Oceanic climate

An oceanic climate, also known as a marine climate or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features mild summers (relative to their latitude) and mild winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates. Oceanic climates are defined as having a monthly mean temperature below 22 °C (72 °F) in the warmest month, and above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)) in the coldest month.

It typically lacks a dry season, as precipitation is more evenly dispersed throughout the year. It is the predominant climate type across much of Western Europe including the United Kingdom, the Pacific Northwest region of the United States and Canada, portions of central Mexico, southwestern South America, southeastern Australia including Tasmania, and New Zealand, as well as isolated locations elsewhere. Oceanic climates are generally characterised by a narrower annual range of temperatures than in other places at a comparable latitude, and generally do not have the extremely dry summers of Mediterranean climates or the hot summers of humid subtropical.[1] Oceanic climates are most dominant in Europe, where they spread much farther inland than in other continents.[2]

Oceanic climates can have considerable storm activity as they are located in the belt of the stormy westerlies. Many oceanic climates have frequent cloudy or overcast conditions due to the near constant storms and lows tracking over or near them. The annual range of temperatures is smaller than typical climates at these latitudes due to the constant stable marine air masses that pass through oceanic climates, which lack both very warm and very cool fronts.

Koppen World Map Cfb Cfc Cwb Cwc
World map showing oceanic climate zones
  Cfb
  Cfc
  Cwb
  Cwc

Precipitation

Locations with oceanic climates tend to feature cloudy conditions with precipitation, though it can experience clear, sunny days. London is an example of an oceanic climate. It experiences reliable and constant precipitation throughout the entire year. Despite this, thunderstorms are quite rare since hot and cold air masses meet infrequently in the region. In most areas with an oceanic climate, precipitation comes in the form of rain for the majority of the year. However, some areas with this climate see some snowfall annually during winter. Most oceanic climate zones, or at least a part of them, experience at least one snowfall per year. In the poleward locations of the oceanic climate zone ("subpolar oceanic climates," described in greater detail below), snowfall is more frequent and commonplace.

Temperature

Overall temperature characteristics of the oceanic climates feature cool temperatures and infrequent extremes of temperature. In the Köppen climate classification, Oceanic climates have a mean temperature of 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)) or higher in the coldest month, compared to continental climates where the coldest month has a mean temperature of below 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)). Summers are cool, with the warmest month having a mean temperature below 22 °C (72 °F). Poleward of the latter is a zone of the aforementioned subpolar oceanic climate (Köppen Cfc),[3] with long but relatively mild (for their latitude) winters and cool and short summers (average temperatures of at least 10 °C (50 °F) for one to three months). Examples of this climate include parts of coastal Iceland, and Norway, the Scottish Highlands, the mountains of Vancouver Island, and Haida Gwaii in Canada, in the Northern Hemisphere and extreme southern Chile and Argentina in the Southern Hemisphere (examples include Ushuaia and Punta Arenas), the Tasmanian Central Highlands, and parts of New Zealand.

Causation

Oceanic climates are not necessarily always found in coastal locations on the aforementioned parallels; however, in most cases oceanic climates parallel higher middle latitude oceans. The polar jet stream, which moves in a west to east direction across the middle latitudes, advances low pressure systems, storms, and fronts. In coastal areas of the higher middle latitudes (45–60° latitude), the prevailing onshore flow creates the basic structure of most oceanic climates. Oceanic climates are a product and reflection of the ocean adjacent to them. In the fall, winter, and early spring, when the polar jet stream is most active, the frequent passing of marine weather systems creates the frequent fog, cloudy skies, and light drizzle often associated with oceanic climates. In summer, high pressure often pushes the prevailing westerlies north of many oceanic climates, often creating a drier summer climate (for example in the Northwest coast of America, bathed by the Pacific Ocean).

The North Atlantic Gulf Stream, a tropical oceanic current that passes north of the Caribbean and up the East Coast of the United States to North Carolina, then heads east-northeast to the Azores, is thought to greatly modify the climate of Northwest Europe.[4] As a result of the Gulf Stream, west-coast areas located in high latitudes like Ireland, the UK, and Norway have much milder winters (for their latitude) than would otherwise be the case. The lowland attributes of western Europe also help drive marine air masses into continental areas, enabling cities such as Dresden, Prague, and Vienna to have maritime climates in spite of being located well inland from the ocean.

