Postgraduate training programs for both fields are usually combined, preparing the practicing obstetrician-gynecologist to be adept both at the care of female reproductive organs' health and at the management of pregnancy, although many doctors go on to develop subspecialty interests in one field or the other.
Education and training (residency)
After completing medical school, one must complete a four-year residency program to be eligible to sit for boards.
For the ERAS match in 2017, there will be 238 participating programs accepting applicants.
In all, this adds up to 11–14 years of education and practical experience. The first 7–9 years are general medical training.
Experienced OB-GYN professionals can seek certifications in sub-specialty areas, including maternal and fetal medicine. See Fellowship (medicine).
OB-GYN candidates must first complete medical school and obtain a MBBS or equivalent certification. This portion typically takes 5 years.
Then they must complete a two years of foundation training. After the first year of training is complete, trainees are eligible to register as a doctor the General Medical Council. After the foundation training is complete applicants take the Part 1 MCROG examination administered by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. There are an additional 5 years of training after this, and two more exams (Part 2 and Part 3 MCROG exams) which adds up to 7 years total minimum in training, although some trainees may take longer.
Examples of subspecialty training available to physicians in the US are:
Maternal-fetal medicine: an obstetrical subspecialty, sometimes referred to as perinatology, that focuses on the medical and surgical management of high-risk pregnancies and surgery on the fetus with the goal of reducing morbidity and mortality.
Of these, only the first four are truly recognized sub-specialties by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ABOG). The other subspecialties are recognized as informal concentrations of practice. To be recognized as a board-certified subspecialist by the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology or the American Osteopathic Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology, a practitioner must have completed an ACGME or AOA-accredited residency and obtained a Certificate of Added Qualifications (CAQ) which requires an additional standardized examination.
Additionally, physicians of other specialties may become trained in Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO), a short certification that equips them to better manage emergent OB/GYN situations.
There are many procedures that can provided to women by OB/GYN's. Some procedures may include:
Colposcopy: a Pap smear screening. If the results come back as abnormal, that will lead to colposcopic exam which is a more thorough examination of the cervix and vaginal tissues.
Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP): a procedure to quickly remove abnormal vaginal tissue within the cervix. A local anesthetic and a solution to enhance the points of removal visually will be administered during the process. You can experience watery, pinkish discharge, brownish discharge, and mild cramping.
Endometrial Biopsy: a procedure that collects a tissue sample from the endometrium lining of the uterus. The sample will be tested and checked under a microscope for abnormals cells or indicators of cancer.
IUD Insertion: an intrauterine device is T-shaped and is placed in the uterus through the cervix. It is a reversible contraceptive that could be done in a doctor's office.
Nexplanon: is about a 4cm implant that goes into the upper forearm. This implant releases birth control hormones into the body and can last up to 3 years. This type of birth control has a 99% success rate for pregnancy prevention.
Dilation and Curettage (D&C): an out-patient procedure yo open(dilate) the cervix to collect samples of endometrial tissue with a curette. A D&C can also be done to remove a fetus that was not passed naturally after a miscarriage.
Tubal Ligation: a surgery to close the fallopian tubes for the prevention of pregnancy. It is also known as "tying the tubes".
Ovarian Cystectomy: the removal of a cyst that either has a solid appearance, larger than 3 inches in diameter, has the possibility to become cancerous, or causes a constant pain. Cyst can be removed without removing an ovary. Women who don't take birth control produce small cyst every other month but can disappear on their own.
The salary of an obstetrician varies by country or state. In the United States, as of 2017, the average salary is $222,400–$315,277.
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