Occupational burnout

Occupational burnout is thought to result from long-term, unresolvable, job stress. In 1974, Herbert Freudenberger became the first researcher to publish in a psychology-related journal a paper that used the term burnout. The paper was based on his observations of the volunteer staff (including himself) at a free clinic for drug addicts.[1] He characterized burnout by a set of symptoms that includes exhaustion resulting from work's excessive demands as well as physical symptoms such as headaches and sleeplessness, "quickness to anger" and closed thinking. He observed that the burned-out worker "looks, acts, and seems depressed". After the publication of Freudenberger's original paper, interest in occupational burnout grew. Because the phrase "burnt-out" was part of the title of a 1961 Graham Greene novel, A Burnt-Out Case, which dealt with a doctor working in the Belgian Congo with patients who had leprosy, the phrase may have been in use outside the psychology literature before Freudenberger employed it.[2]

In order to study burnout, a number of researchers developed more focused conceptualizations of burnout. In one conceptualization, job-related burnout is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization (treating clients/students and colleagues in a cynical way), and reduced feelings of work-related personal accomplishment.[3][4] In another conceptualization, burnout is thought to comprise emotional exhaustion, physical fatigue, and cognitive weariness.[5] A third conceptualization holds that burnout consists of exhaustion and disengagement.[6] The core of the three conceptualizations, as well as Freudenberger's, is exhaustion. Long limited to these dimensions, burnout is now known to involve the full array of depressive symptoms (e.g., low mood, cognitive alterations, sleep disturbance).[7][8]

Originally, Maslach and her colleagues focused on burnout within human service professions (e.g., teachers, social workers).[9] She later expanded the application of burnout to include individuals in many other occupations.[3]

Occupational burn-out
Other namesBurn-out


Burnout is not recognized as a distinct disorder in the DSM-5.[10] It is included in the ICD-10, but not as a disorder.[11] It can be found in the ICD under problems related to life-management difficulty (Z73).

In 1981, Christina Maslach and Susan Jackson developed the first widely used instrument for assessing burnout, namely, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI).[12] Consistent with Maslach's conceptualization, the MBI operationalizes burnout as a three-dimensional syndrome consisting of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment.[12][3] Other researchers have argued that burnout should be limited to fatigue and exhaustion.[13]

A growing body of evidence suggests that burnout is etiologically, clinically, and nosologically similar to depression.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20] In a study that directly compared depressive symptoms in burned out workers and clinically depressed patients, no diagnostically significant differences were found between the two groups; burned out workers reported as many depressive symptoms as clinically depressed patients.[21] Moreover, a study by Bianchi, Schonfeld, and Laurent (2014) showed that about 90% of workers with full-blown burnout meet diagnostic criteria for depression.[17] The view that burnout is a form of depression has found support in several recent studies.[15][16][18][19][20][22] Some authors have recommended that the nosological concept of burnout be revised or even abandoned entirely given that it is not a distinct disorder and that there is no agreement on burnout diagnostic criteria.[23][24]

Liu and van Liew wrote that "the term burnout is used so frequently that it has lost much of its original meaning. As originally used, burnout meant a mild degree of stress-induced unhappiness. The solutions ranged from a vacation to a sabbatical. Ultimately, it was used to describe everything from fatigue to a major depression and now seems to have become an alternative word for depression, but with a less serious significance" (p. 434).[25]

Risk factors

Evidence suggests that the etiology of burnout is multifactorial, with dispositional factors playing an important, long-overlooked role.[26][27] Cognitive dispositional factors implicated in depression have also been found to be implicated in burnout.[28] One cause of burnout includes stressors that a person is unable to cope with fully. Occupational burnout often develops slowly and may not be recognized until it has become severe. When one's expectations about a job and its reality differ, burnout can begin.