Locations

London, United Kingdom
Climate chart (explanation)
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Source: Met Office[5]

Europe

Oceanic climates in Europe occur mostly in Northwest Europe, from Ireland and Great Britain eastward to central Europe. Most of France (away from the Mediterranean), Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, Norway, the north coast of Spain (Basque Country, north of Navarre,[6] Galicia, Asturias and Cantabria), the western Azores off the coast of Portugal, the south of Kosovo and southern portions of Sweden, also have oceanic climates. Examples of oceanic climates are found in Glasgow, London, Bergen, Amsterdam, Dublin, Berlin, Bilbao, Donostia-San Sebastian, Biarritz, Bayonne, Zürich, Copenhagen, Skagen and Paris. With decreasing distance to the Mediterranean Sea, the oceanic climate of Northwest Europe gradually changes to the subtropical dry-summer or Mediterranean climate of southern Europe. The line between Oceanic and Continental climate in Europe runs in a generally north to south direction. For example, western Germany is more impacted by milder Atlantic air masses than is eastern Germany. Thus, winters across Europe become colder to the east, and (in some locations) summers become hotter. The line between oceanic Europe and Mediterranean Europe normally runs west to east and is related to changes in precipitation patterns and differences to seasonal temperatures.

The Americas

Vancouver, Canada
Climate chart (explanation)
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Source: Environment Canada
Valdivia, Chile
Climate chart (explanation)
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Source: [1]

The oceanic climate exists in an arc spreading across the north-western coast of North America from the Alaskan panhandle to northern California, in general the coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest. It includes the western parts of Washington and Oregon, the Alaskan panhandle, western portions of British Columbia, and north-western California. In addition, some east coast areas such as some higher elevations along the southern Appalachian Mountains as well as Block Island, Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket have a similar climate.[7] The oceanic climate is found in isolated pockets in eastern Mexico. The White Mountains of Northern Arizona have an oceanic cfb climate. An extensive area of oceanic climates distinguishes the coastal regions of southern Chile and extends into bordering Argentina.

All mid-latitude oceanic climates are classified as humid. However, some rainshadow climates feature thermal régimes similar to those of oceanic climates but with steppe-like (BSk) or even desert-like (BWk) scarcity of precipitation. Despite the oceanic-like thermal regimes, these areas are generally classified as steppe or desert climates. These arid versions of oceanic climates are found in eastern Washington and Oregon to the east of the Cascade Range in the United States, in the Okanagan Valley in British Columbia in Canada, Patagonia in southern Argentina, and the Atacama Desert in northern Chile.

Africa

The only noteworthy area of Maritime Climate at or near sea-level within Africa is in South Africa from Mossel Bay on the Western Cape coast to Plettenberg Bay, with additional pockets of this climate inland of the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal coast. It is usually warm most of the year with no pronounced rainy season, but slightly more rain in autumn and spring. The Tristan da Cunha archipelago in the South Atlantic also has an oceanic climate.

Asia and Oceania

Muroran, Japan
Climate chart (explanation)
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Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[8]

The oceanic climate is prevalent in the more southerly parts of Oceania. A mild maritime climate is in existence in New Zealand. It occurs in a few areas of Australia, namely in the southeast, although average high temperatures during summers there tend to be higher and the summers drier than is typical of oceanic climates, with summer maxima sometimes exceeding 40 °C (104 °F),[9] Tasmania, Victoria and southeastern New South Wales. It can also be found along the western areas of the south coast of Western Australia, parts with steppe-like (BSk) or even desert-like (BWk) scarcity of precipitation.

This climate is found on the Asian mainland in mountainous areas of the tropics, such as the foothills of the Himalayas and south-west China.

Within Japan, the port city of Muroran is the only part of Hokkaido with an oceanic climate.[10] Parts of the northeastern coast of Honshu, from Mutsu, Aomori towards Miyako, Iwate, also feature this climate.[11][12]

Indian Ocean

Île Amsterdam and Île Saint-Paul, both part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands, are located in the subtropics and have an oceanic climate (akin to Tristan da Cunha; see above).

