadian-American actor (b. 1922)
- 2007 – Ève Curie, French pianist and journalist (b. 1904)
- 2009 – Don Lane, American-Australian actor, singer, and talk show host (b. 1933)
- 2009 – Soupy Sales, American comedian and actor (b. 1926)
- 2010 – Eio Sakata, Japanese Go player (b. 1920)
- 2011 – Sultan bin Abdulaziz, Saudi Arabian prince (b. 1930)
- 2012 – Betty Binns Fletcher, American lawyer and judge (b. 1923)
- 2012 – Mike Morris, English talk show host (b. 1946)
- 2012 – Gabrielle Roth, American dancer, singer, and author (b. 1941)
- 2013 – Marylou Dawes, Canadian pianist and educator (b. 1933)
- 2013 – Lajos Für, Hungarian historian and politician, Minister of Defence of Hungary (b. 1930)
- 2013 – William Harrison, American author and screenwriter (b. 1933)
- 2013 – James Robinson Risner, American general and pilot (b. 1925)
- 2014 – George Francis, English footballer and soldier (b. 1934)
- 2014 – John-Roger Hinkins, American religious leader and author (b. 1934)
- 2014 – Ashok Kumar, Indian director and cinematographer (b. 1941)
- 2014 – John Postgate, English microbiologist, author, and academic (b. 1922)
- 2015 – Willem Aantjes, Dutch civil servant and politician (b. 1923)
- 2015 – Çetin Altan, Turkish journalist and politician (b. 1927)
- 2015 – Murphy Anderson, American illustrator (b. 1926)
- 2015 – Arnold Klein, American dermatologist and author (b. 1945)
- 2015 – Joshua Wheeler, American sergeant (b. 1975)
- 2016 – Steve Dillon, British comic book artist (b. 1962)
- 2016 – Sheri S. Tepper, American writer (b. 1929)
- 2017 – George Young, British-Australian musician, songwriter and record producer (b. 1946)
- 2017 – Paul Weitz, American astronaut (b. 1932)
Holidays and observances
2009 New Jersey gubernatorial election
The 2009 New Jersey gubernatorial election took place on November 3, 2009. Democratic Governor Jon Corzine was running for a second term and was being challenged by Republican Chris Christie, Independent Christopher Daggett and nine others, in addition to several write-in candidates. Christie won the election, with about 48.5 percent of the vote, to 44.9 percent for Corzine and 5.8 percent for Daggett. Christie won the largest margin for a first term Republican since 1969. Christie assumed office on January 19, 2010.
This was the first election to fill the newly created office of Lieutenant Governor. The candidates for governor and lieutenant governor were joined together as a single choice, so that voters did not have the opportunity to split the ticket. Kim Guadagno, Christie's running mate, became New Jersey's first lieutenant governor following her inauguration. 91st Academy Awards
The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, created by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored the best films of 2018, and took place at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. The ceremony was held on February 24, 2019. During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards (commonly referred to as Oscars) in 24 categories. The ceremony was televised in the United States by the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), produced by Donna Gigliotti and Glenn Weiss, with Weiss also serving as director. It was the first ceremony in three decades, since the 61st Academy Awards in 1989, to be conducted with no host.
