Oakland Ballpark

Oakland Ballpark is the name for a proposed ballpark to be built in the Jack London Square neighborhood of Oakland, California. It is proposed as the new home of Major League Baseball's Oakland Athletics. It would serve as the replacement to their current home at RingCentral Coliseum where the team has resided since 1968. This would mark the first time that the Athletics franchise has played in a brand new stadium since the completion of Shibe Park in 1909.

Oakland Ballpark
Oakland Ballpark
Artist rendering of Oakland Ballpark
Oakland Ballpark is located in Oakland, California
Oakland Ballpark
Oakland Ballpark
Location in Oakland
Oakland Ballpark is located in California
Oakland Ballpark
Oakland Ballpark
Location in California
Oakland Ballpark is located in the United States
Oakland Ballpark
Oakland Ballpark
Location in the United States
Address1 Market Street
LocationOakland, California
Coordinates37°47′44.7″N 122°17′0,03″W / 37.795750°N 122.28333°WCoordinates: 37°47′44.7″N 122°17′0,03″W / 37.795750°N 122.28333°W
Public transitAmtrak Amtrak:
Oakland – Jack London Square
Cable car Gondola from Downtown (planned 2023)[1]
Bus interchange AC Transit:
12, 72, 72M, 72R, Broadway Shuttle
ferry/water interchange San Francisco Bay Ferry:
Oakland Ferry Terminal
OperatorOakland Athletics
Capacity34,000[2]
SurfaceGrass
Construction
Construction costUS$500 million+
($511 million in 2018 dollars)[3]
ArchitectBjarke Ingels Group
Tenants
Oakland Athletics (MLB) (2023–)
Website
Official website

Summary

The Athletics have proposed constructing a 34,000-seat stadium at Howard Terminal owned by the Port of Oakland at Jack London Square. After securing the site, the team proposes to begin construction in 2021 with the stadium opening in 2023.[4]

History

Background

Towards the early 2000s, it was becoming clear that the Coliseum was inadequate for the long term future to host the Athletics and the NFL's Oakland Raiders. Major League Baseball began pushing the team to pursue a new stadium either in Oakland or elsewhere. The Coliseum is the last facility in Major League Baseball that is also home to a NFL team. It is also the last stadium remaining of the multi-purpose stadiums of the 1960s designed for both baseball and football in Major League Baseball. In recent years, the Coliseum has been criticized as being one of the "worst stadiums in baseball".[5] Problems cited include the large amount of foul territory and the addition of Mount Davis.

The former allows for more foul-outs while the latter has been criticized for "ruining" the ambiance of the original configuration. In addition, the stadium has been plagued with sewage issues which include flooding of the dugouts and clubhouses with sewage. The process of finding a new stadium began in 2001 with a plan for a stadium in Oakland. After the first plans in Oakland along with plans for a stadium in Fremont and San Jose fell through the Athletics arrived at the current plan.

Timeline

  • 1968 – The Kansas City Athletics move to Oakland and begin playing at the Coliseum.
  • 1982 – The Oakland Raiders move to Los Angeles leaving the Coliseum as a baseball-only facility.
  • 1995 – The Raiders move back from Los Angeles and the Mount Davis renovation is added to the Coliseum.
  • 2001 – Uptown site is proposed, gets rejected by mayor Jerry Brown.
  • 2005 – 66th Avenue site is proposed.
  • 2006 – Cisco Field plan is announced in Fremont.
  • 2009 – Fremont location is abandoned after public resistance.
  • 2010 – City of Oakland proposes waterfront site at Jack London Square for a new ballpark.
  • 2011 – City tables the Victory Court site in favor of a proposed three-venue development at the Coliseum site titled Coliseum City.
  • 2012 – Cisco Field in San Jose is announced, San Francisco Giants object due to territorial rights.
  • 2014 – A's began talks with an architect to build a baseball-only stadium at the Coliseum site.
  • 2015 – United States Supreme Court rejects San Jose's bid on the Athletics.
  • 2016 – Team reveals they will choose between the Port of Oakland, Coliseum site, and the Peralta area for a new stadium.
  • 2017 – Team chooses Peralta area of Oakland near Laney College, is rejected by college board and surrounding Chinatown neighbors.
  • 2018 – Team proposes to buy the Coliseum site outright in exchange for paying off the remaining $135 million debt owed by the city of Oakland and Alameda County.
  • 2018 – Team chooses Port of Oakland/Howard Terminal site and releases renderings.

