Occupational Safety and Health Administration

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) (/ˈoʊʃə/) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. Congress established the agency under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act), which President Richard M. Nixon signed into law on December 29, 1970. OSHA's mission is to "assure safe and healthy working conditions for working men and women by setting and enforcing standards and by providing training, outreach, education and assistance".[2] The agency is also charged with enforcing a variety of whistleblower statutes and regulations. OSHA is currently headed by Acting Assistant Secretary of Labor Loren Sweatt. OSHA's workplace safety inspections have been shown to reduce injury rates and injury costs without adverse effects to employment, sales, credit ratings, or firm survival.[3]

Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Agency overview
JurisdictionFederal government of the United States
HeadquartersFrances Perkins Building
Washington, D.C.
Employees2,265 (2015)[1]
Annual budget$552 million (2015)[1]
Agency executive
  • Loren Sweatt, Acting Assistant Secretary
Parent departmentUnited States Department of Labor


OSHA officially formed on April 28, 1971, the date that the OSH Act became effective.[4] George Guenther was appointed as the agency's first director.

OSHA has a number of training, compliance assistance, and health and safety recognition programs throughout its history. The OSHA Training Institute, which trains government and private sector health and safety personnel, began in 1972.[4] In 1978, the agency began a grantmaking program, now called the Susan Harwood Training Grant Program, to train workers and employers in reducing workplace hazards.[4] OSHA started the Voluntary Protection Programs in 1982, which allow employers to apply as "model workplaces" to achieve special designation if they meet certain requirements.[4]

OSH Act coverage

The OSH Act covers most private sector employers and their workers, in addition to some public sector employers and workers in the 50 states and certain territories and jurisdictions under federal authority. Those jurisdictions include the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Wake Island, Johnston Island, and the Outer Continental Shelf Lands as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act.

Private sector employers

The OSH Act covers most private sector employers in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and other U.S. jurisdictions—either directly through federal OSHA or through an OSHA approved state plan.

State plans are OSHA-approved job safety and health programs operated by individual states instead of federal OSHA. Federal OSHA approves and monitors all state plans and provides as much as fifty percent of the funding for each program. State-run safety and health programs are required to be at least as effective as the federal OSHA program.

The following 22 states or territories have OSHA-approved state programs: Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oregon, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming.[5]

Federal OSHA provides coverage to certain workplaces specifically excluded from a state’s plan — for example, work in maritime industries or on military bases.

State and local governments

Workers at state and local government agencies are not covered by federal OSHA, but have OSH Act protections if they work in those states that have an OSHA-approved state program. OSH Act rules also permit states and territories to develop plans that cover only public sector (state and local government) workers. In these cases, private sector workers and employers remain under federal OSHA jurisdiction. Five additional states and one U.S. territory have OSHA approved state plans that cover public sector workers only: Connecticut, Illinois, Maine, New Jersey, New York, and the Virgin Islands.

Federal government agencies

OSHA’s protection applies to all federal agencies. Section 19 of the OSH Act makes federal agency heads responsible for providing safe and healthful working conditions for their workers. OSHA conducts inspections of federal facilities in response to workers’ reports of hazards and under programs that target high hazard federal workplaces.[6]

Federal agencies must have a safety and health program that meets the same standards as private employers. OSHA issues “virtual fines” to federal agencies – following an inspection where violations are found, OSHA issues a press release stating the size the fine would be if the federal agency were a private sector employer. Under a 1998 amendment, the OSHA Act covers the U.S. Postal Service the same as any private sector employer.

Not covered under the OSH Act

The OSH Act does not cover the self-employed, immediate family members of farm employers, or workplace hazards regulated by another federal agency (for example, the Mine Safety and Health Administration, the Department of Energy, or Coast Guard).[7]

Rights and responsibilities under OSH Act law

Employers have the responsibility to provide a safe workplace.[8]

By law, employers must provide their workers with a workplace that does not have serious hazards and must follow all OSH Act safety and health standards. Employers must find and correct safety and health problems. The OSH Act further requires that employers must first try to eliminate or reduce hazards by making feasible changes in working conditions rather than relying on personal protective equipment such as masks, gloves, or earplugs. Switching to safer chemicals, enclosing processes to trap harmful fumes, or using ventilation systems to clean the air are examples of effective ways to eliminate or reduce risks.