In related events, the Academy held its 10th Annual Governors Awards ceremony at the Grand Ballroom of the Hollywood and Highland Center on November 18, 2018. The Academy Scientific and Technical Awards were presented by host actor David Oyelowo on February 9, 2019, in a ceremony at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills.Green Book won three awards, including Best Picture and Best Supporting Actor for Mahershala Ali's portrayal of Don Shirley, and Bohemian Rhapsody led the ceremony with four awards, including Best Actor for Rami Malek's portrayal of Freddie Mercury. Roma and Black Panther also received three awards apiece, with the former winning Best Director for Alfonso Cuarón and becoming the first Mexican submission to win Best Foreign Language Film. Olivia Colman was awarded Best Actress for portraying Anne, Queen of Great Britain in The Favourite. With a U.S. viewership of 29.6 million, it marked a 12% increase over the 2018 ceremony. Anthony Michael Hall
Michael Anthony Hall (born April 14, 1968), known professionally as Anthony Michael Hall, is an American actor who starred in several teen-oriented films of the 1980s. Hall began his career in commercials and on stage as a child, and made his screen debut in 1980. His films with director-screenwriter John Hughes, beginning with the popular 1983 comedy National Lampoon's Vacation and the coming-of-age comedy Sixteen Candles, shaped his early career. Hall's next movies with Hughes were the teen classics The Breakfast Club and Weird Science, both in 1985.
Hall diversified his roles to avoid becoming typecast as his geek persona, joining the cast of Saturday Night Live (1985–1986) and starring in films such as Out of Bounds (1986), Johnny Be Good (1988), Edward Scissorhands (1990) and Six Degrees of Separation (1993). After a series of minor roles in the 1990s, he starred as Microsoft's Bill Gates in the 1999 television film Pirates of Silicon Valley. He had the leading role in the USA Network series The Dead Zone from 2002 to 2007. Christopher Lloyd
Christopher Allen Lloyd (born October 22, 1938) is an American actor, voice actor, and comedian. Lloyd came to public attention in Northeastern theater productions during the 1960s and early 1970s, earning Drama Desk and Obie awards for his work. He made his screen debut in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1975), and gained widespread recognition as Jim Ignatowski in the comedy series Taxi (1978–1983), for which he won two Emmy Awards. Lloyd also starred as Emmett "Doc" Brown in the Back to the Future trilogy, Judge Doom in Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988), and Uncle Fester in The Addams Family (1991) and its sequel Addams Family Values (1993).
Lloyd earned a third Emmy for his 1992 guest appearance in Road to Avonlea, and won an Independent Spirit Award for his performance in Twenty Bucks (1993). He has done extensive voice work, including Merlock in DuckTales the Movie (1990), Grigori Rasputin in Anastasia (1997), the Woodsman in the Cartoon Network miniseries Over the Garden Wall (2014), and the Hacker in PBS Kids series Cyberchase (2002–present), which earned him two further Emmy nominations. Lloyd has also been nominated for two Saturn Awards and a BIFA Award. Grand Canyon
The Grand Canyon (Hopi: Ongtupqa; Yavapai: Wi:kaʼi:la, Navajo: Bidááʼ Haʼaztʼiʼ Tsékooh, Spanish: Gran Cañón) is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States. The Grand Canyon is 277 miles (446 km) long, up to 18 miles (29 km) wide and attains a depth of over a mile (6,093 feet or 1,857 meters).The canyon and adjacent rim are contained within Grand Canyon National Park, the Kaibab National Forest, Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, the Hualapai Indian Reservation, the Havasupai Indian Reservation and the Navajo Nation. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of preservation of the Grand Canyon area, and visited it on numerous occasions to hunt and enjoy the scenery.
Nearly two billion years of Earth's geological history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut their channels through layer after layer of rock while the Colorado Plateau was uplifted. While some aspects about the history of incision of the canyon are debated by geologists, several recent studies support the hypothesis that the Colorado River established its course through the area about 5 to 6 million years ago. Since that time, the Colorado River has driven the down-cutting of the tributaries and retreat of the cliffs, simultaneously deepening and widening the canyon.
