October 20

October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 72 days remain until the end of the year.

01 02 03 04 05
06 07 08 09 10 11 12
13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20 21 22 23 24 25 26
27 28 29 30 31  
  2018 (Saturday)
  2017 (Friday)
  2016 (Thursday)
  2015 (Tuesday)
  2014 (Monday)
  2013 (Sunday)
  2012 (Saturday)
  2011 (Thursday)
  2010 (Wednesday)
  2009 (Tuesday)

Events

  • 1548 – The city of La Paz is founded by Alonso de Mendoza.
  • 1568 – The Spanish Duke of Alba defeats a Dutch rebel force under William the Silent.
  • 1572 – Eighty Years' War: Three thousand Spanish soldiers wade through fifteen miles of water in one night to effect the relief of Goes.
  • 1720 – Caribbean pirate Calico Jack is captured by the Royal Navy.
  • 1740 – France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony refuse to honour the Pragmatic Sanction, and the War of the Austrian Succession begins.
  • 1781 – The Patent of Toleration, providing limited freedom of worship, is approved in Austria.
  • 1803 – The United States Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase.
  • 1818The Convention of 1818 is signed between the United States and the United Kingdom, which settles the Canada–United States border on the 49th parallel for most of its length.
  • 1827 – In the Battle of Navarino, a combined Turkish and Egyptian fleet is defeated by British, French and Russian naval forces in the last significant battle fought with wooden sailing ships.
  • 1883 – Peru and Chile sign the Treaty of Ancón, by which the Tarapacá province is ceded to the latter, bringing an end to Peru's involvement in the War of the Pacific.
  • 1904 – Chile and Bolivia sign the Treaty of Peace and Friendship, delimiting the border between the two countries.
  • 1910 – The hull of the RMS Olympic, sister-ship to the ill-fated RMS Titanic, is launched from the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast.
  • 1935 – The Long March, a mammoth retreat undertaken by the armed forces of the Chinese Communist Party a year prior, ends.
  • 1941 – World War II: Thousands of civilians in German-occupied Serbia are murdered in the Kragujevac massacre.
  • 1944 – World War II: The Soviet Army and Yugoslav Partisans liberate Belgrade.
  • 1944 – Liquefied natural gas leaks from storage tanks in Cleveland and then explodes, leveling 30 blocks and killing 130 people.
  • 1944 – American general Douglas MacArthur fulfills his promise to return to the Philippines when he commands an Allied assault on the islands.
  • 1947 – The House Un-American Activities Committee begins its investigation into Communist infiltration of the Hollywood film industry, resulting in a blacklist that prevents some from working in the industry for years.
  • 1951 – The "Johnny Bright incident" occurs in Stillwater, Oklahoma.
  • 1952 – The Governor of Kenya declares a state of emergency and begins arresting hundreds of suspected leaders of the Mau Mau Uprising.
  • 1961 – The Soviet Union performs the first armed test of a submarine-launched ballistic missile, launching an R-13 from a Golf-class submarine.
  • 1962 – People's Republic of China launches simultaneous offensives in Ladakh and across the McMahon Line, igniting the Sino-Indian War.
  • 1968 – Former First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy marries Greek shipping tycoon Aristotle Onassis.
  • 1973 – "Saturday Night Massacre": United States President Richard Nixon fires U.S. Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus after they refuse to fire special prosecutor Archibald Cox, who is finally fired by Robert Bork.
  • 1973 – The Sydney Opera House is opened by Elizabeth II after 14 years of construction.
  • 1976The ferry George Prince is struck by a ship while crossing the Mississippi River. Seventy-eight passengers and crew die, and only 18 people aboard the ferry survive.
  • 1977 – Rock band Lynyrd Skynyrd's airplane crashes. Lead singer Ronnie Van Zant and guitarist Steve Gaines perish in the crash.
  • 1981 – Two police officers and an armored car guard are killed during an armed robbery carried out by members of the Black Liberation Army and Weather Underground.
  • 1982 – During the UEFA Cup match between FC Spartak Moscow and HFC Haarlem, 66 people are crushed to death in the Luzhniki disaster.
  • 1991 – A 6.8 Mw earthquake strikes the Uttarkashi region of India, killing more than 1,000 people.
  • 2011 – Libyan Civil War: Rebel forces capture Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi in his hometown of Sirte and kill him shortly thereafter.