Early plans (2001–2005)

The first of the promising early sites had been a site in Uptown Oakland. In a 2001 study, Populous (formerly HOK Sport) had suggested this as the prime site for a ballpark; however, plans to build a park there were canceled by then-Oakland Mayor Jerry Brown due to the concern of the ballpark ruining the housing development of the neighborhood.[6] Brown (who later became governor of California) opted to sell the site to a condominium builder to whom he allegedly had ties. The City of Oakland also considered a site near the Oakland Estuary for a stadium; however, the A's showed no interest in the site due to lack of public transit access. Another possible location that was explored was land directly adjacent to the Coliseum, to the southeast, in what is currently overflow parking, which would have meant the two stadiums would share a parking lot. However, much of that land had already been sold to a condominium developer.[7]

66th Avenue in Oakland (2005)

Oakland Athletics owner Lewis Wolff presented his vision for the team's venue to the Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum Authority on August 12, 2005. The ballpark he proposed would have been on 66th Avenue just north of the Coliseum. The stadium would have been built on what is currently zoned industrial land and would have included a Ballpark Village which would have included shops and either a hotel or apartment building in one of the outfield walls of the park.[8]

Cisco Field

Cisco Field in Fremont (2006)

In April 2006, Lewis Wolff took his Ballpark Village proposal to Fremont, a city 26.5 miles (42.65 km) southeast of Oakland, where a large 143-acre (0.6 km2) parcel of land is available just north of Mission Boulevard and south of Auto Mall Parkway off Interstate 880 and across from Pacific Commons.[9] The land is currently owned by ProLogis, a real estate firm, and leased to Cisco Systems.[10] A formal press conference to announce the existence of Wolff's ballpark proposal of Cisco Field was held on November 14, 2006. The plan would be to build a 32,000 to 35,000 capacity stadium on the parcel of land in addition to adding housing and shops.[11] Bud Selig, commissioner of Major League Baseball and John Chambers, the CEO of Cisco Systems along with Wolff were in attendance.[12]

The proposal of the ballpark encountered problems such as delays due to construction issues, lack of public transportation, and complaints from Fremont residents citing traffic congestion, noise, and pollution concerns. This lead to Wolff officially ending the ballpark search in Fremont on February 24, 2009.[13]

2010

On November 16, 2010, the City of Oakland proposed a waterfront site in the Jack London Square area for a new A's ballpark. The site, called Victory Court, was near the Lake Merritt Channel, along the Oakland Estuary. The city conducted an environmental impact report for the Victory Court site and informed Major League Baseball of its decision. The city began accepting public comment on the ballpark EIR at the December 1 Planning Commission meeting held at Oakland City Hall. By the end of 2011, the city had tabled the Victory Court site in favor of a proposed three-venue development at the Coliseum site titled Coliseum City.[14]

Cisco Field in San Jose (2012)

Cisco Field was then proposed to be constructed in downtown San Jose immediately adjacent to SAP Center and San Jose Diridon Station at the corner of Montgomery Street and Park Avenue.[15] For the A's to have moved to San Jose, either the San Francisco Giants would have had to rescind their territorial rights on the area, or at least 23 of the 30 MLB owners would have had to vote in the A's favor and force San Francisco to give up their territorial claim to Santa Clara County. Lew Wolff stated, "My goal and desire for the organization is to determine a way to keep the team in Northern California."[16] The Redevelopment Agency of the City of San Jose[17] had been acquiring the properties needed at the Diridon South site.[18] The available land, only 12-14 acres, would have given rise to a very intimate stadium. As a result of its small size, it was speculated that it would have been very hitter-friendly.[19]

