Oar

An oar is an implement used for water-borne propulsion. Oars have a flat blade at one end. Rowers grasp the oar at the other end.

The difference between oars and paddles is that oars are used exclusively for rowing. In rowing the oar is connected to the vessel by means of a pivot point for the oar, either an oarlock, or a thole. The oar is placed in the pivot point with a short portion inside the vessel, and a much larger portion outside. The rower pulls on the short end of oar, while the long end is in the water. The oar is a second class lever with the water as the fulcrum, the oarlock as the load, and the rower as the force. An oar is an unusual lever since the mechanical advantage is less than one. The oar increases the small displacement of the end held by the rower, into a large displacement of the vessel through the water. The rower applies a large force through a small distance, which must be equaled by the small force the water applies opperating over a longer distance, i.e. the work done by the rower must be balanced by the work done by the water.[1]

By contrast, paddles, are held in both hands by the paddler, and are not attached to the vessel.

Rowers generally face the stern of the vessel, reach towards the stern, and insert the blade of their oar in the water. As they lean back, towards the vessel's bow, the blade of their oars pivots in the oarlock, and the end in the water moves towards the stern, providing forward thrust.

For thousands of years vessels were powered either by sails, or by the mechanical work of rowers, or by paddlers. Some ancient vessels were propelled by both oars and sail, depending on the speed and direction of the wind.

OarCollection01
Traditional wooden oars

History

Rowing oars have been used since the early Neolithic period. Wooden oars, with canoe-shaped pottery, dating from 5000–4500 BC have been discovered in a Hemudu culture site at Yuyao, Zhejiang, in modern China.[2][3] In 1999, an oar measuring 63.4 cm (2 ft) in length, dating from 4000 BC, was unearthed in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan.[4]

Construction

Oars have traditionally been made of wood. The form is a long shaft (or loom) with a flat blade on the end. Where the oar connects to the boat there is a "collar" (or button), often made of leather, which stops the oar slipping past the rowlock. Oars usually have a handle about 150mm long, which may be a material sleeve or alternatively an ovoid shape carved to fit the hands.

Balanced oar

This is a normal, usually wooden oar to which weight has been added at the inboard end so that the blade end is noticeably lighter and easier for a rower to operate without fatigue. The two methods of adding weight are to either have a much larger section in the oar immediately next to the handle for a distance of about 450 millimetres (18 in) or to drill an 18-millimetre (0.71 in) hole inside the handle for a distance of about 150 millimetres (5.9 in) and add about 12 oz of lead secured by epoxy resin glue. For a 7-foot (2.1 m) oar the balance point is about 12 inches outboard of the rowlock. Often surplus wood is removed from the blade's width and thickness and at the neck between the blade and the shaft to further reduce outboard weight. This type of oar is much better for long-range rowing.

Oars used for transport

The oars used for transport come in a variety of sizes. The oars used in small dinghies or rafts can be less than 2 metres long. In classical times warships were propelled by very long oars that might have several oarsmen per oar. These oars could be more than a dozen metres long.

Oars used for competitive rowing

Croker Sculling Oars
A pair of carbon fibre sculling oars used for sport rowing
Trophyoars
Trophy oars of the seven founding member clubs of the Remenham Club

The oars used in competitive rowing are long (250–300 cm) poles with one flat end about 50 cm long and 25 cm wide, called the blade. The part of the oar the oarsman holds while rowing is called the handle. While rowing, the oars are supported by metal frames attached to the side of the boat called outriggers. Classic oars were made of wood, but modern oars are made from synthetic material, the most common being carbon fibre.

Oars used as trophies

The sport of competitive rowing has developed a tradition of using an oar as a memento of significant race wins. A 'trophy oar' is not presented at the end of the race as a more familiar precious metal cup might be, but rather given by the club, school or university that the winning crew or rower represented.

A trophy oar is a competition oar that has been painted in the club colours and has then had the details of the race signwritten on the face of the blade. The most common format would have the coat of arms or crest of the club or school positioned in the centre, with the crew names and the race details arranged around this.

Many older universities (Oxford and Cambridge would be prime examples, as well as Yale and Harvard) and their colleges have long histories of using the trophy oar and many examples are on display in club houses around the world.

In culture

The Norwegian municipalities of Fedje and Herøy both have oars in their coat-of-arms.