Employers must also:

  • Inform workers about chemical hazards through training, labels, alarms, color-coded systems, chemical information sheets and other methods.
  • Provide safety training to workers in a language and vocabulary they can understand.[9]
  • Keep accurate records of work-related injuries and illnesses.
  • Perform tests in the workplace, such as air sampling, required by some OSH Act standards.
  • Provide required personal protective equipment at no cost to workers. (Employers must pay for most types of required personal protective equipment.)[10][11]
  • Provide hearing exams or other medical tests when required by OSH Act standards.
  • Post OSHA citations and annually post injury and illness summary data where workers can see them.[12][13]
  • Notify OSHA within eight hours of a workplace fatality. Notify OSHA within 24 hours of all work-related inpatient hospitalizations, all amputations, and all losses of an eye (1-800-321-OSHA [6742]).
  • Prominently display the official OSHA Job Safety and Health – It’s the Law poster[14] that describes rights and responsibilities under the OSH Act.
  • Not retaliate or discriminate against workers[15] for using their rights under the law, including their right to report a work-related injury or illness.

Workers have the right to:[16]

  • Working conditions that do not pose a risk of serious harm.
  • File a confidential complaint with OSHA to have their workplace inspected.[17]
  • Receive information and training about hazards, methods to prevent harm, and the OSH Act standards that apply to their workplace. The training must be done in a language and vocabulary workers can understand.
  • Receive copies of records of work-related injuries and illnesses that occur in their workplace.
  • Receive copies of the results from tests and monitoring done to find and measure hazards in their workplace.
  • Receive copies of their workplace medical records.
  • Participate in an OSHA inspection and speak in private with the inspector.
  • File a complaint with OSHA if they have been retaliated or discriminated against by their employer as the result of requesting an inspection or using any of their other rights under the OSH Act.
  • File a complaint if punished or retaliated against for acting as a “whistleblower” under the 21 additional federal laws for which OSHA has jurisdiction.[15]

Temporary workers must be treated like permanent employees. Staffing agencies and host employers share a joint accountability over temporary workers. Both entities are therefore bound to comply with workplace health and safety requirements and to ensure worker safety and health. OSHA could hold both the host and temporary employers responsible for the violation of any condition.[18]

Health and safety standards

The Occupational Safety and Health Act grant OSHA the authority to issue workplace health and safety regulations. These regulations include limits on hazardous chemical exposure, employee access to hazard information, requirements for the use of personal protective equipment, and requirements to prevent falls and hazards from operating dangerous equipment.

The OSH Act's current Construction[19], General Industry, Maritime and Agriculture standards[20] are designed to protect workers from a wide range of serious hazards. Examples of OSHA standards include requirements for employers to provide fall protection such as a safety harness/line or guardrails; prevent trenching cave-ins; prevent exposure to some infectious diseases; ensure the safety of workers who enter confined spaces; prevent exposure to harmful chemicals; put guards on dangerous machines; provide respirators or other safety equipment; and provide training for certain dangerous jobs in a language and vocabulary workers can understand.

OSHA sets enforceable permissible exposure limits (PELs) to protect workers against the health effects of exposure to hazardous substances, including limits on the airborne concentrations of hazardous chemicals in the air.[21] Most of OSHA’s PELs were issued shortly after adoption of the OSH Act in 1970. Attempts to issue more stringent PELs have been blocked by litigation from industry; thus, the vast majority of PELs have not been updated since 1971.[22] The agency has issued non-binding, alternate occupational exposure limits that may better protect workers.[23][24]

Employers must also comply with the General Duty Clause of the OSH Act. This clause requires employers to keep their workplaces free of serious recognized hazards and is generally cited when no specific OSHA standard applies to the hazard.

In its first year of operation, OSHA was permitted to adopt regulations based on guidelines set by certain standards organizations, such as the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, without going through all of the requirements of a typical rulemaking. OSHA is granted the authority to promulgate standards that prescribe the methods employers are legally required to follow to protect their workers from hazards. Before OSHA can issue a standard, it must go through a very extensive and lengthy process that includes substantial public engagement, notice and comment. The agency must show that a significant risk to workers exists and that there are feasible measures employers can take to protect their workers.

In 2000, OSHA issued an ergonomics standard. In March 2001, Congress voted to repeal the standard through the Congressional Review Act. The repeal, one of the first major pieces of legislation signed by President George W. Bush, is the first instance that Congress has successfully used the Congressional Review Act to block regulation.