Varieties

Subtropical highland variety (Cfb, Cwb)

Mexico City
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Source: WMO
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
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Source: NMAE

The subtropical highland variety of the oceanic climate exists in elevated portions of the world that are within either the tropics or subtropics, though it is typically found in mountainous locations in some tropical countries. Despite the latitude, the higher altitudes of these regions mean that the climate tends to share characteristics with oceanic climates, though it can experience noticeably drier weather during the lower-sun "winter" season. In locations outside the tropics, other than the drying trend in the winter, subtropical highland climates tend to be essentially identical to an oceanic climate, with mild summers and noticeably cooler winters, plus, in some instances, some snowfall. In the tropics, a subtropical highland climate tends to feature spring-like weather year-round. Temperatures there remain relatively constant throughout the year and snowfall is seldom seen.

Areas with this climate feature monthly averages below 22 °C (72 °F) but above −3 °C (27 °F) (or 0 °C (32 °F) using American standards). At least one month's average temperature is below 18 °C (64 °F). Without their elevation, many of these regions would likely feature either tropical or humid subtropical climates.

This type of climate exists in parts of east, south and southeastern Africa, interior southern Africa and elevated portions of eastern Africa as far north as Mozambique and of western Africa up to the southwestern Angola highlands also share this climate type. The exposed areas of High Atlas, some mountainous areas across southern Europe, mountainous sections of North, Central and South America and in the highest parts of the states of Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná and São Paulo, in Brazil, some mountainous areas across Southeast Asia, parts of the Himalayas and parts of Sri Lanka.

A climate type similar to this exists in the Northern Tablelands and Central Tablelands region of New South Wales in Australia, with more uniform rainfall distribution, and would have characteristics of the Cfa climate. They would also have a high diurnal temperature variation and low humidity, owing to their inland location and relatively high elevation.

Marine west coast (Cfb)

São Joaquim, Brazil
Climate chart (explanation)
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Source: INMET
Plymouth, United Kingdom
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Source: Hong Kong Observatory

Temperate oceanic climates, also known as "marine mild winter" climates (themselves)[13] or simply oceanic climates, are found either at middle latitudes. They are often found on or near the west coast of continents; hence another name for Cfb, i.e. "marine west coast" climates. In addition to moderate temperatures year-round, one of the characteristics is the absence of dry season. Except for the western part of Europe, this type of climate is confined to narrow ranges of occurrences mainly in the low latitudes and to the east of the continents where it appears in the form of "arch" accompanying elevations, as plateaus in the subtropics.[14][15] It arises in both hemispheres between 35° and 60°: at low altitudes between Mediterranean, humid continental climates and subartic, although the latter usually are also grouped in marine climates limited by the east border of the ocean basins.[16] The west winds ease temperatures, even if there is a partial participation of warm sea currents. With the air coming from the ocean predominates the cloudy weather with constant precipitation even in the colder months and the temperature is strongly enlivened. Depending on the continent its distribution is greater due to the absence of mountains in the north and south direction.[17] Without a deep layer of snow and sufficient moisture the entire year the vegetation is usually always seeing under normal conditions. The vegetation is temperate with the presence of spruce, pine and cedar. As well as fruit, e.g.: apples, pears and grapes.[15]

In the hottest month the average temperature is below 22 °C, but it's in minimum four months with temperatures above 10 °C. The average temperature of the coldest month must be -3 °C or 0 °C (eastern United States) to avoid falling into a continental climate in interior areas or of less influence of the adjacent ocean.[14][18] The average temperature variations in the year are between 10 and 15 °C with average annual temperatures between 7 °C and 13 °C if it is not a mountainous place. Rain values can vary from 50 cm to 10 times the minimum value by the orographic factor. It is dominated by frontal cyclones, where there are places where rainy days exceed 150 times a year. But contrary to popular belief, there are few storms and yes they at occurrences of the precipitation are in constant quantities. Another feature is the very reduced visibility in the winter.[16]

Cfb climates are predominant in central parts of Western Europe, including northern Spain, Northwestern Portugal (mountains), Belgium, Britain, France, Ireland and the Netherlands. They are the main climate type in New Zealand and the Australian states of Tasmania, Victoria and southeastern New South Wales (starting from the Illawarra region). In North America, they are found mainly in Washington, Oregon, Vancouver Island and neighbouring parts of British Columbia, as well as many coastal areas of southwest Alaska. There are pockets of Cfb in most South American countries, including many parts of Southern Chile, parts of the provinces of Chubut, Santa Cruz and Buenos Aires in Argentina. In Western Asia small pockets are found close to sea level on the Black Sea coast of northern Turkey and Georgia. While Cfb zones are rare in Africa, one dominates the coastline of the Eastern Cape in South Africa.