Births

Deaths

Holidays and observances

References

  1. ^ Hugh Chisholm (1910). The Encyclopædia britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information. The Encyclopædia Britannica Company.
  2. ^ Albert Tezla (1970). Hungarian Authors; a Bibliographical Handbook. Harvard University Press. pp. 68–. ISBN 978-0-674-42650-4.
  3. ^ Nicholas Canny; Nicholas P. Canny (12 August 1982). The Upstart Earl: A Study of the Social and Mental World of Richard Boyle, First Earl of Cork, 1566-1643. Cambridge University Press. pp. 78–. ISBN 978-0-521-24416-9.
  4. ^ John Lemprière; Eleazar Lord (1825). Lempriere's Universal Biography: Containing a Critical and Historical Account of the Lives, Characters, and Labours of Eminent Persons, in All Ages and Countries. Together with Selections of Foreign Biography from Watkin's Dictionary, Recently Published, and about Eight Hundred Original Articles of American Biography. R. Lockwood. pp. 177–.
  5. ^ Adrian Tinniswood (2002). His Invention So Fertile: A Life of Christopher Wren. Pimlico. pp. 330–. ISBN 978-0-7126-7364-8.
  6. ^ Fayette Phelps Leach (1932). Thomas Hungerford of Hartford and New London, Conn: And Some of His Descendants with Their English Ancestors. Supplement.
  7. ^ Sylvanus Urban (1864). THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. pp. 767–.
  8. ^ Stanley S. Sokol; Sharon F. Mrotek Kissane; Alfred L. Abramowicz (1992). The Polish Biographical Dictionary: Profiles of Nearly 900 Poles who Have Made Lasting Contributions to World Civilization. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. pp. 229–. ISBN 978-0-86516-245-7.
  9. ^ Henry Stoddard Ruggles (1897). General Timothy Ruggles, 1711-1795. Priv. print.
  10. ^ George Naylor, The Register's of Thorrington (n.n.: n.n., 1888). Hereinafter cited as Registers of Thorrington.
  11. ^ Norman L. Johnson; Samuel Kotz (26 September 2011). Leading Personalities in Statistical Sciences: From the Seventeenth Century to the Present. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-1-118-15072-6.
  12. ^ Heinz Dietrich Fischer; Erika J. Fischer (1994). American History Awards, 1917-1991: From Colonial Settlements to the Civil Rights Movement. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 45–. ISBN 978-3-598-30177-3.
  13. ^ Brian Anthony; Andy Edmonds (23 December 1997). Smile When the Raindrops Fall: The Story of Charley Chase. Scarecrow Press. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-1-4617-3418-5.
  14. ^ The Encyclopedia of Country Music. Oxford University Press. 16 December 2004. pp. 923–. ISBN 978-0-19-984044-1.
  15. ^ Scott, Cavan; Wright, Mark (2013). Doctor Who Whology: The Official Miscellany. London: BBC Books. p. 120. ISBN 9781849906197.
  16. ^ Rose, Mike (October 20, 2018). "Today's top celebrity birthdays list for October 20, 2018". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  17. ^ FashionModelDirectory.com, The FMD -. "Elyse Taylor - Fashion Model - Models - Photos, Editorials & Latest News - The FMD". The FMD - FashionModelDirectory.com.
  18. ^ "Senior List". Essendon Football Club. Retrieved 4 October 2018.

External links

2010

2010 (MMX)

was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2010th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 10th year of the 3rd millennium, the 10th year of the 21st century, and the 1st year of the 2010s decade.

2010 was designated as:

International Year of Biodiversity

International Year of Youth

2010 European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion

International Year for the Rapprochement of Cultures

2011

2011 (MMXI)

was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2011th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 11th year of the 3rd millennium, the 11th year of the 21st century, and the 2nd year of the 2010s decade.

