The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) /ˈɒsəlɒt/ is a small wild cat native to the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central and South America. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List as the population is estimated to comprise more than 40,000 mature individuals and is considered stable. Its fur was once regarded as valuable, and poaching for the illegal trade is still a threat.[2] It is marked with solid black spots, streaks and stripes.[4]

Ocelot (Jaguatirica) Zoo Itatiba
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Felidae
Subfamily: Felinae
Genus: Leopardus
L. pardalis[1]
Binomial name
Leopardus pardalis[1]

See text

Ocelot area
Range of the ocelot

Felis buffoni Brass, 1911
Felis chati Gray, 1827
Felis hamiltonii J. B. Fischer, 1829
Felis mexicana Kerr, 1792
Felis pardalis Linnaeus, 1758
Leopardus griseus Gray, 1842


Felis pardalis was the scientific name given in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus who first described an ocelot zoological specimen from Mexico.[5] Following Linnaeus's description, several more ocelot subspecies have been proposed in the 19th and 20th centuries:[3][1]

  • L. p. pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758), synonyms include L. p. canescens, L. p. griffithii, L. p. griseus, L. p. ocelot and L. p. pictus.
  • L. p. mitis (Cuvier, 1824) was based on a specimen from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.[6] Synonyms include L. p. armillatus, L. p. brasiliensis, L. p. chibi-gouazou, L. p. chibiguazu, L. p. hamiltonii, L. p. maracaya and L. p. smithii.
  • L. p. pseudopardalis (Boitard, 1842) was based on a specimen from Santa Marta, Colombia. L. p. sanctaemartae is a synonym.
  • L. p. melanura (Ball, 1844) was based on a specimen from British Guiana.[7] Synonyms include L. p. maripensis and L. p. tumatumari
  • L. p. albescens (Pucheran, 1855) was based on a specimen from Brownsville, Texas.[8] Synonyms include L. p. limitis and L. p. ludoviciana
  • L. p. aequatorialis (Mearns, 1903) was based on a specimen from Talamanca canton in Costa Rica.[9] L. p. mearnsi and L. p. minimalis are synonyms.
  • L. p. pusaea Thomas, 1914 was based on a specimen from Guayas Province in coastal Ecuador.
  • L. p. nelsoni (Goldman, 1925) was based on a specimen from Manzanillo in Mexico.
  • L. p. sonoriensis (Goldman, 1925) was based on a specimen from the Mayo River region in Mexico.
  • L. p. steinbachi Pocock, 1941 was based on a specimen from Buena Vista in Bolivia.

In 2017, the Cat Classification Task Force of the Cat Specialist Group provisionally recognized only two of the above as valid subspecies, namely L. p. pardalis and L. p. mitis.[10]


According to studies on felid taxonomy and evolution, the phylogenetic relationships of the ocelot are considered as follows:[11][12]


Serval (Leptailurus serval)

Caracal (C. caracal)

African golden cat (C. aurata)


Ocelot (L. pardalis)

Margay (L. wieldii)

Andean mountain cat (L. jacobita)

Colocolo (L. colocolo)

Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi)

Kodkod (L. guigna)

Oncilla (L. tigrinus)


Bobcat (L. rufus)

Canada lynx (L. canadensis)

Eurasian lynx (L. lynx)

Iberian lynx (L. pardinus)



Ocelot Santago Leopard Project 2

The ocelot's fur is extensively marked with solid black markings on a creamy, tawny, yellowish, reddish grey or grey background colour. The spots on head and limbs are small, but markings on the back, cheeks and flanks are open or closed bands and stripes. A few dark stripes run straight from the back of the neck up to the tip of the tail. Its neck and undersides are white, the insides of the legs are marked with a few horizontal streaks. Its round ears are marked with a bright white spot.[4] Its fur is short, about 0.8 cm (0.31 in) long on the belly, but with longer, about 1 cm (0.39 in) long guard hairs on the back. It has 28 to 30 teeth, with the dental formula 3.1.2–[3] Its eyes are brown but reflect golden when illuminated.[13] It is a medium-sized cat with a head-and-body length of between 55 and 100 cm (22 and 39 in) and a 25.5 to 41 cm (10.0 to 16.1 in) long tail. Females weigh 6.6–11.3 kg (15–25 lb) and males 7–15.5 kg (15–34 lb).[4][14] Its spoor measures nearly 2 cm × 2 cm (0.79 in × 0.79 in).[15]