Burnout is thought to occur when a mismatch is present between the nature of the job and the person doing the job. A common indication of this mismatch is work overload, which sometimes involves a worker who survives a round of layoffs, but after the layoffs the worker finds that he or she is doing too much with too few resources. Overload may occur in the context of downsizing, which often does not narrow an organization's goals, but requires fewer employees to meet those goals.[29]

The job demands-resources model has implications for burnout, as measured by the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI). Physical and psychological job demands were concurrently associated with the exhaustion, as measured by the OLBI.[30] Lack of job resources was associated with the disengagement component of the OLBI.

Maslach, Schaufeli and Leiter identified six risk factors for burnout: mismatch in workload, mismatch in control, lack of appropriate awards, loss of a sense of positive connection with others in the workplace, perceived lack of fairness, and conflict between values.[31]

Burnout is supposed to be a work-specific syndrome. However, this restrictive view of burnout's scope has been shown to be groundless.[32] In other words, burnout could apply to nonwork roles such as that of caregiver or student.


Some research indicates that burnout is associated with reduced job performance, coronary heart disease,[33] and mental health problems (although note the abovementioned research that suggests it is a depressive syndrome, e.g., Ahola et al., 2005[15]). Chronic burnout is also associated with cognitive impairments such as memory and attention.[34] Occupational burnout is also associated with absences, time missed from work, and thoughts of quitting.[35]

Treatment and prevention

At the individual level

It is difficult to treat the three symptoms of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy, as they react to the same preventive or treatment activities in different ways.[36] Exhaustion is more easily treated than cynicism and professional inefficacy, which tend to be more resistant to treatment. Research shows that intervention actually may worsen the professional efficacy of one who originally had low professional efficacy.[37]

For the purpose of preventing occupational burnout, various stress management interventions have been shown to help improve employee health and well-being in the workplace and lower stress levels. Training employees in ways to manage stress in the workplace have also proven effective in prevention of burnout.[38] One study suggest that social-cognitive processes such as commitment to work, self-efficacy, learned resourcefulness and hope may insulate individuals from experiencing occupational burnout.[35] Increased job control is another intervention shown to help counteract exhaustion and cynicism in the workplace.[36]

Burnout prevention programs have traditionally focused on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), cognitive restructuring, didactic stress management, and relaxation. CBT, relaxation techniques (including physical techniques and mental techniques), and schedule changes are the best-supported techniques for reducing and preventing burnout in a health-care specific setting. Combining both organizational and individual level activities may be the most beneficial approach to reduce symptoms. A Cochrane review reported that evidence for the efficacy of CBT in healthcare workers is of low quality, indicating that it is no better than alternative interventions.[4]

Employee rehabilitation is a tertiary preventive intervention which means the strategies used in rehabilitation are meant to alleviate, as well as prevent, burnout symptoms.[36] Such rehabilitation of the working population includes multidisciplinary activities with the intent of maintaining and improving employees' working ability and ensuring a supply of skilled and capable labor in society.

Additional prevention methods include: starting the day with a relaxing ritual; adopting healthy eating, exercising, and sleeping habits; setting boundaries; taking breaks from technology; nourishing one's creative side, and learning how to manage stress.[39][40]

At the organizational level

While individuals can cope with the symptoms of burnout, the only way to truly prevent burnout is through a combination of organizational change and education for the individual.[29]

Maslach and Leiter postulated that burnout occurs when there is a disconnection between the organization and the individual with regard to what they called the six areas of work life: workload, control, reward, community, fairness, and values.[31] Resolving these discrepancies requires integrated action on the part of both the individual and the organization.[31] A better connection on workload means assuring adequate resources to meet demands as well as work/life balances that encourage employees to revitalize their energy.[31] A better connection on values means clear organizational values to which employees can feel committed.[31] A better connection on community means supportive leadership and relationships with colleagues rather than discord.[31]

One approach for addressing these discrepancies focuses specifically on the fairness area. In one study employees met weekly to discuss and attempt to resolve perceived inequities in their job.[41] The intervention was associated with decreases in exhaustion over time but not cynicism or inefficacy, suggesting that a broader approach is required.[31]