The climate subtype can also be found in Nantucket, Massachusetts (in the immediate west and northwest in transition for humid continental, the remainder of Cape Cod [19])[20] and northeastern Georgia both in the eastern United States.[21]

Subpolar variety (Cfc, Cwc)

Areas with subpolar oceanic climates feature an oceanic climate but are usually located closer to polar regions. As a result of their location, these regions tend to be on the cool end of oceanic climates. Snowfall tends to be more common here than in other oceanic climates. Subpolar oceanic climates are less prone to temperature extremes than subarctic climates or continental climates, featuring milder winters than these climates. Subpolar oceanic climates feature only one to three months of average monthly temperatures that are at least 10 °C (50 °F). As with oceanic climates, none of its average monthly temperatures fall below -3.0 °C (26.6 °F) or 0 °C depending on the isotherm used. Typically, these areas in the warmest month experience daytime maximum temperatures below 17 °C (63 °F), while the coldest month features highs near or slightly above freezing and lows just below freezing. It typically carries a Cfc designation, though very small areas in Yunnan, Sichuan and parts of Argentina and Bolivia have summers sufficiently short to be Cwc with fewer than four months over 10 °C (50 °F).[22] El Alto, Bolivia, is one the few confirmed towns that features this rare variation of the subpolar oceanic climate. The more warm summer/cool winter variation of this climate type is also sometimes known as a "continental maritime climate" as it often has more in common with continental climates than with tundra climates, a great example of this would be Harstad, Norway, which like nearby Tromso has moderately cold, snowy winters and mild to warm summers making this somewhat of a cool summer version of a four-season climate. Mountain summits of Scotland, the South Island of New Zealand, Vancouver Island of Canada, Tasmania, Tierra del Fuego, and Patagonia expirence the sub polar variety, meaning that they have moderate to cool summers, and snowy winters.

This variant of an oceanic climate is found in parts of coastal Iceland, the Faroe Islands, parts of Scotland, northwestern coastal areas of Norway such as Lofoten and reaching to 70°N on some islands,[23] uplands near the coast of southwestern Norway, the Aleutian Islands of Alaska and northern parts of the Alaskan Panhandle, the far south of Chile and Argentina, and a few highland areas of Tasmania, and the Australian and Southern Alps.[24] This type of climate is even found in the very remote parts of the Papuan Highlands in Indonesia. The classification used for this regime is Cfc.[3] In the most marine of those areas affected by this regime, temperatures above 20 °C (68 °F) are extreme weather events, even in the midst of summer. Temperatures above 30 °C (86 °F) have been recorded on rare occasions in some areas of this climate, and in winter temperatures down to −20 °C (−4 °F) have seldom been recorded in some areas.

Punta Arenas, Chile
Climate chart (explanation)
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Source: Dirección Meteorológica de Chile[25]
Tórshavn, Faroe Islands
Climate chart (explanation)
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Source: Danish Meteorological Institute[26]