English naturalist Richard Lydekker commented that the ocelot is "one of the most difficult members of the feline family to describe". In 1929, wildlife author Ernest Thompson Seton described the ocelot's coat as "the most wonderful tangle of stripes, bars, chains, spots, dots and smudges ... which look as though they were put on as the animal ran by."[4]

The ocelot can be easily confused with the margay, but differs in being twice as heavy, having a greater head-and-body length, a shorter tail, smaller eyes relative to the size of the head, and different cranial features.[4][16] It is similar in size to the bobcat. Larger individuals have occasionally been recorded.[17] The jaguar is notably larger and heavier, and has rosettes instead of spots and stripes.[18]

Distribution and habitat

Moche Ocelot, 200 AD exhibited in Larco Museum Collection, Lima, Peru

The ocelot ranges from the southwestern United States via Mexico and Central America to South America as far south as Argentina up to an elevation of 3,000 m (9,800 ft).[2] It inhabits tropical forest, thorn forest, mangrove swamps and savanna, and prefers areas with relatively dense vegetation cover, but occasionally hunts in more open areas at night.[4]

In Texas, 20th century ocelot records are known from Big Thicket, Palo Pinto County, Texas, Pecos River and lower Rio Grande valleys.[19][20] Two small populations live in southern Texas, one in Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge and the other on private ranchelands in Willacy County, Texas.[21] In Arizona, three historical ocelot records are known from the 19th and 20th centuries. In 2009, one individual was recorded by a camera-trap in Cochise County, Arizona. In 2010, one was killed in a traffic accident in Gila County, Arizona.[20] In the Whetstone Mountains, one ocelot was recorded during surveys carried out between 2007 and 2012.[22]

In Mexico, ocelots were recorded in Tamaulipas, Sonora, Jalisco, Aguascalientes and Sierra Abra-Tanchipa Biosphere Reserve in eastern San Luis Potosí.[22][23][24][25] In Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve, four ocelots were recorded at elevations of 1,934 to 2,059 m (6,345 to 6,755 ft) in cloud and pine forests, and also in a patch of wild perennial teosinte.[26]

Ecology and behavior

Ocelot 01
Captive ocelot
Ocelot at Sonora Desert Museum in Tucson Arizona
An ocelot at the Sonora Desert Museum in Tucson, Arizona

The ocelot is usually solitary and active around twilight and at night. It scent-marks its territory by spraying urine. The territories of males are 3.5–46 km2 (1.4–17.8 sq mi) large, while those of females cover 0.8–15 km2 (0.31–5.79 sq mi). Territories of females rarely overlap, whereas the territory of a male includes those of two to three females. Social interaction between sexes is minimal, though a few adults have been observed together even in non-mating periods, and some juveniles interact with their parents.[4] In Peru's Cocha Cashu Biological Station, radio-collared individuals rested during the day in dens below large trees or other sheltered sites on the ground. They started to be active earliest in the late afternoon and moved between 3.2 and 17 hours until latest dawn, when they returned to their dens. Their usual pace of walking was about 300 m (980 ft) per hour when hunting. They moved up to 1.4 km (0.87 mi) per hour when heading to a known kill site or patrolling their territory.[27]

Data from camera trapping studies confirm that several ocelot individuals deposit scat in one or several communal sites, called latrines, suggesting that these sites have a social function.[28][29][30]

Ocelot densities vary between study sites, habitats and seasons from 2.3 individuals per 100 km2 (39 sq mi) in Belize's Chiquibul National Park to 40 individuals per 100 km2 (39 sq mi) in Venezuelan Llanos.[31][32] A density of 60 individuals per 100 km2 (39 sq mi) was recorded in a transitional chaco-Chiquitano forest in Bolivia's Kaa Iya National Park. It is thought that ocelot density is lower in areas with less rainfall.[33] In Barro Colorado Island, 28 ocelots were identified during a camera trapping survey in 2012, and 55 individuals based on genetic analysis of scat collected in latrines. Results indicate that the island holds an ocelot density of 1.59–1.74/km2 (4.1–4.5/sq mi), the highest one recorded to date. This is probably an effect of high prey availability, few large predators, and increased protection from poaching.[34][35]