See also

Stress and the workplace:



  1. ^ Freudenberger, H.J. (1974). "Staff burnout". Journal of Social Issues. 30: 159–165. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1974.tb00706.x.
  2. ^ Greene, Graham (1961). A Burnt-Out Case. William Heinemann Ltd. pp. cover title. ISBN 978-0140185393.
  3. ^ a b c Maslach, C., Jackson, S.E, & Leiter, M.P. (1996). "MBI: The Maslach Burnout Inventory: Manual". Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  4. ^ a b Ruotsalainen, JH; Verbeek, JH; Mariné, A; Serra, C (7 April 2015). "Preventing occupational stress in healthcare workers". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD002892. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002892.pub5. PMID 25847433.
  5. ^ Shirom, A., & Melamed, S. (2006). "A comparison of the construct validity of two burnout measures in two groups of professionals". International Journal of Stress Management. 13 (2): 176–200. doi:10.1037/1072-5245.13.2.176.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  6. ^ Demerouti, E; Bakker, A.B.; Vardakou, I.; Kantas, A. (2002). "The convergent validity of two burnout instruments: A multitrait-multimethod analysis". European Journal of Psychological Assessment. 18 (1): 296–307. doi:10.1037/a0037726. PMID 25151460.
  7. ^ Bianchi, R., Schonfeld, I.S., & Laurent, E. (2015). "Burnout-depression overlap: A review". Clinical Psychology Review. 36: 28–41. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2015.01.004. PMID 25638755.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
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  13. ^ Kristensen, T.S.; Borritz, M.; Villadsen, E.; Christensen, K.B. (2005). "The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory: A new tool for the assessment of burnout". Work & Stress. 19 (3): 192–207. doi:10.1080/02678370500297720.
  14. ^ Bianchi, E., Schonfeld, I.S., & Laurent, E. (2018). Burnout syndrome and depression. Y.-K. Kim (Ed.), Understanding depression: Volume 2. Clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment (pp.187-202). Singapore: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-6577-4_14
  15. ^ a b c Ahola, K.; Hakanen, J.; Perhoniemi, R.; Mutanen, P. (2014). "Relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms: A study using the person-centred approach". Burnout Research. 1 (1): 29–37. doi:10.1016/j.burn.2014.03.003.
  16. ^ a b Bianchi, R., & Laurent, E. (2015). "Emotional information processing in depression and burnout: An eye-tracking study". European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. 265 (1): 27–34. doi:10.1007/s00406-014-0549-x. PMID 25297694.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  17. ^ a b Bianchi, R.; Schonfeld, I. S.; Laurent, E. (2014). "Is burnout a depressive disorder? A re-examination with special focus on atypical depression". International Journal of Stress Management. 21 (4): 307–324. doi:10.1037/a0037906.
  18. ^ a b Bianchi, R., Schonfeld, I. S., & Laurent, E. (2014). "Is burnout separable from depression in cluster analysis? A longitudinal study". Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 50 (6): 1005–1111. doi:10.1007/s00127-014-0996-8. PMID 25527209.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  19. ^ a b Hintsa, T., Elovainio, M., Jokela, M., Ahola, K., Virtanen, M., & Pirkola, S. (2016). "Is there an independent association between burnout and increased allostatic load? Testing the contribution of psychological distress and depression". Journal of Health Psychology. 16 (8): 576–586. doi:10.1177/1359105314559619. hdl:10138/224473. PMID 25476575.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
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  21. ^ Bianchi, R.; Boffy, C.; Hingray, C.; Truchot, D.; Laurent, E. (2013). "Comparative symptomatology of burnout and depression". Journal of Health Psychology. 18 (6): 782–787. doi:10.1177/1359105313481079. PMID 23520355.