Oars have been used to describe various animals with characteristics that closely resemble the said rowing implement. The members of the Family Regalecidae, elongated deep-sea fishes, are called oarfish because their body shape is similar to that of an oar.[5] The hawksbill turtle's genus of Eretmochelys is derived from the Greek root eretmo, which roughly translates to oar. The turtle was so-named because of the oar-like shape of its front flippers.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ "2011 FISA Rule Book". FISA. p. 53. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  2. ^ Deng, Gang. (1997). Chinese Maritime Activities and Socioeconomic Development, c. 2100 B.C.-1900 A.D. Westport: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-29212-4, p. 22.
  3. ^ Miriam T. Stark (15 April 2008). Archaeology of Asia. John Wiley & Sons. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-4051-5303-4. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
  4. ^ The Japan Times. (February 10, 1999). Oldest oar unearthed from Ishikawa ruins. Retrieved on 2008-08-13.
  5. ^ Howard, Brian. "5 Surprising Facts About the Oarfish That Has Been Washing Up on Beaches". National Geographic. Retrieved 3/2/2017. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  6. ^ Beltz, Ellin. "Translations and Original Descriptions: Turtles". Scientific and Common Names of the Reptiles and Amphibians of North America – Explained. ebeltz.net. Retrieved 2007-02-06.

External links

Beck's Record Club

Record Club is a musical project initiated by Beck Hansen in June 2009.

The purpose of the project is to cover an entire album by another artist in one day, using an informal and fluid collective of musicians. Albums covered as of July 2010 are The Velvet Underground's The Velvet Underground & Nico, Leonard Cohen's Songs of Leonard Cohen, Skip Spence's Oar, INXS's Kick, and Yanni's Yanni Live at the Acropolis. Video footage of every performance has been made available on Beck's website.

Coxless pair

A coxless pair is a rowing boat used in the sport of competitive rowing. It is designed for two rowers, who propel the boat with sweep oars.

The crew consists of a pair of rowers, each having one oar, one on the stroke side (rower's right hand side) and one on the bow side (rower's lefthand side). As the name suggests, there is no coxswain on such a boat, and the two rowers must co-ordinate steering and the proper timing of oar strokes between themselves or by means of a steering installation which is operated by foot from one of the rowers. The equivalent boat when it is steered by a cox is referred to as a "coxed pair".

Racing boats (often called "shells") are long, narrow, and broadly semi-circular in cross-section in order to reduce drag to a minimum. Originally made from wood, shells are now almost always made from a composite material (usually carbon-fibre reinforced plastic) for strength and weight advantages. Pairs have a fin towards the rear, to help prevent roll and yaw. The riggers are staggered alternately along the boat so that the forces apply asymmetrically to each side of the boat.

A coxless pair is often considered the most difficult boat to row, as each rower must balance his/her side in cooperation with the other, apply equal power, place their catch and extract the blade simultaneously in order to move the boat efficiently. It requires excellent technique, communication and experience.

"Coxless pair" is one of the classes recognized by the International Rowing Federation and is competed in the Olympic Games.

Florida–Georgia football rivalry

The Florida–Georgia football rivalry is an American college football rivalry game played annually by the University of Florida Gators and the University of Georgia Bulldogs. The game was first played in 1915, and has been played every season since 1926, except for a war-time interruption in 1943. This match-up between Southeastern Conference opponents is one of the most prominent rivalry games in college football, and has been held in Jacksonville, Florida since 1933, with only two exceptions, making it one of the few remaining neutral-site rivalries in college football. The game attracts huge crowds to Jacksonville, and the associated tailgating and other events earned it the nickname of the "World's Largest Outdoor Cocktail Party", although that name is no longer used officially.

This high-intensity rivalry has gone through several periods in which one team has been dominant for a decade or more. Georgia dominated the early rivalry, while Florida held an advantage in the 1950s and 1960s. Georgia won most of the games in the 1970s and 80s under coach Vince Dooley, and Florida dominated the 1990s and 2000s, mostly under coach Steve Spurrier. The years since 2010 (inclusive) have been unusually even, with Georgia holding a 5-4 edge in the decade as of the 2018 contest.

Galley

A galley is a type of ship that is propelled mainly by rowing. The galley is characterized by its long, slender hull, shallow draft and low freeboard (clearance between sea and railing). Virtually all types of galleys had sails that could be used in favorable winds, but human strength was always the primary method of propulsion. This allowed galleys to navigate independently of winds and currents. The galley originated among the seafaring civilizations around the Mediterranean Sea in the late second millennium BC and remained in use in various forms until the early 19th century in warfare, trade and piracy.