Diet and hunting

Ocelot in Bulivia

Ocelots are carnivores and prey on small mammals, such as armadillos, opossums and rabbits, rodents, small birds, fish, insects and reptiles.[4] According to studies, primates prevail in the diet of ocelots in southeastern Brazil,[36] and iguanas are the main prey of Mexican ocelots.[37] An ocelot typically preys on animals that weigh less than 1 kilogram (2.2 lb). It rarely targets large animals such as deer and peccaries. An ocelot requires 600–800 grams (21–28 oz) of food every day to satisfy its energy requirements.[4] The composition of the diet may vary by season; in Venezuela, ocelots were found to prefer iguanas and rodents in the dry season and then switch to land crabs in the wet season.[32] A study showed that ocelots are similar to margays and oncillas in dietary preferences, but the oncilla focuses on tree-living marsupials and birds while the margay is not as selective.[38]

Ocelots have been observed to follow scent trails to acquire prey. They walk at a speed of about 300 m/h (0.2 mph) on the lookout for prey; and at a speed of 800–1,400 m/h (0.5–0.9 mph) to a known kill site.[27] Or they wait for 30 to 60 minutes at a certain place, and then move on to a different place when unsuccessful. They tend to eat the kill immediately, and remove feathers before eating birds.[4]


Both male and female ocelots produce a long-range "yowl" in the mating season as well as short-range "meow".[39] Ocelots mate at any time of the year. Peak mating season varies geographically. In Argentina and Paraguay, peaks have been observed in autumn; and in Mexico and Texas in autumn and winter. Oestrus lasts four to five days, and recurs every 25 days in a non-pregnant female.[14] A study in southern Brazil showed that sperm production in ocelots, margays as well as oncillas peaks in summer.[40] Captive ocelots spend more time together when mating; both scent-mark extensively and even eat less during this time.[3]

A litter of one to three is born after a gestational period of 79 to 83 days. Females give birth in dens, usually located in dense vegetation. A newborn kitten weighs 200–340 g (7.1–12.0 oz).[4][14] A study in southern Texas revealed that a mother keeps a litter in a den for 13 to 64 days, and shifts the young to two to three dens.[41] The kitten's eyes open 15 to 18 days after birth. Kittens begin to leave the den at the age of three months. They remain with their mother for up to two years, and then start dispersing and establishing their own territory. In comparison to other felids, ocelots have a relatively longer duration between births and a narrow litter size. Captive ocelots live for up to 20 years.[4]


Taxidermy of Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis)
The fur trade is a major threat to ocelot populations.

The destruction of habitat is the main threat to ocelot survival. In addition, it is sought by poachers for the illegal trade in body parts and skin, and killed in retaliation for hunting poultry.[2] The remnant U.S. ocelot population in south Texas has declined from 80–120 individuals in 1995 to fewer than 50 by 2013, with about half of ocelot deaths resulting from automobile accidents.[42][43]


The name "ocelot" comes from the Nahuatl word ōcēlōtl (pronounced [oːˈseːloːt͡ɬ]), which generally refers to the jaguar rather than the ocelot.[44][45][46] Another possible origin for the name is the Latin cellatus ("having little eyes" or "marked with eye-like spots"), in reference to the cat's spotted coat.[4] Other vernacular names for the ocelot include cunagaro (Venezuela), gato onza (Argentina), gato tigre (Panama), heitigrikati (Suriname), jaguatirica (Brazil), manigordo (Costa Rica, Panama and Venezuela), maracaja (Brazil), mathuntori, ocelote, onsa, pumillo, tiger cat (Belize), tigrecillo (Bolivia) and tigrillo (Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru).[3][47]

As pets

Salvador Dali NYWTS
Salvador Dalí and Babou the ocelot
Ocelot-shaped bottle-MEG ETHAM 014143-IMG 2372-gradient
Moche ceramic bottle in the shape of an ocelot, Musée d'ethnographie de Genève, Switzerland

Ocelots have been kept as pets by:

The Moche people of ancient Peru worshiped animals and often depicted the ocelot in their art.[52]


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External links

Earth Intruders

"Earth Intruders" is a song written and recorded by Icelandic singer Björk. The song was released as the first single from her 2007 full-length studio album, Volta.