The Giants repeatedly refused to cede their territorial rights to the San Jose area (which had been yielded by the A's in the early 1990s when the Giants had been in danger of relocating to Tampa Bay, previously both teams had shared the South Bay),[20] although the team is open to sharing Oracle Park with the A's on a temporary basis if the A's have plans for a permanent stadium in the works.[21]

In August 2012, Commissioner Bud Selig's "blue ribbon" committee, which had been implemented to study potential ballpark locations for the Athletics, met with Oakland and San Jose officials. At the Oakland meeting, the committee was met with a proposal for a ballpark on the site of Howard Terminal, a container terminal on the Oakland waterfront near Jack London Square currently owned by the Port of Oakland.[22] Wolff stated the site "has no ability to be implemented for a ballpark."[23] Major League Baseball, however, stated that it was their preferred location for a new ballpark in Oakland.

On October 5, 2015, the United States Supreme Court rejected San Jose's bid on the Athletics.[24]

Back to Oakland (2014–present)

On June 25, 2014, the Athletics reached a 10-year lease agreement with the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum Authority to stay at the Coliseum. Bud Selig commended both sides for reaching a deal on a lease extension, while offering, "I continue to believe that the Athletics need a new facility and am fully supportive of the club's view that the best site in Oakland is the Coliseum site."[25] On July 16, 2014, the extension was officially approved.[26]

On August 6, 2014, the A's began talks with an architect to build a baseball-only stadium at the Coliseum site, according to Wolff.[27]

2016

In 2016, Lewis Wolff resigned as the majority owner of the team. John J. Fisher then took over as majority owner. Fisher appointed Dave Kaval as team president and head of the stadium project.[28] Around the same time, the Raiders announced their relocation to Las Vegas by 2020, which combined with the Golden State Warriors' move to the new Chase Center in San Francisco in September 2019. This will leave the Athletics as the last professional sports team in Oakland. The team revealed three stadium options in 2016, the current Coliseum site, the Peralta area near Laney College, or Howard Terminal at the Port of Oakland.[29]

Peralta Site (2017)

After a comprehensive study of three proposed ballpark sites (Coliseum site[30], Howard Terminal, and Peralta Community College Headquarters District), the A's ownership determined that the best potential site to fit the needs of the A's and create the most community partnership opportunities and benefits was the Peralta site. The team announced that the Peralta site would be the preferred choice for the A's new ballpark on September 13, 2017.[31] The area is located between Lake Merritt and I-880 where there are warehouses, parking lots and administrative offices for the Peralta Community College District.

Opposition to the project included members of the Peralta Federation of Teachers, select student and facility groups of neighboring Laney College and a local coalition of organizations led by the Asian Pacific Environmental Network (APEN). After several months of preliminary discussions amongst the A's and the Peralta Community College's Office of the Chancellor Jowel Laguerre, Chancellor of Peralta Community College District, a statement was issued by the Chancellor indicating that he had been instructed to "discontinue planning"[32] for the ballpark after a closed session meeting of the Peralta Community College District Board of Trustees on the evening of December 5, 2017.[33]

Current plan

Lastkranar, Howard Terminal, Oakland Inner Harbour
Howard Terminal in 2018

Ballpark at Howard Terminal

The A’s plan to build a privately financed, 34,000-seat ballpark at Howard Terminal, including fixed seats and general admission experience areas. The ballpark will feature an elevated park that wraps and frames the bowl, coming down to meet the waterfront. The ballpark will anchor a new, vibrant waterfront district that will feature a mix of housing, including affordable housing, offices, restaurants, retail, small business space, parks, and public gathering spaces.

Located near downtown Oakland, the Charles P. Howard Terminal is west of Jack London Square and is adjacent to railroad tracks and large industrial facilities. The 55-acre waterfront property is currently owned by the Port of Oakland. Howard Terminal has not been used by a cargo vessel since 2013. On April 26, 2018, the Port of Oakland commissioners voted 6-0 unanimously to enter in to a one-year agreement to negotiate exclusively with the Oakland A's[34]. This agreement allows the A's to pay the Port $100,000 to study economic feasibility and environmental, transportation and accessibility issues. A similar agreement with the A's regarding the Coliseum site was also agreed upon with the city on May 16, 2017.[35] . On May 13, 2019, the board commissioners voted 7-0 to approve and authorize the Executive Director to execute the initial term sheet for a term of four years. [36]