2011 was designated as:

International Year of Forests

International Year of Chemistry

International Year for People of African Descent

2012

2012 (MMXII)

was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2012th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 12th year of the 3rd millennium, the 12th year of the 21st century, and the 3rd year of the 2010s decade.

2012 was designated as:

International Year of Cooperatives

International Year of Sustainable Energy for All

2013

2013 (MMXIII)

was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2013th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 13th year of the 3rd millennium, the 13th year of the 21st century, and the 4th year of the 2010s decade.

2013 was designated as:

International Year of Water Cooperation

International Year of Quinoa

Cameron Diaz

Cameron Michelle Diaz (born August 30, 1972) is an American actress, writer, and former model. She has frequently appeared in comedies throughout her career, while also earning critical recognition in dramatic films. Her accolades include four Golden Globe Award nominations, three Screen Actors Guild Award nominations, and a New York Film Critics Award. In 2013, she was named the highest-paid actress over 40 in Hollywood. As of 2018, the U.S. domestic box office grosses of Diaz's films total over $3 billion USD, with worldwide grosses surpassing $7 billion, making her the fifth highest-grossing U.S. domestic box office actress.Born in San Diego, California, Diaz was raised in Long Beach. While still in high school, she signed a modeling contract with Elite Model Management. She made her film debut at age 21 opposite Jim Carrey in the comedy The Mask (1994). She was subsequently cast in a supporting role in My Best Friend's Wedding (1997) before appearing as the titular Mary in the Farrelly brothers' hit comedy There's Something About Mary (1998), which brought her increased fame and a Golden Globe nomination for Best Actress in a Comedy or Musical. Her following two projects—the sports drama Any Given Sunday, and Spike Jonze's surrealist fantasy Being John Malkovich (both 1999)—lent Diaz a reputation as a dramatic actress, the latter earning her her second Golden Globe nomination.

Diaz earned a third Golden Globe nomination for her supporting role in Vanilla Sky (2001), and appeared in numerous high-profile films in the early 2000s, including Charlie's Angels (2000) and its sequel Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle (2003), as well as voicing the character of Princess Fiona in the Shrek series (2001–2010). In 2003, she was cast in Martin Scorsese's period epic Gangs of New York, for which she earned her fourth Golden Globe nomination. Her subsequent films included the dramatic comedies In Her Shoes (2005) and The Holiday (2006), and the psychological thriller The Box (2009). Diaz appeared in supporting parts in The Green Hornet in 2011, followed by starring roles in the comedies The Other Woman and Sex Tape (both 2014).

After appearing in Will Gluck's 2014 film adaptation of Annie, Diaz confirmed she was formally retiring from acting. Diaz is the author of two health books: The Body Book (2013), a New York Times bestseller, and The Longevity Book (2016).

Catholic-Hierarchy.org

Catholic-Hierarchy.org is an online database of bishops and dioceses of the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Catholic Churches. The website is not officially sanctioned by the Church. It is run as a private project by David M. Cheney in Kansas City.