For thousands of years, the area has been continuously inhabited by Native Americans, who built settlements within the canyon and its many caves. The Pueblo people considered the Grand Canyon a holy site, and made pilgrimages to it. The first European known to have viewed the Grand Canyon was García López de Cárdenas from Spain, who arrived in 1540. Great Disappointment
The Great Disappointment in the Millerite movement was the reaction that followed Baptist preacher William Miller's proclamations that Jesus Christ would return to the Earth by 1844, what he called the Advent. His study of the Daniel 8 prophecy during the Second Great Awakening led him to the conclusion that Daniel's "cleansing of the sanctuary" was cleansing of the world from sin when Christ would come, and he and many others prepared, but October 22, 1844, came and they were disappointed.These events paved the way for the Adventists who formed the Seventh-day Adventist Church. They contended that what had happened on October 22 was not Jesus' return, as Miller had thought, but the start of Jesus' final work of atonement, the cleansing in the heavenly sanctuary, leading up to the Second Coming. House of Cards (U.S. TV series)
House of Cards is an American political thriller web television series created by Beau Willimon. It is an adaptation of the 1990 BBC miniseries of the same title and based on the novel of the same title by Michael Dobbs. The first 13-episode season was released on February 1, 2013, on the streaming service Netflix.
House of Cards is set in Washington, D.C. and is the story of Congressman Frank Underwood (Kevin Spacey), a Democrat from South Carolina's 5th congressional district and House Majority Whip, and his equally ambitious wife Claire Underwood (Robin Wright). Frank is passed over for appointment as Secretary of State, so he initiates an elaborate plan to attain power, aided by Claire. The series deals with themes of ruthless pragmatism, manipulation, betrayal, and power.House of Cards has received positive reviews and several award nominations, including 33 Primetime Emmy Award nominations, including for Outstanding Drama Series, Outstanding Lead Actor for Spacey, and Outstanding Lead Actress for Wright. It is the first original online-only web television series to receive major Emmy nominations. The show also earned eight Golden Globe Award nominations, with Wright winning for Best Actress – Television Series Drama in 2014 and Spacey winning for Best Actor – Television Series Drama in 2015.On October 30, 2017, Netflix announced that the sixth season would be the final season, following sexual misconduct allegations against Spacey. On November 3, 2017, Netflix announced that Spacey had been fired from the show. On December 4, 2017, Netflix announced that an eight-episode sixth and final season would start production in early 2018 without Spacey's involvement. It was released on November 2, 2018. IPad
iPad ( EYE-pad) is a line of tablet computers designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc., which run the iOS mobile operating system. The first iPad was released on April 3, 2010; the most recent iPad models are the iPad (2018), released on March 27, 2018; the fifth-generation iPad mini, released on March 18, 2019; the third-generation iPad Air, released on March 18, 2019; and the 11-inch (280 mm) and third-generation 12.9-inch (330 mm) iPad Pro, released on November 7, 2018.
As of May 2017, Apple has sold more than 360 million iPads, though sales peaked in 2013. It is the most popular tablet computer by sales as of the second quarter of 2018.The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard. All iPads can connect via Wi-Fi; some models also have cellular connectivity. iPads can shoot video, take photos, play music, and perform Internet functions such as web-browsing and emailing. Other functions – games, reference, GPS navigation, social networking, etc. – can be enabled by downloading and installing apps. As of March 2016, the App Store has more than million apps for the iPad by Apple and third parties.
There have been eight versions of the iPad. The first generation established design precedents, some of which have persisted through all models. The 2nd-generation iPad (iPad 2) introduced a new thinner design, a dual-core Apple A5 processor, and VGA front-facing and 720p rear-facing cameras designed for FaceTime video calling. The third generation added a Retina Display, the new Apple A5X processor with a quad-core graphics processor, a 5-megapixel camera, HD 1080p video recording, voice dictation, and 4G (LTE). The fourth generation added the Apple A6X processor and replaced the 30-pin connector with an all-digital Lightning connector. The iPad Air added the Apple A7 processor and the Apple M7 motion coprocessor, and reduced the thickness for the first time since the iPad 2. The iPad Air 2 added the Apple A8X processor, the Apple M8 motion coprocessor, an 8-megapixel camera, and the Touch ID fingerprint sensor; and further reduced the thickness. The iPad introduced in 2017 added the Apple A9 processor, while sacrificing some of the improvements the iPad Air 2 introduced in exchange for a lower launch price.