As the team progresses towards their goal of opening day in a new ballpark in 2023, they have hired Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG) to be the lead designer in developing plans for the new home for the A's[37]. BIG is a Danish architecture firm led by Starchitect Bjarke Ingles that has built some of the world's most innovative buildings and projects. For the A's, BIG is working on designing a 21st-century new ballpark home for the team in Oakland, and the surrounding development around the new ballpark. This will be BIG's first Major League Baseball stadium.[38]

On February 22, 2019, the Oakland A’s announced a partnership with the West Oakland Environmental Indicators Project (WOEIP) to enhance the long-term sustainability of the neighborhoods of West Oakland and improve the quality of life for local residents[39]. Founded and led by acclaimed community activists Ms. Margaret Gordon and Brian Beveridge, the West Oakland resident-led, community-based environmental justice organization advocates for improved quality of life for local residents on issues including public health, air quality, land-use, and equity development. The partnership represents an early step in a larger community coalition to promote a shared vision for the Howard Terminal site for a ballpark and additional uses, including affordable housing, commercial and public recreational use, sports, and entertainment. This is the latest in a series of environmentally focused plans by the A’s, including committing to LEED Gold standard of design; reducing car trips by 20%; achieving net zero emissions; building an electrically powered gondola; and adding protections to the site in anticipation of future sea level rise caused by climate change. The A’s are also working with the City of Oakland on a race and equity analysis to ensure the project produces community benefits for Oakland residents.

On September 30, 2018, Assembly Bill 734 was signed into law by the Governor of California. AB 734 establishes specified procedures for the administrative and judicial review of the environmental review and approvals granted for the Oakland Sports and Mixed-Use Project located in the City of Oakland that is certified by the Governor as meeting certain requirements[40]. The bill would apply certain rules of court establishing procedures requiring actions or proceedings seeking judicial review pursuant to CEQA or the granting of project approvals to be resolved within 270 days of filing.

On April 22, 2019, Assembly Bill 1191 (Bonta), passed the California State Assembly Natural Resources Committee by a 7-0 vote. AB 1191 is intended to support the development of the Howard Terminal site in Oakland to include a baseball ballpark for the Oakland Athletics, as well as much-needed housing, including affordable housing, retail, and mixed-use development that will provide access to the waterfront and an amazing public amenity for Oakland[41]. The bill will move to the Senate Natural Resources and Water Committee on Tuesday, June 25, 2019.

On April 25, 2019, the State Governance and Finance Committee passed Senate Bill 293 (Skinner) in a vote of 6-0. On May 6, 2019, the State Senate passed SB 293 in a 36-0 vote. SB 293 would establish alternative procedures for the formation of an Oakland Waterfront Revitalization and Environmental Justice Infrastructure Financing District under these provisions. The bill would require the City Council of the City of Oakland to initiate proceedings for the formation of the district by adoption of a resolution of intention to establish the district that, among other things, provides for a district board, composed of specified members, to serve as the district's governing body and directs the preparation of an infrastructure financing plan[42]. The bill will next move to the Local Governments Committee.

On May 11, 2019, the Alameda Labor Council, AFL-CIO, voted to support the Oakland A’s efforts to build a new ballpark at Howard Terminal[43]. The Council, composed of 135 unions representing 135,000 workers in healthcare, transportation, education, construction, manufacturing, and service, expressed strong support for the project given its potential to provide significant economic benefits for working families throughout the East Bay. According to a report issued by the Bay Area Council Economic Institute, the privately financed ballpark project would create approximately 2,000 construction jobs and even more permanent jobs would be generated by the ongoing operation of the ballpark. Additionally, the surrounding development will spur economic development and job growth in the hospitality, retail, restaurant, and office sectors in Oakland and throughout the East Bay. In addition to the A’s ballpark project at Howard Terminal, the Council also officially endorsed the A’s redevelopment project at the Coliseum site, provided it also includes community benefits.