Since 2001, OSHA has issued the following standards:

  • 2002: Exit Routes, Emergency Action Plans, and Fire Prevention Plans
  • 2004: Commercial Diving Operations
  • 2004: Fire Protection in Shipyards
  • 2006: Occupational Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium
  • 2006: Assigned Protection Factors for Respiratory Protection Equipment
  • 2007: Electrical Installation Standard
  • 2007: Personal Protective Equipment Payment (Clarification)
  • 2008: Vertical Tandem Lifts
  • 2010: Cranes and Derricks in Construction
  • 2010: General Working Conditions in Shipyards
  • 2012: GHS Update to the Hazard Communication Standard
  • 2014: New Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements for Employers
  • 2014: Revision to Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution; Electrical Protective Equipment
  • 2016: Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica
  • 2016: Update General Industry Walking-Working Surfaces and Fall Protection Standards [25]


OSHA is responsible for enforcing its standards on regulated entities. Compliance Safety and Health Officers carry out inspections and assess fines for regulatory violations. Inspections are planned for worksites in particularly hazardous industries. Inspections can also be triggered by a workplace fatality, multiple hospitalizations, worker complaints, or referrals.

OSHA is a small agency, given the size of its mission: with its state partners, OSHA has approximately 2,400 inspectors covering more than 8 million workplaces where 130 million workers are employed. In Fiscal Year 2012 (ending Sept. 30), OSHA and its state partners conducted more than 83,000 inspections of workplaces across the United States — just a fraction of the nation’s worksites.[26] According to a report by AFL–CIO, it would take OSHA 129 years to inspect all workplaces under its jurisdiction.[27]

Enforcement plays an important part in OSHA’s efforts to reduce workplace injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. Inspections are initiated without advance notice, conducted using on-site or telephone and facsimile investigations, performed by trained compliance officers and scheduled based on the following priorities [highest to lowest]: imminent danger; catastrophes – fatalities or hospitalizations; worker complaints and referrals; targeted inspections – particular hazards, high injury rates; and follow-up inspections.

Current workers or their representatives may file a complaint and ask OSHA to inspect their workplace if they believe that there is a serious hazard or that their employer is not following OSHA standards. Workers and their representatives have the right to ask for an inspection without OSHA telling their employer who filed the complaint. It is a violation of the OSH Act for an employer to fire, demote, transfer or in any way discriminate against a worker for filing a complaint or using other OSHA rights.

When an inspector finds violations of OSHA standards or serious hazards, OSHA may issue citations and fines. A citation includes methods an employer may use to fix a problem and the date by which the corrective actions must be completed.

OSHA’s fines are very low compared with other government agencies. They were raised for the first time since 1990 on Aug. 2, 2016 to comply with the 2015 Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act Improvements Act passed by Congress to advance the effectiveness of civil monetary penalties and to maintain their deterrent effect. The new law directs agencies to adjust their penalties for inflation each year. The maximum OSHA fine for a serious violation is $12,500 and the maximum fine for a repeat or willful violation is $125,000.[28] In determining the amount of the proposed penalty, OSHA must take into account the gravity of the alleged violation and the employer’s size of the business, good faith and history of previous violations. Employers have the right to contest any part of the citation, including whether a violation actually exists.[29] Workers only have the right to challenge the deadline by which a problem must be resolved. Appeals of citations are heard by the independent Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSHRC).

OSHA carries out its enforcement activities through its 10 regional offices and 90 area offices.[26] OSHA’s regional offices are located in Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, Kansas City metropolitan area, Denver, San Francisco, and Seattle.

Record keeping requirements

Tracking and investigating workplace injuries and illnesses play an important role in preventing future injuries and illnesses. Under OSHA’s Recordkeeping regulation, certain covered employers in high hazard industries are required to prepare and maintain records of serious occupational injuries and illnesses. This information is important for employers, workers and OSHA in evaluating the safety of a workplace, understanding industry hazards, and implementing worker protections to reduce and eliminate hazards.

Employers with more than ten employees and whose establishments are not classified as a partially exempt industry must record serious work-related injuries and illnesses using OSHA Forms 300, 300A and 301. Recordkeeping forms, requirements and exemption information are at OSHA’s website.[30]

Whistleblower protection

OSHA enforces the whistleblower provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Act and 21 other statutes protecting workers who report violations of various airline, commercial motor carrier, consumer product, environmental, financial reform, food safety, health care reform, nuclear, pipeline, public transportation agency, maritime and securities laws.[15] Over the years, OSHA has been responsible for enforcing these laws that protect the rights of workers to speak up without fear of retaliation, regardless of the relationship of these laws to occupational safety and health matters.[15]

Compliance assistance

OSHA has developed several training, compliance assistance, and health and safety recognition programs throughout its history.