There have been five versions of the iPad Mini, all of which have a screen size of 7.9 inches (20 cm). The first generation has similar internal specifications to the iPad 2 but uses the Lightning connector instead. The iPad Mini 2 added the Retina Display, the Apple A7 processor, and the Apple M7 motion coprocessor, closely matching the internal specifications of the iPad Air. The iPad Mini 3 added the Touch ID fingerprint sensor. The iPad Mini 4 features the Apple A8 and the Apple M8 motion coprocessor. The 5th generation features the Apple A12 SoC.
There have been three generations of the iPad Pro. The first generation came with 9.7" and 12.9" screen sizes, while the second came with 10.5" and 12.9" sizes, and the third with 11" and 12.9" sizes. The iPad Pros have unique features such as the Smart Connector, which are exclusive to this series of iPads. IPad Air
The iPad Air is the first-generation iPad Air tablet computer designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. It was announced on October 22, 2013, and was released on November 1, 2013. The iPad Air features a thinner design with similarities to the contemporaneous iPad Mini 2 with the same 64-bit Apple A7 processor with M7 coprocessor. It was then discontinued with the launch of a 9.7 inch iPad Pro on March 21, 2016.
Its successor, the iPad Air 2, was announced on October 16, 2014, and was sold until its discontinuation on March 21, 2017. The "iPad Air" name was brought back with the announcement of the third-generation iPad Air on March 18, 2019. IPad Mini
The iPad Mini family (branded and marketed as iPad mini) is a line of mini tablet computers designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. It is a sub-series of the iPad line of tablets, with a reduced screen size of 7.9 inches, in contrast to the standard 9.7 inches. The first generation iPad Mini was announced on October 23, 2012, and was released on November 2, 2012, in nearly all of Apple's markets. It features similar internal specifications to the iPad 2, including its display resolution.
The second generation iPad Mini, with a faster processor and a Retina Display, was announced on October 22, 2013 and released on November 12, 2013. The third generation iPad Mini was announced on October 16, 2014 and was released on October 22, 2014; it features the same external hardware as the Mini 2 and the addition of a Touch ID fingerprint sensor compatible with Apple Pay. On September 9, 2015, Apple released the iPad Mini 4. On March 18, 2019, Apple released the 5th generation iPad Mini. ITunes Store
The iTunes Store is a software-based online digital media store operated by Apple Inc. that opened on April 28, 2003, as a result of Steve Jobs' push to open a digital marketplace for music. As of January 2017, iTunes offered over 35-40 million songs, 2.2 million apps, 25,000 TV shows, and 65,000 films. When it opened, it was the only legal digital catalog of music to offer songs from all five major record labels. As of June 2013, iTunes Store possessed 575 million active user accounts, and served over 315 million mobile devices, including Apple Watches, iPods, iPhones, Apple TV and iPads. It (character)
It is the title character of American author Stephen King's 1986 horror novel It. The character is an ancient cosmic evil which preys upon the children of Derry, Maine, roughly every 25 years, using a variety of powers that include the ability to shapeshift, manipulate, and go unnoticed by adults. During the course of the story, it primarily appears in the form of Pennywise the Dancing Clown.
King stated in a 2013 interview that he came up with the idea for Pennywise after asking himself what scared children "more than anything else in the world". He felt that the answer was clowns. King thought of a troll like the one in the children's tale "Three Billy Goats Gruff", who inhabited a sewer system.The character was portrayed in its Pennywise form by Tim Curry in the 1990 television adaptation, in the 1998 television adaptation by Lilliput, and in the 2017 film adaptation by Bill Skarsgård, who will reprise the role in It: Chapter Two, which is scheduled to be released on September 6, 2019. Juncker Commission
The Juncker Commission is the European Commission in office since 1 November 2014 and is due to serve until 2019. Its president is Jean-Claude Juncker, who presides over 27 other commissioners (one from each of the states composing the European Union, except Luxembourg, which is Juncker's state). In July 2014, Juncker was officially elected to succeed José Manuel Barroso, who completed his second five-year term in that year. OS X Mavericks
OS X Mavericks (version 10.9) is the tenth major release of OS X (since June 2016 rebranded as macOS), Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers. OS X Mavericks was announced on June 10, 2013, at WWDC 2013, and was released on October 22, 2013 worldwide.