See also

References

  1. ^ Lauren Springer Ogden (2008). Plant-Driven Design. Timber Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-88192-877-8.
  2. ^ Climate (19 June 2009). "Oceanic Climate". Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  3. ^ a b Tom L. McKnight & Darrel Hess (2000). Climate Zones and Types: The Köppen System. Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Prentice Hall. pp. 226–235. ISBN 978-0-13-020263-5.
  4. ^ "The Gulf Stream". About Education – Geography. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  5. ^ http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/public/weather/climate/gcpsvf37b
  6. ^ "Standard climate values for Pamplona". Aemet.es. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  7. ^ M. C. Peel; B. L. Finlayson & T. A. McMahon (11 October 2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 11 (5): 1638–1643. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  8. ^ Japan Meteorological Agency
  9. ^ Bureau of Meteorology (2011). "Climate of Canberra Area". Commonwealth of Australia. Archived from the original on 20 March 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  10. ^ "Average Weather in Muroran, Japan, Year Round - Weather Spark". weatherspark.com. Retrieved 2018-07-28.
  11. ^ むつ 平年値(年・月ごとの値) 主な要素. jma.go.jp (in Japanese). Retrieved 2018-10-28.
  12. ^ 小本 平年値(年・月ごとの値) 主な要素. jma.go.jp (in Japanese). Retrieved 2018-10-28.
  13. ^ Michael Pidwirny, 2017, Appendix 3: Köppen Climate Classification: Single appendix from the eBook Understanding Physical Geography. Kelowna BC, Canada; Our Planet Earth Publishing, pp. 8, 24.
  14. ^ a b "Temperate oceanic climate". www.mindat.org. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  15. ^ a b Team, Glogster. "Marine West Coast: climate, coast, marine, west | Glogster EDU - Interactive multimedia posters". edu.glogster.com. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  16. ^ a b "marine west coast climate | Characteristics & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  17. ^ "Marine West Coast Climate". www.earthonlinemedia.com. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  18. ^ "Hot Continental Division". www.fs.fed.us. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  19. ^ "Mean Temperature US in January - 30 yrs (normals)".
  20. ^ "Massachusetts Koppen Climate".
  21. ^ "Georgia US Koppen Climate".
  22. ^ [hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/29/88/18/PDF/hessd-4-439-2007.pdf]
  23. ^ Weather statistics for Hasvik (Finnmark)
  24. ^ Tapper, Andrew; Tapper, Nigel (1996). Gray, Kathleen, ed. The weather and climate of Australia and New Zealand (First ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press. p. 300. ISBN 978-0-19-553393-4.
  25. ^ "Estadistica Climatologica Tomo III (pg 512–537)" (PDF) (in Spanish). Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil. March 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  26. ^ "Monthly means and extremes 1961–1990 and 1981–2010 for air temperature, atmospheric pressure, hours of bright sunshine and precipitation–Denmark, The Faroe Islands and Greenland" (PDF). Danish Meteorological Institute. pp. 16–19. Retrieved 18 January 2015.

External links

Aextoxicon

Aextoxicon punctatum, the sole species of genus Aextoxicon and family Aextoxicaceae, is a tree native to southern Chile and Argentina.

Commonly known as the olivillo or aceitunillo, it is a large evergreen tree native to the forests of the Valdivian temperate rain forests and Magellanic subpolar forests of southern Chile's Pacific coast, where it forms is a canopy tree in the broadleaf forests. It can reach 15 m tall.

The APG system (1998) and the APG II system (2003) left the family Aextoxicaceae unplaced in the core eudicots. It has since been included in the order Berberidopsidales. The genus was formerly often included in the family Euphorbiaceae.

Betula pubescens

Betula pubescens (syn. Betula alba), commonly known as downy birch and also as moor birch, white birch, European white birch or hairy birch, is a species of deciduous tree, native and abundant throughout northern Europe and northern Asia, growing farther north than any other broadleaf tree. It is closely related to, and often confused with, the silver birch (B. pendula), but grows in wetter places with heavier soils and poorer drainage; smaller trees can also be confused with the dwarf birch (B. nana).

Three varieties are recognised and it hybridises with the silver and dwarf birches. A number of cultivars have been developed but many are no longer in cultivation. The larva of the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) feeds on the foliage and in some years, large areas of birch forest can be defoliated by this insect. A large number of fungi are associated with the tree and certain pathogenic fungi are the causal agents of birch dieback disease.

The tree is a pioneer species, readily colonising cleared land, but later being replaced by taller, more long-lived species. The bark can be stripped off without killing the tree and the bark and the timber is used for turnery and in the manufacture of plywood, furniture, shelves, coffins, matches, toys and wood flooring. The inner bark is edible and it was ground up and used in bread-making in times of famine. The rising sap in spring can be used to make refreshing drinks, wines, ales and liqueurs and various parts of the tree have been used in herbal medicine.

Churches of Chiloé

The Churches of Chiloé in Chile's Chiloé Archipelago are a unique architectural phenomenon in the Americas, and one of the most prominent styles of Chilota architecture. Unlike classical Spanish colonial architecture, the churches of Chiloé are made entirely in native timber with extensive use of wood shingles. The churches were built from materials to resist the Chiloé Archipelago's humid and rainy oceanic climate.

Built in the 18th and 19th centuries when Chiloé Archipelago was still a part of the Spanish Crown possessions, the churches represent the fusion of Spanish Jesuit culture and local native population's skill and traditions; an excellent example of mestizo culture.

The Churches of Chiloé were designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 2000. The University of Chile, Fundación Cultural Iglesias de Chiloé and other institutions have led efforts to preserve these historic structures and to publicize them for their unique qualities.