Galleys were the warships used by the early Mediterranean naval powers, including the Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans. They remained the dominant types of vessels used for war and piracy in the Mediterranean Sea until the last decades of the 16th century. As warships, galleys carried various types of weapons throughout their long existence, including rams, catapults and cannons, but also relied on their large crews to overpower enemy vessels in boarding actions. They were the first ships to effectively use heavy cannons as anti-ship weapons. As highly efficient gun platforms they forced changes in the design of medieval seaside fortresses as well as refinement of sailing warships.

The zenith of galley usage in warfare came in the late 16th century with battles like that at Lepanto in 1571, one of the largest naval battles ever fought. By the 17th century, however, sailing ships and hybrid ships like the xebec displaced galleys in naval warfare. They were the most common warships in the Atlantic Ocean during the Middle Ages, and later saw limited use in the Caribbean, the Philippines and the Indian Ocean in the early modern period, mostly as patrol craft to combat pirates. From the mid-16th century galleys were in intermittent use in the Baltic Sea, with its short distances and extensive archipelagoes. There was a minor revival of galley warfare in the 18th century in the wars among Russia, Sweden and Denmark.

Islands in the Stream (song)

"Islands in the Stream" is a song written by the Bee Gees and sung by American country music artists Kenny Rogers and Dolly Parton. Named after the Ernest Hemingway novel, it was originally written for Marvin Gaye in an R&B style, only later to be changed for the Kenny Rogers album. It was released in August 1983 as the first single from Rogers' album Eyes That See in the Dark.

The song reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in the United States, giving both Rogers and Parton their second pop number-one hit (after Rogers' "Lady" in 1980 and Parton's "9 to 5" in 1981). It also topped the Country and Adult Contemporary charts. It has been certified Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for selling over two million physical copies in the US. In 2005 the song topped CMT's poll of the best country duets of all time; Parton and Rogers reunited to perform the song on the CMT special.

Rogers and Parton went on to record a Christmas album together, and had an additional hit with their 1985 duet "Real Love".

O.A.R.

O.A.R. (short for Of a Revolution) is an American rock band founded in 1996 in Rockville, Maryland. The band consists of lead vocalist/guitarist Marc Roberge, drummer Chris Culos, guitarist Richard On, bassist Benj Gershman and saxophonist/guitarist Jerry DePizzo. Together, the band has released nine studio albums, including their latest release, The Mighty, in March 2019. The band is well known for their live shows and extensive summer touring, and have released five records of various live performances to date. Four of the band members grew up in Rockville, Maryland and attended Thomas Sprigg Wootton High School. After graduating, they went on to study at Ohio State University. There they met the fifth member, saxophonist/guitarist Jerry DePizzo from Youngstown, Ohio.

Quad scull

A quad scull, or quadruple scull in full, is a rowing boat used in the sport of competitive rowing. It is designed for four persons who propel the boat by sculling with two oars, one in each hand

Racing boats (often called "shells") are long, narrow, and broadly semi-circular in cross-section in order to reduce drag. They usually have a fin towards the rear, to help prevent roll and yaw. Originally made from wood, shells are now almost always made from a composite material (usually carbon-fiber reinforced plastic) for strength and weight advantages. The riggers in sculling apply the forces symmetrically to each side of the boat. Quad sculls is one of the classes recognized by the International Rowing Federation and the Olympics. FISA rules specify minimum weights for each class of boat so that no individual will gain a great advantage from the use of expensive materials or technology.

When there are four rowers in a boat, each with only one sweep oar and rowing on opposite sides, the combination is referred to as a "coxed four" or "coxless four" depending on whether the boat has a cox. In sweep oared racing the rigging means the forces are staggered alternately along the boat. The symmetrical forces in sculling make the boat more efficient and so the quadruple scull is faster than the coxless four. *Update Required*

A 'quad' is different to a 'four' in that a 'quad', or quadruple scull, is composed of four rowers each with two blades, sculling. A 'four' is made up of four rowers each with one oar in hand, sweeping.

Rowing

Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oars in the water by displacing water to propel the boat forward. Rowing and paddling are similar but the difference is that rowing requires oars to have a mechanical connection with the boat, while paddles (used for paddling) are hand-held and have no mechanical connection.

This article focuses on the general types of rowing, such as the recreation and the transport rather than the sport of competitive rowing which is a specialized case of racing using strictly regulated equipment and a highly refined technique.