The OSHA Training Institute, which trains government and private sector health and safety personnel, began in 1972.[31] In 1978, the agency began a grant making program, now called the Susan Harwood Training Grant Program, to train workers and employers in identifying and reducing workplace hazards.[31]

The Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) recognize employers and workers in private industry and federal agencies who have implemented effective safety and health management programs and maintain injury and illness rates below the national average for their respective industries. In VPP, management, labor, and OSHA work cooperatively and proactively to prevent fatalities, injuries, and illnesses through a system focused on: hazard prevention and control, worksite analysis, training, and management commitment and worker involvement.[31]

OSHA’s On-site Consultation Program[32] offers free and confidential advice to small and medium-sized businesses in all states across the country, with priority given to high-hazard worksites. Each year, responding to requests from small employers looking to create or improve their safety and health management programs, OSHA’s On-site Consultation Program conducts over 29,000 visits to small business worksites covering over 1.5 million workers across the nation. On-site consultation services are separate from enforcement and do not result in penalties or citations. Consultants from state agencies or universities work with employers to identify workplace hazards, provide advice on compliance with OSHA standards, and assist in establishing safety and health management programs.[32]

Under the consultation program, certain exemplary employers may request participation in OSHA’s Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program (SHARP). Eligibility for participation includes, but is not limited to, receiving a full-service, comprehensive consultation visit, correcting all identified hazards and developing an effective safety and health management program. Worksites that receive SHARP recognition are exempt from programmed inspections during the period that the SHARP certification is valid.[33]

OSHA also provides compliance assistance through its national and area offices. Through hundreds of publications in a variety of languages, website safety and health topics pages, and through compliance assistance staff OSHA provides information to employers and workers on specific hazards and OSHA rights and responsibilities.[34]


A 2012 study in Science found that OSHA's random workplace safety inspections caused a "9.4% decline in injury rates" and a "26% reduction in injury cost" for the inspected firms.[3] The study found "no evidence that these improvements came at the expense of employment, sales, credit ratings, or firm survival."[3]

Much of the debate about OSHA regulations and enforcement policies revolves around the cost of regulations and enforcement, versus the actual benefit in reduced worker injury, illness and death. A 1995 study of several OSHA standards by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) found that OSHA relies "generally on methods that provide a credible basis for the determinations essential to rulemakings". Though it found that OSHA's finding and estimates are "subject to vigorous review and challenge", it stated that this is natural because "interested parties and experts involved in rulemakings have differing visions".[35]

OSHA has come under considerable criticism for the ineffectiveness of its penalties, particularly its criminal penalties. The maximum penalty is a misdemeanor with a maximum of 6-months in jail.[36] In response to the criticism, OSHA, in conjunction with the Department of Justice, has pursued several high-profile criminal prosecutions for violations under the Act, and has announced a joint enforcement initiative between OSHA and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) which has the ability to issue much higher fines than OSHA. Meanwhile, Congressional Democrats, labor unions and community safety and health advocates are attempting to revise the OSH Act to make it a felony with much higher penalties to commit a willful violation that results in the death of a worker. Some local prosecutors are charging company executives with manslaughter and other felonies when criminal negligence leads to the death of a worker.[37]

A New York Times investigation in 2003 showed that over the 20-year period from 1982 to 2002, 2,197 workers died in 1,242 incidents in which OSHA investigators concluded that employers had willfully violated workplace safety laws. In 93% of these fatality cases arising from wilful violation, OSHA made no referral to the U.S. Department of Justice for criminal prosecution.[38] The Times investigation found that OSHA had failed to pursue prosecution "even when employers had been cited before for the very same safety violation" and even in cases where multiple worker died. In interviews, current and former OSHA officials said that the low rates of criminal enforcement were the result of "a bureaucracy that works at every level to thwart criminal referrals. ... that fails to reward, and sometimes penalizes, those who push too hard for prosecution" and that " aggressive enforcement [was] suffocated by endless layers of review.[38]