Climate of Alaska

The climate of Alaska is determined by average temperatures and precipitation received statewide over many years. The extratropical storm track runs along the Aleutian Island chain, across the Alaska Peninsula, and along the coastal area of the Gulf of Alaska which exposes these parts of the state to a large majority of the storms crossing the North Pacific. The climate in Juneau and the southeast panhandle is a mid-latitude oceanic climate (similar to Scotland, or Haida Gwaii), (Köppen Cfb) in the southern sections and a subarctic oceanic climate (Köppen Cfc) in the northern parts. The climate in Southcentral Alaska is a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc) due to its short, cool summers. The climate of the interior of Alaska is best described as extreme and is the best example of a true subarctic climate, as the highest and lowest recorded temperatures in Alaska have both occurred in the interior. The climate in the extreme north of Alaska is an Arctic climate (Köppen ET) with long, cold winters, and cool summers where snow is possible year-round.

Climate of Albania

Albania has a variety of climate systems. With its coastline facing the Adriatic and Ionian seas in the Mediterranean sea, its highlands backed upon the elevated Balkan landmass, and the entire country lying at a latitude subject to a variety of weather patterns during the winter and summer seasons, however it has a high number of climatic regions for such a small area. The coastal lowlands have typically mediterranean climate while the highlands have a continental climate. In both the lowlands and the interior, the weather varies markedly from north to south.Under the Köppen climate classification, the country has Hot Mediterranean climate, Warm Mediterranean climate, Subtropical climate, Oceanic climate, Continental climate and Subartic climate.

Climate of London

London, the capital of England and largest city in the United Kingdom, has a temperate oceanic climate, with warm summers and cool winters. While the city annually has modest precipitation, there are long periods of overcast skies and frequent light mist-type precipitation, which may account for the rainy image of the city.

Within the current boundaries of Greater London, the coldest temperature ever recorded was −16.1 °C (3.0 °F) at Northolt in January 1962, and the highest temperature ever recorded was 38.1 °C (100.6 °F), recorded at Kew Gardens during the European Heat Wave of 2003. London averages about 1600 hours of sunshine annually. London's large built-up area creates a microclimate (an "urban heat island"), with heat stored by the city's buildings. Sometimes temperatures are 5 °C (9 °F) warmer in the city than in the surrounding areas. The urban heat island effect creates a microclimate in inner London, as seen in the London weather centre climate table below which features a bordering humid subtropical climate (according to the Trewartha climate classification), compared to the other climate tables below with a cooler oceanic climate.

Drimys winteri

Drimys winteri (Winter's bark or canelo) is a slender tree, growing up to 20 m (66 ft) tall. It is native to the Magellanic and Valdivian temperate rain forests of Chile and Argentina, where it is a dominant tree in the coastal evergreen forests. It is found below 1,200 m (3,937 ft) between latitude 32° south and Cape Horn at latitude 56°. In its southernmost natural range it can tolerate temperatures down to −20 °C (−4 °F).

The leaves are lanceolate, glossy green above, whitish below and can measure up to 20 cm (8 in). The flowers are white with a yellow center, and consist of a great number of petals and stamens. The fruit is a bluish berry.

Embothrium coccineum

Embothrium coccineum, commonly known as the Chilean firetree, Chilean firebush, notro, or ciruelillo in Spanish, is a small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Proteaceae. It grows in the temperate forests of Chile and Argentina.

Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1954, 1961) introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.The Köppen climate classification divides climates into five main climate groups, with each group being divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). Each group and subgroup is represented by a letter. All climates are assigned a main group (the first letter). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation subgroup (the second letter). For example, Af indicates a tropical rainforest climate. The system assigns a temperature subgroup for all groups other than those in the A group, indicated by the third letter for climates in B, C, and D, and the second letter for climates in E. For example, Cfb indicates an oceanic climate with warm summers as indicated by the ending b. Climates are classified based on specific criteria unique to each climate type.Köppen designed the system based on his experience as a botanist, so the main climate groups are based on the different variety of vegetation that grows in climates belonging to each group. In addition to identifying climates, the system can be used to analyze ecosystem conditions and identify the main types of vegetation within climates. Due to its link with the plant life of a region, the system is useful in predicting future changes in plant life within a region.The Köppen climate classification system has been further modified, within the Trewartha climate classification system in the middle 1960s (revised in 1980). The Trewartha system sought to create a more refined middle latitude climate zone, which was one of the criticisms of the Köppen system (the C climate group was too broad).