  22. ^ Wurm, W., Vogel, K., Holl, A., Ebner, C., Bayer, D., Mörkl, S., & ... Hofmann, P. (2016). "Depression-burnout overlap in physicians". PLOS ONE. 11 (e0149913): e0149913. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0149913. PMC 4773131. PMID 26930395.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  23. ^ Rotenstein, Lisa S.; Torre, Matthew; Ramos, Marco A.; Rosales, Rachael C.; Guille, Constance; Sen, Srijan; Mata, Douglas A. (September 18, 2018). "Prevalence of Burnout Among Physicians: A Systematic Review". JAMA. 320 (11): 1131–1150. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.12777. ISSN 1538-3598. PMC 6233645. PMID 30326495.
  24. ^ Schwenk, Thomas L.; Gold, Katherine J. (September 18, 2018). "Physician Burnout-A Serious Symptom, But of What?". JAMA. 320 (11): 1109–1110. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.11703. ISSN 1538-3598. PMID 30422283.
  25. ^ Liu, P.M., & Van Liew, D.A. (2003). Depression and burnout. In J.P. Kahn and A.M. Langlieb (Eds.), Mental health and productivity in the workplace: A handbook for organizations and clinician (pp. 433-457). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
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  30. ^ Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B.; Nachreiner, Friedhelm; Schaufeli, Wilmar B. (2001). "The job demands-resources model of burnout". Journal of Applied Psychology. 86 (3): 499–512. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.499.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g Maslach, C.; Schaufeli, W. B.; Leiter, M. P. (2001). S. T. Fiske; D. L. Schacter; C. Zahn-Waxler (eds.). "Job burnout". Annual Review of Psychology. 52: 397–422. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397. PMID 11148311.
  32. ^ Bianchi, R.; Truchot, D.; Laurent, E.; Brisson, R.; Schonfeld, I. S. (2014). "Is burnout solely job-related? A critical comment". Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. 55 (4): 357–361. doi:10.1111/sjop.12119. PMID 24749783.
  33. ^ Toker, S., Melamed, S., Berliner, S., Zeltser, D., & Shapira, I. (2012). "Burnout and risk of coronary heart disease: a prospective study of 8838 employees". Psychosomatic Medicine. 74 (8): 840–847. doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31826c3174. PMID 23006431.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  34. ^ Sandstrom, A; Rhodin IN; Lundberg M; Olsson T; Nyberg L. (2005). "Impaired cognitive performance in patients with chronic burnout sysndrome". Biological Psychology. 69 (3): 271–279. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2004.08.003. PMID 15925030.
  35. ^ a b Elliott, T.; Shewchuk, R.; Hagglund, K.; Rybarczyk, B.; Harkins, S. (1996). "Occupational burnout, tolerance for stress, and coping among nurses in rehabilitation units". Rehabilitation Psychology. 41 (4): 267–284. doi:10.1037/0090-5550.41.4.267.
  36. ^ a b c Hätinen, M.; Kinnunen, U.; Pekkonen, M.; Kalimo, R. (2007). "Comparing two burnout interventions: Perceived job control mediates decreases in burnout". International Journal of Stress Management. 14 (3): 227–248. doi:10.1037/1072-5245.14.3.227.
  37. ^ Van Dierendonck, D.; Schaufeli, W. B.; Buunk, B. P. (1998). "The evaluation of an individual burnout intervention program: The role of inequity and social support". Journal of Applied Psychology. 83 (3): 392–407. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.83.3.392.
  38. ^ William D. McLaurine. A correlational study of job burnout and organizational commitment among correctional officers. Capella University. School of Psychology. p. 92. ISBN 9780549438144.
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  41. ^ van Dierendonck, D.; Schaufeli, W. B.; Buunk, B. P. (1998). "The evaluation of an individual burnout intervention program: the role of in- equity and social support". J. Appl. Psychol. 83 (3): 392–407. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.83.3.392.