Emory University

Emory University is a private research university in Atlanta, in the U.S. state of Georgia. The university was founded as Emory College in 1836 in Oxford, Georgia, by the Methodist Episcopal Church and was named in honor of Methodist bishop John Emory. In 1915, Emory College moved to its present location in Druid Hills and was rechartered as Emory University. Emory maintained a presence in Oxford that eventually became Oxford College, a residential liberal arts college for the first two years of the Emory baccalaureate degree. The university is the second-oldest private institution of higher education in Georgia and among the fifty oldest private universities in the United States.Emory University has nine academic divisions: Emory College of Arts and Sciences, Oxford College, Goizueta Business School, Laney Graduate School, School of Law, School of Medicine, Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Rollins School of Public Health, and the Candler School of Theology. Emory University, the Georgia Institute of Technology, and Peking University in Beijing, China jointly administer the Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering. The university operates the Confucius Institute in Atlanta in partnership with Nanjing University. Emory has a growing faculty research partnership with the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). Emory University students come from all 50 states, 6 territories of the United States, and over 100 foreign countries.Emory Healthcare is the largest healthcare system in the state of Georgia and comprises seven major hospitals, including the internationally renowned Emory University Hospital and Emory University Hospital Midtown. The university operates the Winship Cancer Institute, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, and many disease and vaccine research centers. Emory University is the leading coordinator of the U.S. Health Department's National Ebola Training and Education Center. The university is one of four institutions involved in the NIAID's Tuberculosis Research Units Program. The International Association of National Public Health Institutes is headquartered at the university and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Cancer Society are national affiliate institutions located adjacent to the campus. The university is partnered with the Nobel Peace Prize winning Carter Center.Emory University has the 16th largest endowment among U.S. colleges and universities. It is ranked 21st nationally and 71st globally according to U.S. News & World Report's 2018 rankings. Emory University has a Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education status of R1: "highest research activity" and is cited for high scientific performance and citation impact in the CWTS Leiden Ranking. The National Science Foundation ranked the university 36th among academic institutions in the United States for research and development (R&D) expenditures. Emory University research is funded primarily by federal government agencies, namely the National Institutes of Health (NIH). In 1995 Emory University was elected to the Association of American Universities, an association of the 62 leading research universities in the United States & Canada.Emory has many distinguished alumni and affiliates, including 2 Prime Ministers, 9 university presidents, 11 members of the United States Congress, 2 Nobel Peace Prize laureates, a Vice President of the United States, a United States Speaker of the House, and a United States Supreme Court Justice. Other notable alumni include Rhodes Scholars, 6 Pulitzer Prize winners, Emmy Award winners, MacArthur Fellows, CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, heads of state and other leaders in foreign government, academics, musicians, and an Olympic medalist. Emory has more than 149,000 alumni, with 75 alumni clubs established worldwide in 20 countries.

Forrest Gump

Forrest Gump is a 1994 American comedy-drama film based on the 1986 novel of the same name by Winston Groom. It was directed by Robert Zemeckis and written by Eric Roth. The film stars Tom Hanks, Robin Wright, Gary Sinise, Mykelti Williamson, and Sally Field. The story depicts several decades in the life of Forrest Gump (Hanks), a slow-witted but kind-hearted man from Alabama who witnesses and, unwittingly, influences several defining historical events in the 20th century in the United States.

The film differs substantially from the novel. Principal photography took place in late 1993, mainly in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Extensive visual effects were used to incorporate Hanks into archived footage and develop other scenes. The soundtrack features songs reflecting the different periods seen in the film.

Released in the United States on July 6, 1994, Forrest Gump received favorable reviews for Zemeckis' directing, Hanks' performance, visual effects, and script. The film was an enormous success at the box office; it became the top-grossing film in North America released that year and earned over US$677 million worldwide during its theatrical run, making it the second highest-grossing film of 1994. The soundtrack sold over 12 million copies. Forrest Gump won the Academy Awards for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor for Hanks, Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Visual Effects, and Best Film Editing. It won many other awards and nominations, including Golden Globes, People's Choice Awards, and Young Artist Awards.

Varying interpretations have been made of the protagonist and the film's political symbolism. In 1996, a restaurant based on the film, Bubba Gump Shrimp Company, opened, and has since expanded to locations worldwide. In 2011, the Library of Congress selected the film for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".