On May 13, 2019, the board commissioners voted 7-0 to approve and authorize the Executive Director to execute the initial term sheet for a term of four years. [44]

Coliseum Redevelopment

Preliminary plans for the Coliseum redevelopment include a large park, surrounded by substantial new housing, including affordable housing, a skills center, community gathering space, office and retail space, and restaurants. The new park will be anchored by the two focal points of Oakland sports history: Oracle Arena, repurposed as a concert and cultural events center; and the original Coliseum baseball diamond, preserved to inspire the next generation of ballplayers.

In March 2018, the A’s sent a letter to the City of Oakland proposing to purchase the entire Coliseum property including Oracle Arena and develop it into a new ballpark and ballpark village in exchange for paying off $135 million of debt owed on the property by the City of Oakland and Alameda County.[45] On April 23, 2019, the Alameda County Board of Supervisors voted 5-0 to approve the term sheet between the County and the Oakland Athletics providing for the possible purchase by the A’s of the County’s 50% interest in the Oakland Alameda County Coliseum Complex for $85 million. The County Board of Supervisors and the A’s will work to draft acquisition documents based on the non-binding term sheet.

References

  1. ^ "Oakland Ballpark Gondola". 2019. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
  2. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  3. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  4. ^ "Oakland Ballpark". www.mlb.com. 2019. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  5. ^ "The 5 Worst Stadiums in All of Major League Baseball". Bleacher Report. January 30, 2011. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
  6. ^ Platoni, Kara (July 17, 2002). "It's Bottom of the Ninth for Uptown". East Bay Express. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
  7. ^ "Cisco Field - Proposed Home of the 2010 Fremont A's". Sports-venue.info. Archived from the original on April 12, 2012. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
  8. ^ Dickey, Glenn; Writer, Chronicle Staff (2005-08-12). "A's owner unveils stadium plans". SFGate. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
  9. ^ "Cisco Field". ballparks.com. Retrieved 2019-04-25.
  10. ^ Oakland A's sign Fremont land deal San Francisco Chronicle
  11. ^ "A's, Cisco reach deal to build ballpark in Fremont". ESPN.com. Retrieved 2019-04-25.
  12. ^ Hoge, Patrick; Lagos, Marisa (2006-11-14). "A's announce plan to buy land, move to Fremont". SFGate. Retrieved 2019-04-25.
  13. ^ "A's abandon plans for Fremont ballpark – Sacramento Business Journal". Bizjournals.com. February 24, 2009. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
  14. ^ Gammon, Robert (December 14, 2011). "Coliseum City Unveiled". East Bay Express. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
  15. ^ "San Jose's Cisco Field". NBC Bay Area. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
  16. ^ "Oakland A's Abandoned Plans To Move To Fremont". www.ktvu.com. February 24, 2009. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
  17. ^ "Diridon Station Area Ballpark". Sjredevelopment.org. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
  18. ^ "Herhold: San Jose council whiffs in allowing town homes near Santana Row – San Jose Mercury News". Mercurynews.com. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
  19. ^ "Home Run Park Factor—A New Approach". Hardballtimes.com. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
  20. ^ Heyman, Jon (May 17, 2012). "Giants still intend to enforce their territorial rights in San Jose and block an A's move". CBS Sports. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
  21. ^ Pavlovic, Alex (February 26, 2014). "Giants willing to share AT&T Park with A's". The Mercury News.
  22. ^ Matier, Phillip; Ross, Andrew (August 4, 2012). "Secret meeting on A's port-ballpark plan". San Francisco Chronicle. sfgate.com. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
  23. ^ Newman, Bruce; Noguchi, Sharon (August 5, 2012). "40 months and counting: Baseball committee -- again -- secretly meets with both San Jose and Oakland". Oakland Tribune. InsideBayArea.com. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
  24. ^ "U.S. Supreme Court rejects San Jose's bid to lure Oakland A's". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
  25. ^ "A's reach 10-year lease deal to stay at Coliseum". USA Today. June 25, 2014. Retrieved June 25, 2014.
  26. ^ Goodell: Levi's might fit Raiders ESPN.com (July 18, 2014)
  27. ^ "A's approach architect about building new ballpark in Oakland". San Francisco Chronicle. August 6, 2014. Retrieved August 11, 2014.
  28. ^ Hickey, John (November 17, 2016). "As Lew Wolff exits, new president Dave Kaval brings optimism". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved January 29, 2019.
  29. ^ Spedden, Zach (January 10, 2018). "Oakland A's Returning to Three Ballpark Site Options". www.ballparkdigest.com. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  30. ^ Coliseum, Oracle Arena and Oakland-Alameda County. "Oracle Arena and Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum". www.oraclearena.com. Retrieved 2018-10-20.
  31. ^ "A's appear to favor Peralta site for new stadium". SFChronicle.com. 2017-06-19. Retrieved 2018-10-20.
  32. ^ FOX. "Peralta board of trustees directs chancellor to stop A's stadium planning". KTVU. Retrieved 2018-10-20.
  33. ^ "A's Stadium Plan at Peralta Site Falls Through". NBC Bay Area. Retrieved 2018-10-20.
  34. ^ "Port of Oakland OKs A's wish to study Howard Terminal ballpark". The Mercury News. 2018-04-27. Retrieved 2018-10-20.
  35. ^ "Let's play two: OAKLAND enters ENA with A's for Coliseum property". 2018-05-16. Retrieved 2018-10-20.
  36. ^ "Port of Oakland Board approves term sheet for ballpark plan". Port of Oakland. 2019-05-14. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  37. ^ "BIG has been selected to lead design for the new Oakland A's stadium - Archpaper.com". archpaper.com. Retrieved 2018-10-20.
  38. ^ Newcomb, Tim (September 5, 2018). "What To Expect From Oakland's New BIG-Designed Ballpark". www.forbes.com. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
  39. ^ "02/22/2019 Release Oakland A's Announce Environmental Justice Partnership with WOEIP". MLB.com. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  40. ^ "Bill Text - AB-734 California Environmental Quality Act: Oakland Sports and Mixed-Use Project". leginfo.legislature.ca.gov. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  41. ^ "Bill Text - AB-1191 State Lands Commission: exchange of trust lands: City of Oakland: Howard Terminal property: Oakland Waterfront Sports and Mixed-Use Project, Waterfront Access, Environmental Justice, and Revitalization Act". leginfo.legislature.ca.gov. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  42. ^ "Bill Text - SB-293 Infrastructure financing districts: formation: issuance of bonds: City of Oakland". leginfo.legislature.ca.gov. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  43. ^ "Alameda Labor Council, AFL-CIO Backs Howard Terminal Ballpark for Oakland A's". MLB.com. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  44. ^ "Port of Oakland Board approves term sheet for ballpark plan". Port of Oakland. 2019-05-14. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  45. ^ "Mayor Schaaf supports exclusive negotiating deal with Oakland A's on ballpark sites". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2018-04-02.