OSHA has also been criticized for taking too long to develop new regulations. For instance, speaking about OSHA under the George W. Bush presidency on the specific issue of combustible dust explosions, Chemical Safety Board appointee Carolyn Merritt said: "The basic disappointment has been this attitude of no new regulation. They don't want industry to be pestered. In some instances, industry has to be pestered in order to comply."[39]

See also


 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

  1. ^ a b "FY 2015 Department of Labor Budget in Brief" (PDF).
  2. ^ "About OSHA".
  3. ^ a b c Levine, David I.; Toffel, Michael W.; Johnson, Matthew S. (2012-05-18). "Randomized Government Safety Inspections Reduce Worker Injuries with No Detectable Job Loss". Science. 336 (6083): 907–911. doi:10.1126/science.1215191. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 22605775.
  4. ^ a b c d "Reflections on OSHA's History" (PDF). Department of Labor. January 2009.
  5. ^ "What is an OSHA-Approved State Plan?". Archived from the original on 2015-05-13.
  6. ^ "Section 19 of the OSHA Act of 1970: Federal Agency Safety Programs and Responsibilities". Department of Labor.
  7. ^ "Who OSHA Covers".
  8. ^ "Employer Responsibilities".
  9. ^ "OSHA Training Standards Policy Statement".
  10. ^ "Personal Protective Equipment Booklet". Archived from the original on 2015-03-18.
  11. ^ "Personal Protective Equipment fact sheet" (PDF).
  12. ^ "OSHA Inspections" (PDF).
  13. ^ "OSHA Injury and Illness Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements".
  14. ^ "Job Safety and Health: It's the Law Poster" (PDF).
  15. ^ a b c d "The Whistleblower Protection Program".
  16. ^ "Worker's Rights".
  17. ^ "How to File a Confidential Complaint with OSHA".
  18. ^ "Temporary Workers".
  19. ^ "OSHA 29 CFR 1926 OSHA Construction Standards and Regulations".
  20. ^ "OSHA Law and Regulations".
  21. ^ Maxwell, Nancy Irwin (2014). Understanding Environmental Health. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett. p. 226.
  22. ^ "Preventing occupational illnesses through safer chemical management". www.osha.gov.
  23. ^ Hill Jr., Robert H.; Finster, David C. (2016). Laboratory Safety for Chemistry Students. John Wiley & Sons. p. 103.
  24. ^ "Permissible Exposure Limits – Annotated Tables".
  25. ^ https://www.osha.gov/walking-working-surfaces/index.html
  26. ^ a b "Commonly Used Statistics".
  27. ^ "Death on the Job: the Toll of Neglect. 20th Edition, 2011" (PDF). AFL-CIO. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03.
  28. ^ Berzon, Alexandra (3 November 2015), "OSHA Fines to Rise for First Time Since 1990", The Wall Street Journal, retrieved 3 September 2016
  29. ^ "Employer's Rights and Responsibilities Following and OSHA Inspection". Department of Labor. Archived from the original on 2014-08-31.
  30. ^ "OSHA Injury and Illnesses and Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements".
  31. ^ a b c https://www.osha.gov/history/OSHA_HISTORY_3360s.pdf
  32. ^ a b "On-site Consultation Program".
  33. ^ "Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program".
  34. ^ "Compliance Assistance Quick Start". www.osha.gov. Retrieved 2016-08-19.
  35. ^ "Gauging Control Technology and Regulatory Impacts in Occupational Safety and Health: An Appraisal of OSHA's Analytic Approach" (PDF). US Government, Office of Technology Assessment. US Government Printing Office. September 1995.
  36. ^ "OSHA Administrative Penalty Information Bulletin".
  37. ^ "The Possible Legal Consequences of Circumventing Occupational Safety".
  38. ^ a b David Barstow, U.S. Rarely Seeks Charges For Deaths in Workplace, New York Times (December 22, 2003).
  39. ^ Pelley, Scott (2008-06-08). "Is Enough Done To Stop Explosive Dust?". 60 Minutes. CBSnews.com. Retrieved 2008-06-09.