Further reading

  • Bianchi, R.; Schonfeld, I.S.; Laurent, E. (2014). "Is burnout a depressive disorder? A reexamination with special focus on atypical depression". International Journal of Stress Management. 21 (4): 307–324. doi:10.1037/a0037906.
  • Caputo, Janette S. (1991). Stress and Burnout in Library Service, Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press.
  • Cordes, C.; Dougherty, T. (1996). "A review and integration of research on job burnout". Academy of Management Review. 18 (4): 621–656. doi:10.5465/AMR.1993.9402210153.
  • Freudenberger, Herbert J (1974). "Staff burnout". Journal of Social Issues. 30: 159–165. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1974.tb00706.x.
  • Freudenberger, Herbert J. (1980). Burn-Out: The High Cost of High Achievement. Anchor Press
  • Freudenberger, Herbert J. and North, Gail. (1985). Women’s Burnout: How to Spot It, How to Reverse It, and How to Prevent It, Doubleday
  • Kristensen, T.S.; Borritz, M.; Villadsen, E.; Christensen, K.B. (2005). "The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory: A new tool for the assessment of burnout". Work & Stress. 19 (3): 192–207. doi:10.1080/02678370500297720.
  • Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E, & Leiter, M. P. MBI: The Maslach Burnout Inventory: Manual. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1996.
  • Maslach, C.; Leiter, M. P. (2008). "Early predictors of job burnout and engagement". Journal of Applied Psychology. 93 (3): 498–512. CiteSeerX doi:10.1037/0021-9010.93.3.498. PMID 18457483.
  • Maslach, C. & Leiter, M. P. (1997). The truth about burnout. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
  • Maslach, C.; Schaufeli, W. B.; Leiter, M. P. (2001). "Job burnout". Annual Review of Psychology. 52: 397–422. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.397. PMID 11148311.
  • Ray, Bernice (2002). An assessment of burnout in academic librarians in America using the Maslach Burnout Inventor. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
  • Shaufeli, W. B.; Leiter, M. P.; Maslach, C. (2009). "Burnout: Thirty-five years of research and practice". Career Development International. 14 (3): 204–220. doi:10.1108/13620430910966406.
  • Shaw, Craig S. (1992). A Scientific Solution To Librarian Burnout. In New Library World Year, 93(5).
  • Shirom, A. & Melamed, S. (2005). Does burnout affect physical health? A review of the evidence. In A.S.G. Antoniou & C.L. Cooper (Eds.), Research companion to organizational health psychology (pp. 599–622). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
  • van Dierendonck, D.; Schaufeli, W. B.; Buunk, B. P. (1998). "The evaluation of an individual burnout intervention program: the role of in- equity and social support". J. Appl. Psychol. 83 (3): 392–407. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.83.3.392.
  • Wang, Yang; Ramos, Aaron; Wu, Hui; Liu, Li; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie (2014-09-26)."Relationship between occupational stress and burnout among Chinese teachers: a cross-sectional survey in Liaoning, China". ''International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health'' '''88''' (5): 589–597. doi:10.1007/s00420-014-0987-9. ISSN 0340-0131
  • Warr, Peter. (1999). Psychology at Work, 4th ed. London: Penguin.

External links

Banishment room

A banishment room (also known as a chasing-out-room and a boredom room) is a modern employee exit management strategy whereby employees are transferred to another department where they are assigned meaningless work until they become disheartened enough to quit. Since the resignation is voluntary, the employee would not be eligible for certain benefits. The legality and ethicality of the practice is questionable and may be construed as constructive dismissal in some regions.

The practice, which is not officially acknowledged, is common in Japan which has strong labor laws and a tradition of permanent employment.


Burnout or burn-out may refer to:

Burnout (clothing), devoré, a fabric technique particularly used on velvets

Occupational burnout, characterized by exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced professional efficacy within the workplace

Burnout (vehicle), when a vehicle's tires are spun so they smoke

Career break

A career break is a period of time out from employment. Traditionally, this is for women to raise children, but it is sometimes used for people taking time out of their career for personal development and/or professional development.