Rowing (sport)

Rowing, sometimes referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times. It involves propelling a boat (racing shell) on water using oars. By pushing against the water with an oar, a force is generated to move the boat. The sport can be either recreational for enjoyment or fitness, or competitive, when athletes race against each other in boats. There are a number of different boat classes in which athletes compete, ranging from an individual shell (called a single scull) to an eight-person shell with a coxswain (called a coxed eight).

Modern rowing as a competitive sport can be traced to the early 17th century when races (regattas) were held between professional watermen on the River Thames in London, United Kingdom. Often prizes were offered by the London Guilds and Livery Companies. Amateur competition began towards the end of the 18th century with the arrival of "boat clubs" at the British public schools of Eton College, Shrewsbury School, and Westminster School. Similarly, clubs were formed at the University of Oxford, with a race held between Brasenose College and Jesus College in 1815. At the University of Cambridge the first recorded races were in 1827. Public rowing clubs were beginning at the same time; in England Leander Club was founded in 1818, in Germany Der Hamburger und Germania Ruder Club was founded in 1836 and in the United States Narragansett Boat Club was founded in 1838 and Detroit Boat Club was founded in 1839. In 1843, the first American college rowing club was formed at Yale University.

The International Rowing Federation (French: Fédération Internationale des Sociétés d'Aviron, abbreviated FISA), responsible for international governance of rowing, was founded in 1892 to provide regulation at a time when the sport was gaining popularity. Across six continents, 150 countries now have rowing federations that participate in the sport.Rowing is one of the oldest Olympic sports. Though it was on the programme for the 1896 games, racing did not take place due to bad weather. Male rowers have competed since the 1900 Summer Olympics. Women's rowing was added to the Olympic programme in 1976. Today, there are fourteen boat classes which race at the Olympics:

Each year the World Rowing Championships are staged by FISA with 22 boat classes that race. In Olympic years, only the non-Olympic boat classes are raced at the World Championships. The European Rowing Championships are held annually, along with three World Rowing Cups in which each event earns a number of points for a country towards the World Cup title. Since 2008, rowing has also been competed at the Paralympic Games.

Major domestic competitions take place in dominant rowing nations and include The Boat Race and Henley Royal Regatta in the United Kingdom, the Australian Rowing Championships in Australia, the Harvard–Yale Regatta and Head of the Charles Regatta in the United States, and Royal Canadian Henley Regatta in Canada. Many other competitions often exist for racing between clubs, schools, and universities in each nation.

Rudder

A rudder is a primary control surface used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft, or other conveyance that moves through a fluid medium (generally air or water). On an aircraft the rudder is used primarily to counter adverse yaw and p-factor and is not the primary control used to turn the airplane. A rudder operates by redirecting the fluid past the hull (watercraft) or fuselage, thus imparting a turning or yawing motion to the craft. In basic form, a rudder is a flat plane or sheet of material attached with hinges to the craft's stern, tail, or after end. Often rudders are shaped so as to minimize hydrodynamic or aerodynamic drag. On simple watercraft, a tiller—essentially, a stick or pole acting as a lever arm—may be attached to the top of the rudder to allow it to be turned by a helmsman. In larger vessels, cables, pushrods, or hydraulics may be used to link rudders to steering wheels. In typical aircraft, the rudder is operated by pedals via mechanical linkages or hydraulics.

Scopula

Scopula is a genus of moths in the family Geometridae described by Franz von Paula Schrank in 1802.

Sculling

Sculling is the use of oars to propel a boat by moving the oars through the water on both sides of the craft, or moving a single oar over the stern. By extension, the oars themselves are often referred to as sculls when used in this manner, and the boat itself may be referred to as a scull.

Siuslaw News

The Siuslaw News is a semiweekly paper published in Florence, Oregon, United States, since 1890. The News covers western Lane County, from the Pacific Ocean to Deadwood and Greenleaf, and from Yachats on the north to Gardiner on the south. The paper was previously known as the Siuslaw Oar and The West. It is published on Wednesdays and Saturdays by the News Media Corporation and has a circulation of 5,281.

Skiff

The term skiff is used for a number of essentially unrelated styles of small boat. Traditionally, these are coastal craft or river craft used for leisure, as a utility craft and for fishing, and have a one-person or small crew. Sailing skiffs have developed into high performance competitive classes. Many of today's skiff classes are based in Australia and New Zealand in the form of 12 ft, 13 ft, 16 ft and 18 ft skiffs. The 29er, 49er, SKUD and Musto Skiff are all considered to developed from the skiff concept, all of which are sailed internationally.