The single was released digitally in the USA on 9 April and 21 April 2007 and in Europe on 28 April 2007. The single was released in a physical box set on 4 February 2008. Due to high digital download sales, it remains Björk's highest charting single in the United States to date.

HMS Ocelot (S17)

HMS Ocelot (S17) was an Oberon-class diesel-electric submarine operated by the Royal Navy.


Leopardus is a genus of spotted small cats mostly native to Middle and South America, with a very small range extending into the southern United States. The genus is considered the oldest branch of a lineage of small cats that crossed into the Americas, with the genera Lynx and Puma being later branches of the same group. The largest species in Leopardus is the ocelot (L. pardalis); most of the other species resemble domestic cats in size, with the kodkod (L. guigna) being the smallest cat in the Americas. The margay (L. wiedii) is more highly adapted to arboreal life than any other cat in the Americas.Despite the name, the leopard is a member of genus Panthera, not Leopardus.

Liquid Snake

Liquid Snake is a fictional character from the Metal Gear franchise. He is the twin brother of series protagonist Solid Snake and the second product of Les Enfants Terribles, a top-secret government project to artificially create soldiers by cloning the legendary soldier Big Boss. He first appears as the antagonist in the original Metal Gear Solid, where he leads the rogue FOXHOUND unit in a hostile takeover of a nuclear disposal facility in Alaska. The character returns in the prequel Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain as a child mercenary nicknamed the White Mamba with his real name revealed to be Eli.

List of Metal Gear characters

The Metal Gear franchise features a large number of characters created by Hideo Kojima and designed by Yoji Shinkawa. Its setting features several soldiers with supernatural powers provided by the new advancements of science.

The series follows mercenary Solid Snake given government missions of finding the Metal Gear weapon, resulting in encounters with Gray Fox and Big Boss in Outer Heaven (Metal Gear) and Zanzibar Land (Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake). Later, Solid Snake meets Otacon and opposes Liquid Snake's FOXHOUND in Metal Gear Solid then assists Raiden in fighting both Solidus Snake and the Patriots in Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty. Additionally, there are several prequel games that follow Big Boss's past and legend development as well as the origins of FOXHOUND, Outer Heaven and the Patriots.

While the original Metal Gear games had their characters designs modeled after Hollywood actors, the Metal Gear Solid games established a series of consistent designs based on Shinkawa's ideas of what would appeal to gamers. Additionally, several of the characters he designs follow Kojima and the other staff's ideas. Critical reception of the game's cast has been positive as publications praised their personalities and roles within the series.


The margay (Leopardus wiedii) is a small wild cat native to Central and South America. A solitary and nocturnal cat, it lives mainly in primary evergreen and deciduous forest.Until the 1990s, margays were hunted illegally for the wildlife trade, which resulted in a large population decrease. Since 2008, the margay has been listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List because the population is thought to be declining due to loss of habitat following deforestation.In his first description, Schinz named the margay Felis wiedii in honour of Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied who collected specimens in Brazil.

Michel Ocelot

Michel Ocelot is a French writer, designer, storyboard artist and director of animated films and television programs (formerly also animator, background artist, narrator and other roles in earlier works) and a former president of the International Animated Film Association. Though best known for his 1998 debut feature Kirikou and the Sorceress, his earlier films and television work had already won Césars and British Academy Film Awards among others and he was made a chevalier of the Légion d'honneur on 23 October 2009, presented to him by Agnès Varda who had been promoted to commandeur earlier the same year. In 2015 he got the Lifetime Achievement Award at the World Festival of Animated Film - Animafest Zagreb.

Mike Coughlan

Mike Coughlan (born 17 February 1959) is a British motor racing engineer and designer. He was Chief Designer for the McLaren Formula One team from 2002 to 2007, where he was suspended for his part in the spy scandal between McLaren and Ferrari, before his contract was subsequently terminated. He was then Chief Technical Officer for Williams F1 from June 2011 to July 2013, before abruptly stepping down "with immediate effect," according to the team.

Ocelot (vehicle)

The Force Protection Ocelot is a British armoured vehicle that is scheduled to replace the United Kingdom's Snatch Land Rover with British forces. It received the service name Foxhound, in line with the names given to other wheeled armored vehicles in current British use, such as Mastiff and Ridgeback, which are based on the Cougar. This is not to be confused with the BAE Systems Australia Foxhound, a modified Short Brothers S600. The goal in replacing the Snatch Land Rover was to improve protection of personnel against improvised explosive devices (IEDs).