Nothofagus antarctica

Nothofagus antarctica (Antarctic Beech; in Spanish Ñire or Ñirre) is a deciduous tree or shrub native to southern Chile and Argentina from about 36°S to Tierra del Fuego (56° S), where it grows mainly in the diminishing temperate rainforest. Its occurrence on Hoste Island earns it the distinction of being the southernmost tree on earth.

Nothofagus betuloides

Nothofagus betuloides, Magellan's beech or guindo, is native to southern Patagonia.

In 1769 Sir Joseph Banks collected a specimen of the tree in Tierra del Fuego during Captain Cook's first voyage.

Nothofagus nitida

Nothofagus nitida (Coigüe de Chiloé; Chiloé's Coigue in Spanish ) is an evergreen tree, native from Chile and Argentina, it lives from latitude 40° S to Última Esperanza (53° S).

Nothofagus pumilio

Nothofagus pumilio (lenga beech in Mapuche language) is a deciduous tree or shrub in the Nothofagaceae family that is native to the southern Andes range, in the temperate forests of Chile and Argentina to Tierra del Fuego, from 35° to 56° South latitude. This tree is in the same genus as the coihue. It regenerates easily after fires. The wood is of good quality, moderate durability, and is easy to work with. It is used in furniture, shingles and construction and sometimes as a substitute for American black cherry in the manufacturing of cabinets.

Picea abies

Picea abies, the Norway spruce or European spruce, is a species of spruce native to Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. It has branchlets that typically hang downwards, and the largest cones of any spruce, 9–17 cm (3 1⁄2–6 3⁄4 in) long. It is very closely related to the Siberian spruce (Picea obovata), which replaces it east of the Ural Mountains, and with which it hybridises freely. The Norway spruce is widely planted for its wood, and is the species used as the main Christmas tree in several cities around the world. It was the first gymnosperm to have its genome sequenced, and one clone has been measured as 9,560 years old.

The Latin specific epithet abies means “fir-like”.

Populus tremula

Populus tremula, commonly called aspen, common aspen, Eurasian aspen, European aspen, or quaking aspen, is a species of poplar native to cool temperate regions of Europe and Asia, from Iceland and the British Isles east to Kamchatka, north to inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia and northern Russia, and south to central Spain, Turkey, the Tian Shan, North Korea, and northern Japan. It also occurs at one site in northwest Africa in Algeria. In the south of its range, it occurs at high altitudes in mountains.The English name Waverly, meaning "quaking aspen", is both a surname and unisex given name.

Prosetín (Chrudim District)

Prosetín is a village in the Pardubice Region of the Czech Republic. It has around 800 inhabitants.

Villages Malinné and Mokrýšov are administrative parts of Prosetín. It has oceanic climate with moderate temperature in summer.

Rowan

The rowans or mountain-ashes are shrubs or trees in the genus Sorbus of the rose family, Rosaceae. They are native throughout the cool temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with the highest species diversity in the mountains of western China and the Himalaya, where numerous apomictic microspecies occur. The name rowan was originally applied to the species Sorbus aucuparia and is also used for other species in Sorbus subgenus Sorbus.Formerly, when a wider variety of fruits were commonly eaten in Europe and North America, Sorbus was a domestically used fruit throughout these regions. It is still used in some countries, but Sorbus domestica, for example, has largely vanished from Britain, where it was traditionally appreciated. Natural hybrids, often including Sorbus aucuparia and the whitebeam, Sorbus aria, give rise to many endemic variants in the UK.

Scots pine

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a species of pine that is native to Eurasia, ranging from Western Europe to Eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains and Anatolia, and north to well inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia. In the north of its range, it occurs from sea level to 1,000 m (3,300 ft), while in the south of its range it is a high altitude mountain tree, growing at 1,200–2,600 m (3,900–8,500 ft) altitude. It is readily identified by its combination of fairly short, blue-green leaves and orange-red bark.The species is mainly found on poorer, sandy soils, rocky outcrops, peat bogs or close to the forest limit. On fertile sites, Scots pine is out-competed by other, usually spruce or broad-leaved tree species.It is the national tree of Scotland.

Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
2.2
 
 
47
36
 
 
1.6
 
 
47
36
 
 
1.6
 
 
52
39
 
 
1.7
 
 
58
42
 
 
1.9
 
 
64
48
 
 
1.8
 
 
70
53
 
 
1.8
 
 
74
57
 
 
1.9
 
 
74
57
 
 
1.9
 
 
68
53
 
 
2.7
 
 
60
47
 
 
2.3
 
 
50
41
 
 
2.2
 
 
47
37
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
7
 
 
44
37
 
 
7.2
 
 
47
38
 
 
6.1
 
 
51
40
 
 
4.6
 
 
56
44
 
 
3.4
 
 
62
49
 
 
2.8
 
 
67
54
 
 
2.1
 
 
72
57
 
 
2
 
 
72
58
 
 
2.9
 
 
66
53
 
 
5.8
 
 
57
47
 
 
9.4
 
 
49
41
 
 
9.1
 
 
44
37
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
2.1
 
 
73
48
 
 
2.1
 
 
73
47
 
 
2.8
 
 
69
45
 
 
5.2
 
 
63
42
 
 
12
 
 
56
43
 
 
12
 
 
52
40
 
 
12
 
 
51
40
 
 
9.7
 
 
54
39
 
 
6.4
 
 
58
39
 
 
4.3
 
 
62
41
 
 
2.9
 
 
66
44
 
 
2.5
 
 
71
47
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
2.2
 
 
33
24
 
 
1.7
 
 
33
25
 
 
1.9
 
 
39
29
 
 
3
 
 
49
37
 
 
4
 
 
58
45
 
 
4.2
 
 
64
53
 
 
6.5
 
 
70
60
 
 
7.6
 
 
74
65
 
 
6.5
 
 
70
60
 
 
3.7
 
 
60
49
 
 
3
 
 
48
38
 
 
2.5
 
 
37
29
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.4
 
 
70
42
 
 
0.2
 
 
73
45
 
 
0.4
 
 
78
49
 
 
1
 
 
80
51
 
 
2.2
 
 
80
53
 
 
5.3
 
 
76
54
 
 
6.9
 
 
73
53
 
 
6.7
 
 
74
53
 
 
5.7
 
 
72
53
 
 
2.6
 
 
72
50
 
 
0.5
 
 
71
46
 
 
0.2
 
 
69
44
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.7
 
 
74
48
 
 
1.4
 
 
76
49
 
 
2.7
 
 
76
51
 
 
3.5
 
 
77
54
 
 
3
 
 
77
55
 
 
4.9
 
 
74
54
 
 
10
 
 
69
54
 
 
11
 
 
68
53
 
 
6.9
 
 
71
53
 
 
1.6
 
 
73
50
 
 
0.3
 
 
73
47
 
 
0.4
 
 
72
46
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
7.3
 
 
73
56
 
 
7.2
 
 
71
56
 
 
5
 
 
71
55
 
 
4.2
 
 
66
51
 
 
5.7
 
 
60
46
 
 
5
 
 
58
44
 
 
7.9
 
 
58
43
 
 
5.6
 
 
62
45
 
 
7.3
 
 
62
45
 
 
7.2
 
 
66
49
 
 
6.6
 
 
69
51
 
 
5.4
 
 
72
54
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
4.3
 
 
48
39
 
 
3.3
 
 
48
38
 
 
3.1
 
 
51
41
 
 
2.6
 
 
55
43
 
 
2.5
 
 
60
48
 
 
2.2
 
 
64
52
 
 
2.4
 
 
68
56
 
 
2.6
 
 
68
56
 
 
2.9
 
 
65
53
 
 
4.4
 
 
59
49
 
 
4.4
 
 
53
44
 
 
4.7
 
 
49
40
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.6
 
 
58
44
 
 
1.2
 
 
57
44
 
 
1.5
 
 
54
41
 
 
1.6
 
 
49
38
 
 
1.6
 
 
44
34
 
 
1.1
 
 
39
30
 
 
1.1
 
 
39
30
 
 
1.2
 
 
41
32
 
 
1
 
 
46
34
 
 
1.1
 
 
50
37
 
 
1.2
 
 
54
40
 
 
1.3
 
 
56
43
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
6.2
 
 
42
35
 
 
4.5
 
 
42
34
 
 
5.2
 
 
43
35
 
 
3.5
 
 
45
37
 
 
2.5
 
 
49
41
 
 
2.3
 
 
52
45
 
 
2.9
 
 
55
48
 
 
3.8
 
 
56
49
 
 
4.7
 
 
53
46
 
 
5.8
 
 
49
42
 
 
5.5
 
 
45
38
 
 
5.3
 
 
43
36
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D
Class E

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