External links

2016 California Proposition 60

Proposition 60 was a California ballot proposition on the November 8, 2016 ballot which would have allowed the California Occupational Safety and Health Administration (Cal/OSHA) to prosecute an enforcement action anytime a condom is not visible in a pornographic film. The proposition failed to pass.Proposition 60 would have allowed any California resident to sue a pornographer and obtain their personal information. Frivolous law suits and actor safety were a major concern, as well as millions of taxpayer dollars it would cost to enforce.Enforcement of Proposition 60 was predicted to cost more than $1 million annually. State and local governments were predicted to lose tens of millions of dollars in tax revenue per year if the industry left the state.If the state decided not to defend Proposition 60’s constitutionality in court, the measure would have empowered its sole sponsor, Michael Weinstein of the AIDS Healthcare Foundation, to defend the measure himself. Weinstein’s legal expenses would have been paid by the state and he could only be removed by a majority vote of both houses of the California State Legislature. These provisions were included in response to the United States Supreme Court ruling in Hollingsworth v. Perry that only state employees have standing to defend state ballot propositions in federal court.

Proposition 60 was similar to Measure B, passed by Los Angeles voters in 2012, which resulted in a large drop in permit filings for pornography shoots. Proposition 60 would have required adult film performers to use condoms during filming of sexual intercourse, and required producers to pay for performer vaccinations, testing, and medical examinations, and to post the condom requirement at film sites. Additionally, producers would have been required to renew their adult film licenses every two years as well as contact Cal/OSHA if and when a film was being made.The statewide California pornography industry employs 2,000 people. Pornography in California is estimated to be a $9 billion industry.California law already requires all workers to use protection against infectious bodily fluids, and the California Occupational Safety and Health Administration has already interpreted the statute to require porn actors to wear condoms. In early 2016 rulemaking, Cal/OSHA drafted detailed regulation requiring condom use but it was withdrawn after widespread industry criticism.Proponents spent $4.6 million fighting for the measure, all of it from the AIDS Healthcare Foundation.Opponents spent $433,614, with the top donor being Wicked Pictures. Other top donors included Cybernet Entertainment and the California Democratic Party. The editorial boards of the Los Angeles Times, the San Francisco Chronicle, and the Sacramento Bee opposed the measure.The proposition failed, with nearly 54% against and 46% in favor.

Advanced composite materials (engineering)

Advanced composite materials (ACMs) are also known as advanced polymer matrix composites. These are generally characterized or determined by unusually high strength fibres with unusually high stiffness, or modulus of elasticity characteristics, compared to other materials, while bound together by weaker matrices. These are termed advanced composite materials (ACM) in comparison to the composite materials commonly in use such as reinforced concrete, or even concrete itself. The high strength fibers are also low density while occupying a large fraction of the volume

Advanced composites exhibit desirable physical and chemical properties that include light weight coupled with high stiffness (elasticity), and strength along the direction of the reinforcing fiber, dimensional stability, temperature and chemical resistance, flex performance, and relatively easy processing. Advanced composites are replacing metal components in many uses, particularly in the aerospace industry.

Composites are classified according to their matrix phase. These classifications are polymer matrix composites (PMCs), ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), and metal matrix composites (MMCs). Also, materials within these categories are often called "advanced" if they combine the properties of high (axial, longitudinal) strength values and high (axial, longitudinal) stiffness values, with low weight, corrosion resistance, and in some cases special electrical properties.

Advanced composite materials have broad, proven applications, in the aircraft, aerospace, and sports equipment sectors. Even more specifically ACMs are very attractive for aircraft and aerospace structural parts. ACMs have been developing for NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program, armor protection for Army aviation and the Federal Aviation Administration of the USA, and high-temperature shafting for the Comanche helicopter. Additionally, ACMs have a decades long history in military and government aerospace industries. However, much of the technology is new and not presented formally in secondary or undergraduate education, and the technology of advanced composites manufacture is continually evolving.

This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

California Division of Occupational Safety and Health

The Division of Occupational Safety and Health of California (DOSH, but more commonly known as Cal/OSHA) is an agency of the Government of California established by the California Occupational Safety & Health Act of 1973. Administered by the California Department of Industrial Relations, Cal/OSHA's mission is to protect public health and safety through research and regulation related to hazards on the job in California workplaces as well as on elevators, amusement rides, and ski lifts, and related to the use of pressure vessels such as boilers and tanks. Cal/OSHA requires that qualifying organizations create illness and injury prevention programs meant to help identify and eliminate dangers before accidents and illnesses occur.As of December 22, 2015, Cal/OSHA employed 195 field enforcement officers, 25 of whom received bilingual pay for using a second language at least 10% of the time on the job. The organization offers training materials and paid training time to staff interested in learning other languages and encourages bilingual applicants to apply.

