Oceanic cuisine

The cuisines of Oceania include those found on Australia, New Zealand, and Tasmania, and also cuisines from many other islands or island groups throughout Oceania. A cuisine is a characteristic style of cooking practices and traditions,[2] often associated with a specific culture.

LocationOceania
Balmain Bug (841993847)
A cooked Balmain bug. Also known as the butterfly fan lobster, it is a species of slipper lobster that lives in shallow waters around Australia.
Australian bush tucker, Alice Springs
Bush Tucker (bush foods) harvested at Alice Springs Desert Park. Bush foods are edible native plant species and animal products used by indigenous Australians as a contemporary or traditional food.[1]

Australia

Other than by climate and produce availability, Australian cuisine has been influenced by the tastes of settlers to Australia.[3] The British colonial period established a strong base of interest in Anglo-Celtic style recipes and methods. Later influences developed out of multicultural immigration and included Chinese, Japanese, Malaysian, Thai, and Vietnamese cuisines. Mediterranean cuisine influences from Greek cuisine, Italian cuisine, and Lebanese cuisine influences are strong, also influences from French cuisine, Indian cuisine, Spanish cuisine, and Turkish cuisine, German cuisine, and African cuisine. Regional Australian cuisines commonly use locally grown vegetables based on seasonal availability, and Australia also has large fruit growing regions. The Granny Smith variety of apples originated in Sydney, Australia in 1868.[4] In the Southern states of Victoria and South Australia, in particular the Barossa Valley, wines and food reflects the region's traditions and heritage.[5] Australia's climate makes barbecues commonplace. Barbecue stalls selling sausages and fried onion on white bread with tomato or barbecue sauce are common.

Tasmania

During colonial times typical English cuisine was the standard in most areas of Tasmania. Tasmania now has a wide range of restaurants, in part due to the arrival of immigrants and changing cultural patterns. There are many vineyards throughout Tasmania,[6] and Tasmanian beer brands such as Boags and Cascade are known and sold in Mainland Australia. King Island off the northwestern coast of Tasmania has a reputation for boutique cheeses[6] and dairy products. Tasmanians are also consumers of seafood,[6] such as crayfish, orange roughy, salmon[6] and oysters,[6] both farmed and wild.

  • Regional foods

New Zealand

Hangi prepare
A Hāngi being prepared, a New Zealand Māori method of cooking food for special occasions using hot rocks buried in a pit oven.

New Zealand cuisine is largely based upon local ingredients and seasonal variations.[7] New Zealand is an island nation with a strong agricultural-based economy, and nationally and regionally grown produce and fresh seafood is prominent.[7] The kumara is a type of sweet potato that's been grown in New Zealand for hundreds of years, and is believed to have been imported by early Maori settlers in the mid-13th century.[8] Varieties of kumara include gold, white and red, with red usually the being sweetest.[8] Kiwifruit is a significant part of New Zealand agricultural production.[9] Similar to the cuisine of Australia, the cuisine of New Zealand is a diverse British-based cuisine with Mediterranean and Pacific Rim influences as the country becomes more cosmopolitan. Historical influences came from the Māori culture. New American cuisine, Southeast Asian, East Asian and Indian traditions have become popular since the 1970s.

  • Regional foods

Gallery

Granny smith and cross section

Granny Smith apples originated in Australia.

800px Hannover Australisches Restaurant 2009 05 (RaBoe) (cropped)

A dish from an Australian restaurant

Pavlova

A pavlova is a meringue-based dessert and an icon of Australian and New Zealand cuisine.

Kiwi (Actinidia chinensis) 1 Luc Viatour edit

Kiwifruit, a well-known New Zealand food

Pig on the Samoan Umu

Samoan umu, an oven of hot rocks above ground

Australisches Essen 2010-by-RaBoe-04

A fruit dessert dish in an Australian restaurant

Paniki manado

Paniki in yellow soup

See also

References

  1. ^ Lister, Peter R., Holford, Paul, Haigh, Tony, Morrison, David A. (1996). "Acacia in Australia: Ethnobotany and Potential Food Crop." Purdue University Horticulture & Landscape Architecture. Accessed July 2011.
  2. ^ "Cuisine." Thefreedictionary.com. Accessed June 2011.
  3. ^ "Australia – Aborigines And White Settlers The Breaking Down of Aboriginal Society." Janesoceania.com. Accessed July 2011.
  4. ^ "Granny Smith and her Apples". Archived from the original on 2007-08-11. Retrieved 2007-08-11.
  5. ^ "South Australian Food and Wine Tourism Strategy 2009 – 2014." South Australian Tourism Industry Council. Accessed July 2011.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Tasmania Food & Wine." Goway.com. Accessed July 2011.
  7. ^ a b "New Zealand's culinary culture." Newzealand.com. Accessed July 2011.
  8. ^ a b "Iconic Australian & New Zealand Foods." Australianfood.about.com. Accessed July 2011.
  9. ^ "About New Zealand Kiwifruit Growers, Inc.. New Zealand Kiwifruit Growers, Inc.. Accessed July 2011.
Cuisine of Hawaii

The cuisine of Hawaii incorporates five distinct styles of food, reflecting the diverse food history of settlement and immigration in the Hawaiian Islands. In the pre-contact period of Ancient Hawaii (300 AD–1778), Polynesian voyagers brought plants and animals to the Islands. As Native Hawaiians settled the area, they fished, raised taro for poi, planted coconuts, sugarcane, sweet potatoes and yams, and cooked meat and fish in earth ovens. After first contact in 1778, European and American cuisine arrived along with missionaries and whalers, who introduced their own foods and built large sugarcane plantations. Christian missionaries brought New England cuisine while whalers introduced salted fish which eventually transformed into the side dish lomilomi salmon.