External links

360 Architecture

360 Architecture was an American architectural practice acquired by HOK in 2015. The firm provided services for a range of project types including corporate headquarters and commercial office buildings, sports arenas, stadiums and ballparks, municipal facilities, single- and multi-family residential and mixed-use entertainment districts. The firm was headquartered in Kansas City, Missouri, with offices in Columbus Ohio; and San Francisco, California. As of 2014, the firm had a staff of 200 professionals.

In January 2015, HOK completed its acquisition of 360 Architecture for an undisclosed price and announced the launch of a new global Sports + Recreation + Entertainment practice. Brad Schrock, a 360 Architecture co-founder and a director of this new HOK practice, said the acquisition would help the firms compete at the highest level.

Big Three (Oakland Athletics)

The Big Three was a trio of Major League Baseball starting pitchers for the Oakland Athletics from 2000-2004. The Big Three consisted of Tim Hudson, Mark Mulder, and Barry Zito. Each pitcher in the Big Three was drafted by the Athletics and they played their first couple of years together with the Athletics before splitting up. The Big Three helped the Athletics win three AL West Division titles during their five years together.

Downtown Oakland

Downtown Oakland is the central business district of Oakland, California, United States; roughly bounded by both the Oakland Estuary and Interstate 880 on the southwest, Interstate 980 on the northwest, Grand Avenue on the northeast, and Lake Merritt on the east.