Exposure action value

An Exposure Action Value (EAV) or Action Value (AV) is a limit set on occupational exposure to noise where, when those values are exceeded, employers must take steps to monitor the exposure levels. These levels are measured in decibels. The American Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) set the EAV to 85 dB(A). When the eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA) reaches 85 dB(A), employers are required to administer a continuing, effective hearing conservation program. The program consists of monitoring, employee notification, observation, an audiometric testing program, hearing protectors, training programs, and record keeping requirements.

Flammable liquid

A flammable liquid is any liquid with a flash point at or below a certain threshold, as defined by some governing body.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of the United States Department of Labor defines a liquid as flammable if it has a flash point at or below 199.4 °F (93 °C). Prior to bringing regulations in line with the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) in 2012, OSHA considered flammable liquids to be those with a flash point below 100 °F (37.8 °C). Those with flash points above 100 °F and below 200 °F (93.3 °C) were classified as combustible liquids. Studies show that the actual measure of a liquids flammability, its flash point, is dependent on altitude.

Glossary of robotics

Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots. Robotics is related to the sciences of electronics, engineering, mechanics, and software.The following is a list of common definitions related to the Robotics field.

Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administration

The Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administration (MIOSHA) is a state government agency that regulates workplace safety and health in the U.S. state of Michigan. Michigan OSHA is an agency within the Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs (LARA) and operates under a formal state-plan agreement with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).MIOSHA is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women in Michigan. The agency administers the MIOSH Act, Act 154 of 1974, as amended. Safe and healthy work environments are achieved through a combination of enforcement, outreach, and collaborative partnerships. The agency also licenses asbestos contractors and certifies asbestos workers. The agency administers the MIOSHA program through an organization composed of the Construction Safety and Health Division, the General Industry Safety and Health Division, the Consultation Education and Training Division, the MIOSHA Appeals Division, the Management and Technical Services Division, and program administration.

MIOSHA applies to all public and private sector places of employment in the State, with the exception of Federal employees, the United States Postal Service (USPS), domestic employment, maritime, and mining, which are subject to Federal OSHA jurisdiction.

The mission of MIOSHA is to help protect the safety, health, earned wages and fringe benefits of Michigan workers.

The vision of MIOSHA is to enhance the quality of life and contribute to the economic vitality in Michigan. Through staff and stakeholder commitment and creativity, we will provide:

Credible, customized and responsive consultation, education and training.

Firm and fair enforcement.

Cooperative agreements with individual employers and employee and employer organizations.

Relevant, fact-based rule promulgation.

Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory

Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory is the term used by the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration to identify third-party organizations that have the necessary qualifications to perform safety testing and certification of products covered within OSHA and each organization's scopes. The testing and certification are conducted in accordance with U.S. consensus-based product safety test standards developed or issued by U.S. standards organizations

Occupational Safety and Health Act (United States)

The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 is a US labor law governing the federal law of occupational health and safety in the private sector and federal government in the United States. It was enacted by Congress in 1970 and was signed by President Richard Nixon on December 29, 1970. Its main goal is to ensure that employers provide employees with an environment free from recognized hazards, such as exposure to toxic chemicals, excessive noise levels, mechanical dangers, heat or cold stress, or unsanitary conditions. The Act created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

The Act can be found in the United States Code at title 29, chapter 15.

Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division

The Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division (Oregon OSHA or OR-OSHA) is a state government agency that regulates workplace safety and health in the U.S. state of Oregon. Oregon OSHA is a division of the Oregon Department of Consumer and Business Services and operates under a formal state-plan agreement with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Oregon OSHA's regulatory authority comes from the Oregon Safe Employment Act (OSEA); its jurisdiction covers most public and private sector workplaces in the state. Oregon OSHA's expressed mission is "to advance and improve workplace safety and health for all workers in Oregon."

Permissible exposure limit

The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as high level noise. Permissible exposure limits are established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Most of OSHA’s PELs were issued shortly after adoption of the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act in 1970.For chemicals, the chemical regulation is usually expressed in parts per million (ppm), or sometimes in milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3). Units of measure for physical agents such as noise are specific to the agent.

A PEL is usually given as a time-weighted average (TWA), although some are short-term exposure limits (STEL) or ceiling limits. A TWA is the average exposure over a specified period, usually a nominal eight hours. This means that, for limited periods, a worker may be exposed to concentration excursions higher than the PEL, so long as the TWA is not exceeded and any applicable excursion limit is not exceeded. An excursion limit typically means that "...worker exposure levels may exceed 3 times the PEL-TWA for no more than a total of 30 minutes during a workday, and under no circumstances should they exceed 5 times the PEL-TWA, provided that

the PEL-TWA is not exceeded." Excursion limits are enforced in some states (for example Oregon) and on the federal level for certain contaminants such as asbestos.