Ocelot gecko

The ocelot gecko (Paroedura picta) is a nocturnal ground-dwelling gecko found in leaf litter in Madagascar forests, and is also a popular pet. It is sometimes known as the Madagascar ground gecko, Malagasy fat-tailed gecko, fat-headed gecko', or panther gecko.


The Ocicat is an all-domestic breed of cat which resembles a wild cat but has no wild DNA in its gene pool. The breed is unusual in that it is spotted like a wild cat but has the temperament of a domestic animal. It is named for its resemblance to the Ocelot. The breed was established from Siamese and Abyssinian stock; later, American Shorthairs (silver tabbies) were added to the mix and gave the breed their silver color, bone structure and distinct markings.

Princes et Princesses

Princes et Princesses (Princes and Princesses) is a 2000 compilation movie by French animator Michel Ocelot.

The movie consists of six episodes of the 1989 French silhouette animation television series Ciné si.

Revolver Ocelot

Revolver Ocelot is a recurring character in Konami's Metal Gear video game series. He takes on a variety of roles: a major nemesis to Solid Snake, a friendly rival to Naked Snake, a henchman of Liquid Snake, the right-hand man of Solidus Snake, and a close ally to Venom Snake. The character has been well received by video game publications for his role as a central villain and antihero in the franchise and has often been considered one of its most important characters for his connections with various characters.

Shinkyoku Sōkai Polyphonica

Shinkyoku Sōkai Polyphonica (神曲奏界ポリフォニカ), also known as simply Polyphonica, is an all-age Japanese visual novel created by Ocelot and first released for Windows on April 28, 2006. Aside from the game, multiple series of light novels have been created, and a manga adaptation started in March 2007. An anime adaptation that aired in Japan between April to June 2007. Another anime adaption aired from April to June 2009, and was a prequel of the events in the first anime.

The original game, the Crimson series, will start its second installment, covering the third and fourth story. The Black and White Polyphonica series were adapted from a printed novel to visual novel media in spring 2007, respectively titled Shinkyoku Sōkai Polyphonica THE BLACK and Shinkyoku Sōkai Polyphonica Memories White.

USS Ocelot (IX-110)

USS Ocelot (IX–110) was an unclassified miscellaneous vessel of the United States Navy, which served as the flagship of Service Squadron 10 in the Pacific War from late 1944, until she was wrecked in a typhoon in late 1945.

Ubuntu version history

Ubuntu releases are made semiannually by Canonical Ltd, the developers of the Ubuntu operating system, using the year and month of the release as a version number. The first Ubuntu release, for example, was Ubuntu 4.10 and was released on 20 October 2004. Consequently, version numbers for future versions are provisional; if the release is delayed until a different month (or even year) to that planned, the version number will change accordingly.Canonical schedules Ubuntu releases to occur approximately one month after GNOME releases, which in turn come about one month after releases of X.Org, resulting in each Ubuntu release including a newer version of GNOME and X.Every fourth release—occurring in the second quarter of even-numbered years—has been designated as a long-term support (LTS) release. The desktop version of LTS releases for 10.04 and earlier were supported for three years, with server version support for five years. LTS releases 12.04, 14.04 and 16.04 are supported for five years, while Ubuntu 18.04 LTS is supported for ten years. The support period for non-LTS releases is 9 months. Prior to 13.04, it was 18 months.


X-Statix are a team of mutant superheroes appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The team was specifically designed to be media superstars. The team, created by Peter Milligan and Mike Allred, first appears in X-Force No. 116 and originally assumed the moniker X-Force, taking the name of the more traditional superhero team, who appear in No. 117 claiming to be "the real X-Force".

Škoda 1203

Škoda 1203, Škoda 1203 M, TAZ-Š 1203 and TAZ 1500 was an automobile which was produced from 1968 to 1999 in Vrchlabí and Trnava by AZV Škoda and TAZ. The vehicle is still being produced by Ocelot Auto, a small manufacturer situated in Žacléř in the Czech Republic. Plans for production were first drawn up in 1956. Political problems in then Czechoslovakia were the reason the production was delayed until 1968. The Škoda 1202 serves as the technical basis of the vehicle. There were several modifications during the production run, most of which had to do with the engine.

Extant Carnivora species

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