Christina Maslach

Christina Maslach (born January 21, 1946) is an American social psychologist and professor emerita of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, known for her research on occupational burnout. She is a co-author of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Areas of Worklife Survey. Early in her professional career, Maslach was instrumental in stopping the Stanford prison experiment.

Civil conscription

Civil conscription is conscription used for forcing people to work in non-military projects.

Civil conscription is used by various governments around the world, among them Greece, where it has been used numerous times and it is called πολιτική επιστράτευση (politiki epistratevsi, "political mobilisation"). Temporary conscription for payment, typically of taxes, is known as corvée.


Ergophobia, ergasiophobia or ponophobia is an abnormal and persistent fear of work (manual labor, non-manual labour, etc.) or fear of finding employment. It may be a form of social phobia or performance anxiety.

People with ergophobia experience undue anxiety about the workplace environment even though they realize their fear is irrational. Their fear may actually be a combination of fears, such as fear of failing at assigned tasks, speaking before groups at work (both of which are types of performance anxiety), socializing with co-workers (a type of social phobia), and other fears of emotional, psychological and/or physiological injuries.The term ergophobia comes from the Greek "ergon" (work) and "phobos" (fear).

Income bracket

Income bracket is the bandwidth from a basic wage towards all possible salary components and is used to give employees a career perspective and to give the employer the possibility to reward achievements.

In governmental terms, entire populations are divided into income brackets. These brackets are used to categorize demographic data as well as determine levels of taxation and benefits.

Leen Ryckaert

Leen Ryckaert (Ghent, 8 November 1957) is a Flemish psychologist and writer.

Ryckaert studied psychology and educational sciences at the University of Ghent. She was scientific assistant at the University of Ghent and psycho-pedagogic consultant at a PMS-centre (now CLB - Centre for Student Coaching). She now has an independent practice as clinical psychologist.

In March 2011, the book Je bent niet jouw gedachten was published. It is a guide for people suffering from occupational burnout and depression (mood) and offers a way to choose for happiness.

Ryckaert is the author of the book Omgaan met Ouders, a handbook for teachers to help them deal in their meetings with parents.

In 1985, Ryckaert published the paper "Kohlberg's cognitive moral development theory. Application to juvenile delinquency" and in 1987 the paper "The control of anger and aggressive behaviour. The role of cognitive factors"

Letter of resignation

A letter of resignation is written to announce the author's intent to leave a position currently held, such as an office, employment or commission.

Such a letter will often take legal effect to terminate an appointment or employment, as notice under the relevant terms of the position; many appointments and contractual employments are terminable by unilateral notice, or advance notice of a specified period of time, with or without further conditions. Even where an oral notice would be effective, the effective date or time of termination may be directly or indirectly fixed on delivery of a written letter or email, for the sake of clarity and record. In response, different arrangements may be made or agreed, such as an earlier effective date, or improved terms and conditions of appointment upon withdrawal of the letter.

It should normally be delivered in advance to the appropriate supervisor or superior, and contain such information as the intended last day at work. A period of notice may be required expressly by contract, impliedly by the pay interval, or otherwise. Nevertheless, in practice, some resignations can be effective immediately.

For courtesy's sake, a letter of resignation may thank the employer for the pleasure of working under them and the opportunities and experience gained thereby, and also offer to assist with the transition by, for example, training the replacement. A more hostile letter may assert other sentiments or claims, particularly that the contract or terms of employment have been broken. In any case, the terms of the letter and its consequences may often be negotiated, either before or after delivery.

A formal letter with minimal expression of courtesy is then-President Richard Nixon's letter of resignation under the terms of a relatively unknown law passed by Congress March 1, 1792, likely drafted in response to the Constitution having no direct procedure for how a president might resign. Delivered to then-Secretary of State Henry Kissinger on 9 August 1974, it read simply, "I hereby resign the Office of President of the United States." It was simply dated, but Kissinger also recorded upon it the time of receipt.