A short-term exposure limit is one that addresses the average exposure over a 15-30 minute period of maximum exposure during a single work shift. A ceiling limit is one that may not be exceeded for any time, and is applied to irritants and other materials that have immediate effects.

Process safety management

Process safety management system is a regulation promulgated by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). A process is any activity or combination of activities including any use, storage, manufacturing, handling or the on-site movement of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs) as defined by OSHA and the Environmental Protection Agency.


The "rastacap" or "tam" is a tall (sometimes depending on the user's hair length), round, crocheted cap. It is most commonly associated with the pat as a way for Rastafarians (Rastas) and others with dreadlocks to tuck their locks away, but may be worn for various reasons (such as religious) by Rastas and non-Rastas. The cap is worn mostly by men. It is sometimes erroneously referred to as a "Tam" (or "tam"), a different kind of hat that was loosely ancestral to the rastacap. Other Caribbean terms for the rastacap include rastafar (sometimes with a silent terminal -r), toppa[h] and simply cap or hat.

In construction, the rastacap is similar to the tuque, but much larger. Most commonly crocheted, the hat can also be knit, woven, sewn, or constructed in a number of other ways. Examples with sun-cured palm leaves woven into the hat exist; this yields a semi-rigid design which a skilled islander can form rapidly. Rastacaps range in size and shape, as well as uses. People with dreadlocks and non-dreaded people alike wear rastacaps for fashion, convenience, religion, socio-political statement, and a number of other reasons. Some Rastas also wear rastacaps and other forms of headdress as a religious headcovering. It may also be worn by health and food service and heavy machinery workers with long hair, for workplace safety reasons.People of Jamaica and Barbados, as well as some outlying islands, have separately claimed to have originated the cap style, claiming ancestral heritage or even personal invention, albeit without credible, documented proof, relying on unsubstantiated drawings or mythical reference.

Recommended exposure limit

A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit. The REL is a level that NIOSH believes would be protective of worker safety and health over a working lifetime if used in combination with engineering and work practice controls, exposure and medical monitoring, posting and labeling of hazards, worker training and personal protective equipment. No REL has ever been adopted by OSHA, but they have been used as guides by some industry and advocacy organizations. RELs for chemical exposures are usually expressed in parts per million (ppm), or sometimes in milligrams per cubic metre (mg/m3). Although not legally enforceable limits, NIOSH RELs are considered by OSHA during the promulgation of legally enforceable PELs.

Scrap metal shredder

A scrap metal shredder, also sometimes referred to as a metal scrap shredder, is a machine used for reducing the size of scrap metal. Scrap metal shredders come in many different variations and sizes.

United States House of Representatives Office of Emergency Planning, Preparedness, and Operations

The Office of Emergency Planning, Preparedness and Operations (OEPPO) provides emergency planning and operational support to the United States House of Representatives. The Office was established by legislation in 2002, in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks to ensure continuity of operations.The office is responsible for House mitigation and preparedness operations, crisis management

and response, and resource services and recovery operations. The director of OEPPO

is jointly appointed by the Speaker and Minority Leader. The Speaker, in consultation with the minority leader, provides the policy direction and oversight of the office and may request a detail of personnel from any federal agency on a reimbursable basis. A director carries out the daily operations of the office under the supervision of the House of Representatives Continuity of Operations Board. Due to the sensitive nature of its mission, some of the agency's operational details are not publicly available.The Office has conducted training on the use of personal protective equipment and emergency evacuation procedures and developed training plans to the House Staff on evacuation procedures for employees and visitors with disabilities. Following a TOPOFF 3 exercise in 2005, its provisions for evacuating persons with disabilities were questioned during a Congressional hearing.

Voluntary Protection Program

Voluntary Protection Programs (VPP) is an Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) initiative that encourages private industry and federal agencies to prevent workplace injuries and illnesses through hazard prevention and control, worksite analysis, training; and cooperation between management and workers. VPP enlists worker involvement to achieve injury and illness rates that are below national Bureau of Labor Statistics averages for their respective industries.

Deputy Secretary of Labor
Occupational diseases
and injuries
Occupational hygiene
Agencies and organizations
See also

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