The Downtown area is sometimes expanded to refer to the industrial and residential Jack London Square and Jack London warehouse district areas, the Lakeside Apartments District, which are a largely residential neighborhood on the west side of Lake Merritt, the Civic Center district, Chinatown, and the south end of Oakland's Broadway Auto Row, an area along Broadway which has historically been used by car dealers and other automotive service businesses. While many consider these areas outside of downtown proper, they are generally considered more geographically proximate to Downtown Oakland than to East Oakland, North Oakland or to West Oakland and are thus sometimes associated with Downtown Oakland.

History of Oakland, California

The history of Oakland, a city in the county of Alameda, California, can be traced back to the founding of a settlement by Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, and Andrew Moon in the 19th century. The area now known as Oakland had seen human occupation for thousands of years, but significant growth in the settlements that are now incorporated into the city did not occur until the Industrial Revolution. Oakland was first incorporated as a town in 1852.

Jack London Square

Jack London Square is an entertainment and business destination on the waterfront of Oakland, California, United States. Named after the author Jack London and owned by the Port of Oakland, it is the home of stores, restaurants, hotels, an Amtrak station, a San Francisco Bay Ferry ferry dock, the historic Heinold's First and Last Chance Saloon, the (re-located) cabin where Jack London lived in the Klondike, and a movie theater. A farmer's market is hosted among the retail shops on Sunday mornings. The former presidential yacht USS Potomac is moored at an adjacent slip.

List of current Major League Baseball stadiums

The following is a list of Major League Baseball stadiums, their locations, their first year of usage and home teams.

The newest Major League Baseball (MLB) ballpark is SunTrust Park in Cumberland, Georgia, home of the Atlanta Braves, which opened for the 2017 season. Fenway Park in Boston, home of the Boston Red Sox, is the oldest, having opened in 1912.

Nine MLB stadiums do not have corporate naming rights deals: Angel Stadium, Dodger Stadium, Fenway Park, Kauffman Stadium, Marlins Park, Nationals Park, Oriole Park at Camden Yards, Wrigley Field, and Yankee Stadium.

List of future stadiums

The following is a list of stadiums that are either proposed or under construction, with "stadium" defined as a venue that can accommodate sports traditionally held outdoors. The list does not include indoor arenas under construction, some of which can be found at List of indoor arenas by capacity. Entirely new stadiums under construction on the same site as a demolished former stadium are included, however expansions to already-existing stadiums are not included, and neither are recently constructed venues which have opened, even though construction continues on part of the stadium.

Multi-purpose stadium

Multi-purpose stadiums are a type of stadium designed to be easily used by multiple types of events. While any stadium could potentially host more than one type of sport or event, this concept usually refers to a specific design philosophy that stresses multifunctionality over specificity. It is used most commonly in Canada and the United States, where the two most popular outdoor team sports – football and baseball – require radically different facilities. Football uses a rectangular field (Canadian football fields are larger than American ones), while baseball is played on a diamond and large outfield. This requires a particular design to accommodate both, usually an oval. While building stadiums in this way means that sports teams and governments can share costs, it also imposes some challenges.

In North America, multipurpose stadiums were built primarily during the 1960s and 1970s as shared home stadiums for Major League Baseball and National Football League or Canadian Football League teams. Some stadiums were renovated to allow multipurpose configurations during the 1980s. This type of stadium is associated with an era of suburbanization, in which many sports teams followed their fans out of large cities into areas with cheaper, plentiful land. They were usually built near highways and had large parking lots, but were rarely connected to public transit. As multipurpose stadiums were rarely ideal for both sports usually housed in them, they had fallen out of favor by the 1990s. With the completion of the Truman Sports Complex in Kansas City in 1973, a model for purpose-built stadiums was laid down. Since Oriole Park at Camden Yards opened in 1992, most major league sports stadiums have been built specifically for one sport.