It is advisable to write a resignation letter in order to leave a good impression on one's employer. Such a resignation letter paves way for a smooth exit interview.

Marriage leave

Marriage leave is the legal right to enjoy leave of absence by an employee due to him or her getting married without loss of wages. Irish civil servants are entitled 5 days. In Malta, every employee is entitled 2 days marriage leave.

National average salary

The National Average Salary (or the National Average Wage) is the mean salary for the working population of a nation. It is calculated by summing all the annual salaries of all persons in work and dividing the total by the number of workers. It is not the same as the Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, which is calculated by dividing the GDP by the total population of a country, including the unemployed and those not in the workforce (e.g. retired people, children, students, etc.).

No call, no show

A no call, no show is an American term for absence from the workforce without notifying the employer. This form of absence is generally deemed inconsiderate and unprofessional.

Occupational injury

An occupational injury is bodily damage resulting from working. The most common organs involved are the spine, hands, the head, lungs, eyes, skeleton, and skin. Occupational injuries can result from exposure to occupational hazards (physical, chemical, biological, or psychosocial), such as temperature, noise, insect or animal bites, blood-borne pathogens, aerosols, hazardous chemicals, radiation, and occupational burnout.While many prevention methods are set in place, injuries may still occur due to poor ergonomics, manual handling of heavy loads, misuse or failure of equipment, exposure to general hazards, and inadequate safety training.

Philippe Zawieja

Philippe Zawieja is a French psychosociologist, essayist and researcher in occupational health at Mines ParisTech, Paris, known for his research on occupational burnout and other forms of fatigue, in particular in health care industry and Alzheimer's care.


A sabbatical (from Hebrew: shabbat (שבת) (i.e., Sabbath), in Latin: sabbaticus, in Greek: sabbatikos (σαββατικός)) is a rest or break from work.

Sarah J. Tracy

Sarah J. Tracy is an organizational communication scholar and full professor in Arizona State University’s Hugh Downs School of Human Communication.Tracy earned a B.A. in 1993 from the University of Southern California, and received her Master of Arts and Ph.D. degrees in communication from the University of Colorado at Boulder, where she was advised by Stanley A. Deetz. While at Colorado, she became a co-author with Deetz and Jennifer Lyn Simpson of the book Leading Organizations through Transition: Communication and Cultural Change (Sage Publications, 1999, ISBN 978-0-7619-2097-7). Her doctoral thesis on Emotional labor and correctional officers: A study of emotion norms, performance and unintended consequences in a total institution (2000) won the National Communication Association's Miller Dissertation Award. She joined the ASU faculty in 2000.Dr. Tracy’s communication scholarship examines emotion and identity within organizations, with a focus on workplace bullying, emotional labor, occupational burnout, and work-life balance. Through the use of qualitative research, such as participant observation, in-depth interviewing, focus groups, and discourse analysis, her ethnographic studies investigate targets of workplace bullying, male executives, correctional officers, 911 emergency call-takers, public relations professionals, and cruise ship activity coordinators. Tracy designs and conducts her research in an attempt to provide new information and knowledge that can potentially improve organizational environments and the everyday lives of men and women.


Shutdown (noun) or shut down (verb) may refer to:

Government shutdown (in the United States)

Occupational burnout

Shutdown (computing)

Shutdown (economics)

Shutdown (nuclear reactor)

Shutdown of thermohaline circulation

Shut down valve

General strike

Work–family conflict

Work-family conflict occurs when an individual experiences incompatible demands between work and family roles, causing participation in both roles to become more difficult. This imbalance creates conflict at the work-life interface. It is important for organizations and individuals to understand the implications linked to work-family conflict. In certain cases, work-family conflict has been associated with increased occupational burnout, job stress, decreased health, and issues pertaining to organizational commitment and job performance.

Aspects of occupations

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