The term skiff is also used for a racing shell called single scull for competitive rowing, which is rowed by one rower with two oars. As opposed to sweep boats, where the rowers only have one oar each – coxless pair, coxless four etc. Of course a lone rower must have two oars to row, so sweep oar does not exist for the skiff/single scull.

Sweep (rowing)

Sweep or sweep-oar rowing is a type of rowing when a rower has one oar, usually held with both hands. As each rower has only one oar, the rowers have to be paired so that there is an oar on each side of the boat. This is in contrast to sculling when a rower has two oars, one in each hand. In the UK the term is less used as the term rowing generally refers to sweep oar. The term pulling was also used historically.Sweep or single oar rowing has a long history and was the means of propulsion for Greek triremes and Viking longboats. These boats were wide enough for the pairs of rowers to sit alongside each other. Boats can go faster, the narrower they are, because a smaller cross-sectional area reduces drag and wave drag and gives a sharper angle to the bow. The hulls can be kept narrower by attaching riggers to the gunwales, so that the oarlocks can be placed farther out to carry longer oars. A narrower hull means the rowers cannot sit side by side and so they sit one behind another. The riggers are staggered alternately along the boat so that the forces apply asymmetrically to each side of the boat. This means a sweep oared racing shell has to be stiffer in order to handle the unmatched forces, and so requires more bracing, which means it has to be heavier and slower than an equivalent sculling boat.

Sweep rowing has to be done with crews in multiples of two: pairs, fours and eights (sixes and boats longer than eight are not used in competitive racing today). Each rower in a sweep boat is on either stroke side (port) or bow side (starboard), according to which side of the boat the rower's oar extends from. In a sculling boat the riggers apply forces symmetrically. While sculling boats are also in multiples of two, it is possible to have a single scull or triple scull.

The primary sweep oar racing boats are as follows.

Eight (8+)

A shell with 8 rowers. Always with coxswain because of the size, weight and speed of the boat; bow loader eights exist but are banned from most competitions for safety reasons.

Four (4-) or (4+)

A shell with 4 rowers. Coxless fours (4-) are often referred to as straight fours, and are commonly used by lightweight and elite crews and are raced at the Olympics. In club and school rowing, one more frequently sees a coxed four (4+) which is easier to row, and has a coxswain to steer.

Pair (2-) or (2+)

A shell with 2 rowers. The coxless pair (2-), often called a straight pair, is a demanding but satisfying boat to master. Coxed pairs (2+) are rarely rowed by most club and school programs. It is no longer an Olympic class event, but it continues to be rowed at the World Rowing Championships.

Tommy Oar

Thomas Michael Oar (born 10 December 1991) is an Australian professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for Central Coast Mariners in the Hyundai A-League.

Born on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Oar played youth football for Burleigh Heads, Palm Beach and at the Queensland Academy of Sport before making his professional debut for Brisbane Roar in 2008. He joined Dutch club FC Utrecht in 2010, making over 100 appearances for the side before moving to England to play for Ipswich Town in 2015.

Oar has twenty eight caps with the Australian national team, scoring four goals. He participated in the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2011 and 2015 Asian Cups, with Australia winning the latter. He was part of the Australia U-20 side at the 2009 and 2011 FIFA U-20 World Cups.

University of San Jose–Recoletos

The University of San Jose–Recoletos (USJ–R or colloquially shortened to San Jose), formerly known as Colegio de San Jose–Recoletos, is a private research and Catholic university founded in 1947 in Cebu City, Philippines by the Order of Augustinian Recollects. From classes held in an old building and a portion of the convent, the school built modern structures while retaining classic features.

The university has three campuses, two of which are located in different areas of Metro Cebu – the main campus along Corner P. Lopez and Magallanes Sts. and the Basak Campus at Cebu South Road, Basak Pardo, Cebu City. Its third campus, the Balamban Campus, is located in Arpili, a barangay in the Municipality of Balamban (still in the province of Cebu).

Winnowing Oar

The Winnowing Oar (athereloigos - Greek ἀθηρηλοιγός) is an object that appears in Books XI and XXIII of Homer's Odyssey. In the epic, Odysseus is instructed by Tiresias to take an oar from his ship and to walk inland until he finds a "land that knows nothing of the sea", where the oar would be mistaken for a winnowing fan. At this point, he is to offer a sacrifice to Poseidon, and then at last his journeys would be over.

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