Justin Trudeau

Justin Pierre James Trudeau (; French: [ʒystɛ̃ tʁydo]; born December 25, 1971) is a Canadian politician serving as the 23rd prime minister of Canada since 2015 and Leader of the Liberal Party since 2013. Trudeau is the second-youngest Canadian Prime Minister after Joe Clark; he is also the first to be related to a previous holder of the post, as the eldest son of Pierre Trudeau.Born in Ottawa, Trudeau attended Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf and graduated from McGill University in 1994 and the University of British Columbia in 1998. He gained a high public profile in 2000, when he delivered a eulogy at his father's state funeral. After graduating, he worked as a teacher in Vancouver, British Columbia. He completed one year of an engineering program at Montreal's École Polytechnique, from 2002 to 2003, and one year of a master's program in environmental geography at McGill University, from 2004 to 2005. He advocated for various causes, and portrayed a cousin in the 2007 TV miniseries The Great War.In the 2008 federal election, he was elected to represent the riding of Papineau in the House of Commons. In 2009, he was appointed the Liberal Party's critic for youth and multiculturalism, and the following year, became critic for citizenship and immigration. In 2011, he was appointed as critic for secondary education and youth and amateur sport. Trudeau won the leadership of the Liberal Party in April 2013 and went on to lead his party to victory in the 2015 federal election, moving the third-placed Liberals from 36 seats to 184 seats, the largest-ever numerical increase by a party in a Canadian general election.

Nicolas Cage

Nicolas Kim Coppola (born January 7, 1964), known professionally as Nicolas Cage, is an American actor, director and producer. During his early career, Cage starred in a variety of films such as Valley Girl (1983), Racing with the Moon (1984), Birdy (1984), Peggy Sue Got Married (1986), Raising Arizona (1987), Moonstruck (1987), Vampire's Kiss (1989), Wild at Heart (1990), Fire Birds (1990), Honeymoon in Vegas (1992), and Red Rock West (1993).

Cage received an Academy Award, a Golden Globe, and Screen Actors Guild Award for his performance as an alcoholic Hollywood writer in Leaving Las Vegas (1995) before coming to the attention of wider audiences with mainstream films, such as The Rock (1996), Face/Off (1997), Con Air (1997) and City of Angels (1998). He earned his second Academy Award nomination for his performance as Charlie and Donald Kaufman in Adaptation (2002). He also directed the film Sonny (2002), for which he was nominated for Grand Special Prize at Deauville Film Festival. Cage owns the production company Saturn Films and has produced films such as Shadow of the Vampire (2000) and The Life of David Gale (2003).

He has also appeared in National Treasure (2004), Lord of War (2005), Bad Lieutenant: Port of Call New Orleans (2009), and Kick-Ass (2010). Films such as Ghost Rider (2007) and Knowing (2009) were box office successes. In the 2010s, he has starred in The Croods (2013), Joe (2014), Mom and Dad (2018), Mandy (2018), Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse (2018) and Love, Antosha (2019).

Nintendo Switch

The Nintendo Switch is a video game console developed by Nintendo and was released on March 3, 2017. It is a hybrid console that can be used as both a stationary and portable device. Its wireless Joy-Con controllers, which include standard buttons and directional analog sticks for user input, motion sensing, and high-definition tactile feedback, can attach to both sides of the console to support handheld-style play. They can also connect to a Grip accessory to provide a traditional home console gamepad form, or be used individually in the hand like the Wii Remote and Nunchuk, supporting local multiplayer modes. The Nintendo Switch's software supports online gaming through standard Internet connectivity, as well as local wireless ad hoc connectivity with other Switch consoles. Nintendo Switch games and software are available on both physical flash-based ROM cartridges and digital distribution via Nintendo eShop; the system does not use region locking. As an eighth-generation console, the Nintendo Switch competes with Microsoft's Xbox One and Sony's PlayStation 4.

Known in development by its codename NX, the concept of the Switch came about as Nintendo's reaction to several quarters of financial losses into 2014, attributed to poor sales of its previous console, the Wii U, and market competition from mobile gaming. Nintendo's then-president Satoru Iwata pushed the company towards mobile gaming and novel hardware. The Nintendo Switch's design is aimed at a wide demographic of video game players through the multiple modes of use. Nintendo opted to use more standard electronic components, such as a chipset based on Nvidia's Tegra line, to make development for the console easier for programmers and more compatible with existing game engines. As the Wii U had struggled to gain external support, leaving it with a weak software library, Nintendo preemptively sought the support of many third-party developers and publishers to help build out the Switch's game library alongside Nintendo's own first-party titles, including many independent video game studios. While Nintendo initially anticipated around 100 titles for its first year, over 320 titles from first-party, third-party, and independent developers were released by the end of 2017.