As pineapple and sugarcane plantations grow, so did demand for labor, bringing many immigrant groups to the Islands between 1850 and 1930. Immigrant workers brought cuisines from China, Korea, Japan, the Philippines, Puerto Rico and Portugal after arriving in Hawaii, introducing their new foods and influencing the region. The introduction of new ethnic foods, such as Chinese char siu bao (manapua), Portuguese sweet bread and malasadas, and the Japanese bento, combined with the existing indigenous, European, and American foods in the plantation working environments and in the local communities. This blend of cuisines formed a "local food" style unique to Hawaii, resulting in plantation foods like the plate lunch, snacks like Spam musubi, and dishes like the loco moco. Shortly after World War II several well known local restaurants, now in their 7th decade opened their doors to serve "Hawaiian Food". Chefs further refined the local style by inventing Hawaii Regional Cuisine in 1992, a style of cooking that makes use of locally grown ingredients to blend all of Hawaii's historical influences together to form a new fusion cuisine.

Fijian cuisine

Fijian cuisine has traditionally been very healthy. Fijians prefer a more tuber and coconut based diet. High caloric foods are good for hard-working villagers who need extra calories while working on their farms but this causes a range of chronic illness such as obesity. Fiji is a multicultural country and is home to people of various races. In most Fijians' homes, food of other cultures is prepared on a regular basis such as Indian curries and Chinese dishes. Fiji is also famous for its seafood.

Limu (algae)

Limu or Rimu is a general Polynesian term for edible plants living underwater, such as seaweed, or plants living near water, like algae. In Hawaii, there are approximately one hundred names for kinds of limu, sixty of which can be matched with scientific names. Hundreds of species or marine algae were once found in Hawaii. Many limu are edible, and used in the cuisine throughout most of polynesia.

List of Hawaiian dishes

This is a list of dishes in Hawaiian cuisine, which includes Native Hawaiian cuisine and the broader fusion Cuisine of Hawaii. The Cuisine of Hawaii refers to the indigenous, ethnic, and local cuisines within the diverse state of Hawaii.

List of cuisines

The following is a list of cuisines. A cuisine is specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture or region. Each cuisine involves food preparation in a particular style, of food and drink of particular types, to produce individually consumed items or distinct meals. A cuisine is frequently named after the region or place where it originated. A cuisine is primarily influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade. Religious food laws can also exercise a strong influence on such culinary practices.

Oceania

Oceania (UK: , US: (listen), ) is a geographic region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Spanning the eastern and western hemispheres, Oceania has a land area of 8,525,989 square kilometres (3,291,903 sq mi) and a population of 40 million. Situated in the southeast of the Asia-Pacific region, Oceania, when compared to continental regions, is the smallest in land area and the second smallest in population after Antarctica.

Definitions of Oceania vary; however, the islands at the geographic extremes of Oceania are generally considered to be the Bonin Islands, a politically integral part of Japan; Hawaii, a state of the United States; Clipperton Island, a possession of France; the Juan Fernández Islands, belonging to Chile; and Macquarie Island, belonging to Australia. (The United Nations has its own geopolitical definition of Oceania, but this consists of discrete political entities, and so excludes the Bonin Islands, Hawaii, Clipperton Island, and the Juan Fernández Islands, along with Easter Island.) Oceania has a diverse mix of economies from the highly developed and globally competitive financial markets of Australia and New Zealand, which rank high in quality of life and human development index, to the much less developed economies that belong to countries such as Kiribati and Tuvalu, while also including medium-sized economies of Pacific islands such as Palau, Fiji and Tonga. The largest and most populous country in Oceania is Australia, with Sydney being the largest city of both Oceania and Australia. In the 1950s Indonesia and Philippines were removed from Oceania and added to Asia; this resulted in Oceania as a "great division" of the world being replaced by the concept of the continent of Australia. In some countries (such as Brazil) however, Oceania is still regarded as a continent (Portuguese: continente) in the sense of "one of the parts of the world", and the concept of Australia as a continent does not exist.The first settlers of Australia, New Guinea, and the large islands just to the east arrived more than 60,000 years ago. Oceania was first explored by Europeans from the 16th century onward. Portuguese navigators, between 1512 and 1526, reached the Tanimbar Islands, some of the Caroline Islands and west Papua New Guinea. On his first voyage in the 18th century, James Cook, who later arrived at the highly developed Hawaiian Islands, went to Tahiti and followed the east coast of Australia for the first time. The Pacific front saw major action during the Second World War, mainly between Allied powers the United States and Australia, and Axis power Japan.

The arrival of European settlers in subsequent centuries resulted in a significant alteration in the social and political landscape of Oceania. In more contemporary times there has been increasing discussion on national flags and a desire by some Oceanians to display their distinguishable and

individualistic identity. The rock art of Australian Aborigines is the longest continuously practiced artistic tradition in the world. Puncak Jaya in Papua is often considered the highest peak in Oceania. Most Oceanian countries have a parliamentary representative democratic multi-party system, with tourism being a large source of income for the Pacific Islands nations.

Papua New Guinean cuisine

The cuisine of Papua New Guinea are the traditional varied foods found in the eastern part of the New Guinea island. With 82% percent of the population being rural, and about 85% of the population depending on semi-subsistence agriculture, the cuisine is heavily based on agricultural crops, including yams, taro, rice and sago. Fruits such as pineapples, pawpaws, mangoes, passionfruit, and more are also abundantly grown in Papua New Guinea and etc. Though there are little influences from the cuisine of Southeast Asia, a nearby region, Papua New Guinea shares similarities in cuisine with surrounding Oceanian countries and the western half of New Guinea.

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