The update emphasized battery life, Finder improvements, other improvements for power users, and continued iCloud integration, as well as bringing more of Apple's iOS apps to OS X. Mavericks, which was named after the surfing location in Northern California, was the first in the series of OS X releases named for places in Apple's home state; earlier releases used the names of big cats.OS X Mavericks was the first OS X major release to be a free upgrade since Mac OS X 10.1 "Puma". Solar eclipse of October 22, 1911
An annual solar eclipse occurred on October 22, 1911. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. An annular solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is smaller than the Sun's, blocking most of the Sun's light and causing the Sun to look like an annulus (ring). An annular eclipse appears as a partial eclipse over a region of the Earth thousands of kilometres wide. Annularity was visible from the Russian Empire (the parts now belonging to Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan), China, French Indochina (the part now belonging to Vietnam), Philippines, Dutch East Indies (today's Indonesia), Territory of Papua (now belonging to Papua New Guinea) including the capital city Port Moresby, and British Western Pacific Territories (the parts now belonging to Solomon Islands and Tuvalu, including the city of Honiara and Tulagi). Teri Garr
Teri Ann Garr (born December 11, 1944) is a retired American actress, singer, and dancer. She frequently appeared in comedic roles throughout her career, which spans four decades and includes over 140 credits in film and television. Her accolades include one Academy Award nomination, a BAFTA Award nomination, and one National Board of Review Award.
Born in Lakewood, Ohio, Garr was raised in North Hollywood, California, the third child of a vaudevillian father and costume designer mother. In her youth, Garr trained extensively in ballet. She began her career as a teenager with small roles in television and film in the early 1960s, including appearances as a dancer in nine Elvis Presley musicals. After spending two years attending college, Garr left Los Angeles and studied acting at the Lee Strasberg Institute in New York City.
Garr had a supporting role in Francis Ford Coppola's thriller The Conversation (1974) before having her film breakthrough as Inga in Young Frankenstein (1974). In 1977, she was cast in a high-profile role in Steven Spielberg's Close Encounters of the Third Kind. Garr continued to appear in various high-profile roles throughout the 1980s, including supporting parts in the comedies Mr. Mom (1983) and Tootsie (1982), for the latter of which she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her role Sandra Lester. She reunited with Coppola the same year, appearing in his musical One from the Heart (1982), followed by a supporting part in Martin Scorsese's black comedy After Hours (1985).
Her quick banter led to Garr being a regular guest on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson and Late Night with David Letterman. In the 1990s, she appeared in two films by Robert Altman: The Player (1992) and Prêt-à-Porter (1994), followed by supporting roles in Michael (1996) and Ghost World (2001). She also appeared on television as Phoebe Abbott in three episodes of the sitcom Friends (1997–98). In 2002, Garr announced that she had been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, the symptoms of which had negatively affected her ability to perform beginning in the 1990s. US Airways
US Airways (formerly known as USAir) was a major American airline that ceased to operate independently when the Federal Aviation Administration granted a single operating certificate (SOC) for US Airways and American Airlines on April 8, 2015. Publicly, the two carriers appeared to merge when their reservations systems and booking processes were merged on October 17, 2015; however, other systems were still separate at that time. The airline had an extensive international and domestic network, with 193 destinations in 24 countries in North America, South America, Europe, and the Middle East. The airline was a member of the Star Alliance, before becoming an affiliate member of Oneworld in March 2014. US Airways utilized a fleet of 343 mainline jet aircraft, as well as 278 regional jet and turbo-prop aircraft operated by contract and subsidiary airlines under the name US Airways Express via code sharing agreements.