The Nintendo Switch was unveiled in October 2016 and was released in most areas worldwide on March 3, 2017. The console shipped nearly three million in the first month of its launch, exceeding Nintendo's initial projection of two million, and within a year of release achieved over 14 million units sold worldwide, outselling total lifetime sales of the Wii U. By the start of 2018, the Switch became the fastest-selling home console in both Japan and the United States. As of December 2018, Nintendo Switch has sold more than 32 million units worldwide. Switch sales have been strongly tied to sales of Nintendo's first-party titles, with five games, The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild, Super Smash Bros. Ultimate, Super Mario Odyssey, Mario Kart 8 Deluxe, and Pokémon: Let's Go having sold over ten million units each.

Q-Tip (musician)

Kamaal Ibn John Fareed (born Jonathan William Davis; April 10, 1970), better known by his stage name Q-Tip, is an American rapper, record producer, singer, actor and DJ. Nicknamed The Abstract, he is noted for his innovative jazz-influenced style of hip hop production and his philosophical, esoteric and introspective lyrical themes. He embarked on his music career in the late 1980s, as an MC and main producer of the influential alternative hip hop group A Tribe Called Quest. In the mid-1990s, he co-founded the production team The Ummah, followed by the release of his gold-certified solo debut Amplified in 1999. In the 2000s, he released the Grammy Award-nominated album The Renaissance and the experimental album Kamaal the Abstract.

As an actor, Q-Tip has appeared in various films such as Poetic Justice, She Hate Me and Prison Song, the latter of which he co-wrote and played the lead role. As a DJ, he has hosted the Beats 1 radio show Abstract Radio since 2015. In 2016, Q-Tip was named the artistic director for hip hop culture at the Kennedy Center, and in 2018, he became the instructor of a jazz and hip hop course at New York University's Clive Davis Institute of Recorded Music.

Q-Tip is one of the most acclaimed figures in hip hop. John Bush of AllMusic called him "the best rapper/producer in hip-hop history", while About.com placed him #17 on their list of the Top 25 Hip-Hop Producers, as well as placing him #38 on their list of the 50 Greatest Rappers of All Time. In 2012, The Source ranked him #20 on their list of the Top 50 Lyricists of All Time.

Sailor Moon

Sailor Moon (美少女戦士セーラームーン, Bishōjo Senshi Sērā Mūn, originally translated as Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon and later as Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon) is a Japanese shōjo manga series written and illustrated by Naoko Takeuchi. It was originally serialized in Nakayoshi from 1991 to 1997; the 60 individual chapters were published in 18 tankōbon volumes. The series follows the adventures of a schoolgirl named Usagi Tsukino as she transforms into Sailor Moon to search for a magical artifact, the "Legendary Silver Crystal" (「幻の銀水晶」, Maboroshi no Ginzuishō, lit. "Phantom Silver Crystal"). She leads a diverse group of comrades, the Sailor Soldiers (セーラー戦士, Sērā Senshi) (Sailor Guardians in later editions) as they battle against villains to prevent the theft of the Silver Crystal and the destruction of the Solar System.

The manga was adapted into an anime series produced by Toei Animation and broadcast in Japan from 1992 to 1997. Toei also developed three animated feature films, a television special, and three short films based on the anime. A live-action television adaptation, Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, aired from 2003 to 2004, and a second anime series, Sailor Moon Crystal, began simulcasting in 2014. The manga series was licensed for an English language release by Kodansha Comics in North America, and in Australia and New Zealand by Random House Australia. The entire anime series has been licensed by Viz Media for an English language release in North America and by Madman Entertainment in Australia and New Zealand.

Since its release, Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon has received acclaim, with praise for its art, characterization, and humor. The manga has sold over 35 million copies worldwide, making it one of the best-selling shōjo manga series. The franchise has also generated $5 billion in merchandise sales.