Outside North America, the term is rarely used, since association football is the only major outdoor team sport in many countries; in many countries, association football and rugby can easily co-exist. In Australia, many sports grounds are suited to both Australian rules football and cricket, as Australian rules is played on cricket ovals. In some cases such as Stadium Australia in Sydney, Docklands Stadium in Melbourne and National Stadium, Singapore, stadiums are designed to be converted between the oval configuration for cricket and Australian rules football and a rectangular configuration for Rugby and Association Football and in the case of Singapore's National Stadium, an Athletics configuration as well. Association football stadiums have historically served as track and field arenas, as well, and some (like the Olympiastadion in Berlin) still do, whereas a newer generation frequently has no running track to allow the fans closer to the field.

Among winter sports, especially a speed skating rink can be a multi-purpose stadium. Very often a rink or two of approximately the size 61 × 30 metres - the regulation size of an IIHF ice hockey rink - are placed inside the oval. Sometimes the ice surface is even larger, allowing for also bandy and curling.

Oakland Athletics

The Oakland Athletics, often referred to as the A's, are an American professional baseball team based in Oakland, California. They compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the American League (AL) West division. The team plays its home games at the RingCentral Coliseum. They have won nine World Series championships.

One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the team was founded in Philadelphia in 1901 as the Philadelphia Athletics. They won three World Series championships from 1910 to 1913 and back-to-back titles in 1929 and 1930. The team's owner and manager for its first 50 years was Connie Mack and Hall of Fame players included Chief Bender, Frank "Home Run" Baker, Jimmie Foxx, and Lefty Grove. The team left Philadelphia for Kansas City in 1955 and became the Kansas City Athletics before moving to Oakland in 1968. They won three consecutive World Championships between 1972 and 1974, led by players including Vida Blue, Catfish Hunter, Reggie Jackson, ace reliever Rollie Fingers, and colorful owner Charlie O. Finley. After being sold by Finley to Walter A. Haas Jr., the team won three consecutive pennants and the 1989 World Series behind the "Bash Brothers", Jose Canseco and Mark McGwire, as well as Hall of Famers Dennis Eckersley, Rickey Henderson and manager Tony La Russa.

From 1901 to 2018, the Athletics' overall win–loss record is 8,931–9,387 (.488).

Port of Oakland

The Port of Oakland is a major container ship facility located in Oakland, California, in the San Francisco Bay. It was the first major port on the Pacific Coast of the United States to build terminals for container ships. It is now the fifth busiest container port in the United States, behind Long Beach, Los Angeles, Newark, and Savannah. Development of an intermodal container handling system in 2002 culminated over a decade of planning and construction to produce a high volume cargo facility that positions the Port of Oakland for further expansion of the West Coast freight market share.

RingCentral Coliseum

RingCentral Coliseum is a multi-purpose stadium in Oakland, California, United States, which is home to the Oakland Athletics of Major League Baseball (MLB) and the Oakland Raiders of the National Football League (NFL). The stadium, historically and generically known as the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum (or Oakland Coliseum for short), opened in 1966 and is the only remaining stadium in the United States that is shared by professional football and baseball teams. The Coliseum was also home to some games of the San Jose Earthquakes of Major League Soccer in 2008–2009 and hosted games at the 2009 CONCACAF Gold Cup. The Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum complex consists of the stadium and the neighboring Oakland Arena.

The Coliseum has 6,300 club seats, 2,700 of which are available for Athletics games, 143 luxury suites, 125 of which are available for Athletics games, and a variable seating capacity of 46,867 for baseball, 56,057 for football, and 63,132 for soccer. In seating capacity, Oakland Coliseum is the second-smallest NFL stadium, larger only than Dignity Health Sports Park, the temporary home of the Los Angeles Chargers, but the eighth-largest MLB stadium.

On April 3, 2017, Opening Day, the Athletics dedicated the Coliseum's playing surface as Rickey Henderson Field in honor of MLB Hall of Famer and former Athletic Rickey Henderson.

Events and tenants
Preceded by
Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum
Home of the
Oakland Athletics

2023 – future
Succeeded by
none
Franchise
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Key personnel
Important figures
World Series
Champions (9)
American League
Championships (15)
AL West Division
Championships (16)
AL Wild Card (3)
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