The carrier operated the US Airways Shuttle, a US Airways brand which provided hourly service between Logan International Airport in Boston, LaGuardia Airport in New York City, and Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport in Washington, D.C. As of October 2013, US Airways employed 32,312 people worldwide and operated 3,028 daily flights (1,241 US Airways Mainline, 1,790 US Airways Express) Roughly 60% of US Airways flights were operated by US Airways Express.In 1979, after passage of the Airline Deregulation Act, Allegheny Airlines changed its name to USAir and began seeking to expand its operations. A decade later, it had acquired Piedmont Airlines and Pacific Southwest Airlines (PSA), and was one of the U.S.'s seven remaining transcontinental legacy carriers. In 2005, America West Airlines carried out a reverse merger, acquiring the assets and branding of the larger US Airways while putting the America West leadership team largely in charge of the merged airline.
In February 2013, American Airlines and US Airways announced plans to merge, creating the largest airline in the world. The holding companies of American and US Airways merged effective December 9, 2013. In preparation for their eventual integration, the airlines began offering reciprocal frequent flyer benefits on January 7, 2014, and US Airways left Star Alliance to join Oneworld on March 31, 2014. The combined airline carries the American Airlines name and branding and will maintain the existing US Airways hubs in Charlotte, Philadelphia, Phoenix, and Washington for a period of at least five years under the terms of a settlement with the Department of Justice and several state attorneys general. US Airways management runs the combined airline from the American headquarters in Fort Worth, Texas. On April 8, 2015, the FAA officially granted a single operating certificate for both carriers, marking the end of US Airways as an independent carrier. The brand continued to exist until October.On July 13, 2015, American announced that it planned to discontinue the US Airways brand name on October 17, 2015. On that date, US Airways made the final flight for the airline from San Francisco to Philadelphia with stops at Phoenix and Charlotte, operating as Flight 1939—with 1939 commemorating the birth of All American Aviation, which evolved over the decades to become US Airways. However, repainting of US Airways' planes into the American Airlines scheme was expected to take until "late 2016", with new flight attendant uniforms also being introduced in 2016, at which point the US Airways brand was to no longer be displayed on any of its former planes, employees or assets. White Americans
White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry. White Americans (including White Hispanics) constitute the historical and current majority of the people living in the United States, with 72% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. Non-Hispanic whites totaled about 197,285,202 or 60.7% of the U.S. population. European Americans are the largest ethnic group of White Americans and constitute the historical population of the United States since the nation's founding.
The United States Census Bureau defines white people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa." Like all official U.S. racial categories, "White" has a "not Hispanic or Latino" and a "Hispanic or Latino" component, the latter consisting mostly of White Mexican Americans and White Cuban Americans. The term "Caucasian" is synonymous with "white", although the latter is sometimes used to denote skin tone instead of race. Some of the non-European ethnic groups classified as white by the U.S. Census, such as Arab Americans, Jewish Americans, and Hispanics or Latinos, may not identify as or may not be perceived to be, white.
The largest ancestries of American whites are: German Americans (17%), Irish Americans (12%), English Americans (9%), Italian Americans (6%), French Americans (4%), Polish Americans (3%), Scottish Americans (3%), Scotch-Irish Americans (2%), Dutch Americans (2%), Norwegian Americans (2%) and Swedish Americans (1%). However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as the stock tend to self-report and identify as simply "Americans" (7%), due to the length of time they have inhabited the United States, particularly if their family arrived prior to the American Revolution. The vast majority of white Americans also have ancestry from multiple countries. Y Combinator
Y Combinator is an American seed accelerator, started in March 2005. Y Combinator is consistently ranked at the top of U.S. accelerators.
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