Sandra Bullock

Sandra Annette Bullock (; born July 26, 1964) is an American actress, producer, and philanthropist. She was the highest paid actress in the world in 2010 and 2014. In 2015, Bullock was chosen as People's Most Beautiful Woman, and was included in Time's 100 most influential people in the world in 2010. Bullock is the recipient of several accolades, including an Academy Award and a Golden Globe Award.

After making her acting debut with a minor role in the thriller Hangmen (1987), Bullock received early attention for her supporting work in the action film Demolition Man (1993). Her breakthrough came in the action thriller Speed (1994). She established herself in the 1990s, with leading roles in the romantic comedies While You Were Sleeping (1995) and Hope Floats (1998), and thrillers The Net (1995) and A Time to Kill (1996). Bullock achieved further success in the following decades with the comedies Miss Congeniality (2000), Two Weeks Notice (2002), The Proposal (2009), The Heat (2013), and Ocean's 8 (2018), the drama Crash (2004), and the thrillers Premonition (2007) and Bird Box (2018). Bullock was awarded the Academy Award for Best Actress and the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Drama for portraying Leigh Anne Tuohy in the biographical drama The Blind Side (2009). She was nominated in the same categories for playing an astronaut stranded in space in the science fiction thriller Gravity (2013), which was her highest-grossing live-action release.

In addition to her acting career, Bullock is the founder of the production company Fortis Films. She has produced some of the films in which she has starred, including Miss Congeniality 2: Armed and Fabulous (2005) and All About Steve (2009). She was an executive producer of the ABC sitcom George Lopez (2002–2007) and made several appearances during its run.

Single-player video game

A single-player video game is a video game where input from only one player is expected throughout the course of the gaming session. A single-player game is usually a game that can only be played by one person, while "single-player mode" is usually a game mode designed to be played by a single-player, though the game also contains multi-player modes.Most modern console games and arcade games are designed so that they can be played by a single-player; although many of these games have modes that allow two or more players to play (not necessarily simultaneously), very few actually require more than one player for the game to be played. The Unreal Tournament series is one example of such.

Statue of Liberty

The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; French: La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York, in the United States. The copper statue, a gift from the people of France to the people of the United States, was designed by French sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and its metal framework was built by Gustave Eiffel. The statue was dedicated on October 28, 1886.

The Statue of Liberty is a figure of Libertas, a robed Roman liberty goddess. She holds a torch above her head with her right hand, and in her left hand carries a tabula ansata inscribed in Roman numerals with "JULY IV MDCCLXXVI" (July 4, 1776), the date of the U.S. Declaration of Independence. A broken chain lies at her feet as she walks forward. The statue became an icon of freedom and of the United States, and a national park tourism destination. It is a welcoming sight to immigrants arriving from abroad.

Bartholdi was inspired by a French law professor and politician, Édouard René de Laboulaye, who is said to have commented in 1865 that any monument raised to U.S. independence would properly be a joint project of the French and U.S. peoples. Because of the post-war instability in France, work on the statue did not commence until the early 1870s. In 1875, Laboulaye proposed that the French finance the statue and the U.S. provide the site and build the pedestal. Bartholdi completed the head and the torch-bearing arm before the statue was fully designed, and these pieces were exhibited for publicity at international expositions.

The torch-bearing arm was displayed at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, and in Madison Square Park in Manhattan from 1876 to 1882. Fundraising proved difficult, especially for the Americans, and by 1885 work on the pedestal was threatened by lack of funds. Publisher Joseph Pulitzer, of the New York World, started a drive for donations to finish the project and attracted more than 120,000 contributors, most of whom gave less than a dollar. The statue was built in France, shipped overseas in crates, and assembled on the completed pedestal on what was then called Bedloe's Island. The statue's completion was marked by New York's first ticker-tape parade and a dedication ceremony presided over by President Grover Cleveland.

The statue was administered by the United States Lighthouse Board until 1901 and then by the Department of War; since 1933 it has been maintained by the National Park Service. Public access to the balcony around the torch has been barred since 1916.

Trump Tower

Trump Tower is a 58-floor, 664-foot-tall (202 m) mixed-use skyscraper at 721–725 Fifth Avenue, between 56th and 57th Streets, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Trump Tower serves as the headquarters for The Trump Organization. Additionally, it houses the penthouse condominium residence of the building's namesake and developer, U.S. President Donald Trump, who is also a businessman and real estate developer. Several members of the Trump family also live, or have resided, in the building. The tower stands on a plot where the flagship store of department-store chain Bonwit Teller was formerly located.

Der Scutt of Poor, Swanke, Hayden & Connell designed Trump Tower, and Trump and the Equitable Life Assurance Company (now the AXA Equitable Life Insurance Company) developed it. Although it is in one of Midtown Manhattan's special zoning districts, the tower was approved because it was to be built as a mixed-use development. Trump was permitted to add more stories to the tower because of the atrium on the ground floor. There were controversies during construction, including the destruction of historically important sculptures from the Bonwit Teller store; Trump's alleged underpaying of contractors; and a lawsuit that Trump filed because the tower was not tax-exempt.

Construction on the building began in 1979. The atrium, apartments, offices, and stores opened on a staggered schedule from February to November 1983. At first, there were few tenants willing to move in to the commercial and retail spaces; the residential units were sold out within months of opening. Since 2016, the tower has seen a large increase in visitation because of Trump's 2016 presidential campaign and subsequent election—both his 2016 and 2020 campaigns are headquartered in the tower.

Twice (group)

Twice (Hangul: 트와이스; Japanese: トゥワイス) is a South Korean girl group formed by JYP Entertainment through the 2015 reality show Sixteen. The group is composed of nine members: Nayeon, Jeongyeon, Momo, Sana, Jihyo, Mina, Dahyun, Chaeyoung, and Tzuyu. The group debuted on October 20, 2015, with the extended play (EP) The Story Begins.Twice rose to fame in 2016 with their single "Cheer Up": the song charted at number 1 on the Gaon Digital Chart and became the best-performing single of the year. It also won "Song of the Year" at two major music awards shows—Melon Music Awards and Mnet Asian Music Awards. Their subsequent single "TT", from their third EP Twicecoaster: Lane 1, claimed the top spot for four consecutive weeks. The EP was the highest selling K-pop girl group album of 2016, which sold 350,852 copies by year-end. Within 19 months after debut, Twice has sold over 1.2 million units of their four EPs and special album.The group officially debuted in Japan on June 28, 2017, under Warner Music Japan with the release of their first compilation album titled #Twice. The album debuted at number 2 on the Oricon Albums Chart, which sold 136,157 copies within seven days, the highest first week album sales of a K-pop artist in Japan in two years. It was followed by the release of Twice's first original Japanese maxi single titled "One More Time" in October. With over 250,000 unit sales, Twice became the first Korean girl group that earned Platinum certification by the Recording Industry Association of Japan (RIAJ) for both album and CD single in the same year. Twice ranked third on Top Artist category of Billboard Japan's 2017 Year-End Rankings.

WWE Raw Tag Team Championship

The WWE Raw Tag Team Championship is a professional wrestling world tag team championship created and promoted by the American professional wrestling promotion WWE on the Raw brand. It is the sixth overall male tag team championship to have existed in the WWE. The title is one of two male tag team championships for WWE's main roster, along with the SmackDown Tag Team Championship on the SmackDown brand. The current champions are Curt Hawkins and Zack Ryder, who are in their second reign.

The championship was originally established as the WWE Tag Team Championship on October 20, 2002, and the team of Kurt Angle and Chris Benoit were the inaugural champions. It was introduced for the SmackDown brand as a second title for tag teams in the promotion to complement WWE's original World Tag Team Championship, which became exclusive to Raw. Both titles were unified in 2009 and were collectively referred to as the "Unified WWE Tag Team Championship" while officially remaining independently active until the World Tag Team Championship was formally decommissioned in 2010. As a result of the 2016 draft, the championship became exclusive to Raw with a subsequent rename, and SmackDown created the SmackDown Tag Team Championship as a counterpart title.

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