ORP Piorun (G65)

ORP Piorun was an N-class destroyer operated by the Polish Navy in World War II. The word piorun is Polish for "Thunderbolt". Ordered by the Royal Navy in 1939, the ship was laid down as HMS Nerissa before being acquired by Poland, before completion, in October 1940.

In May 1941 ORP Piorun (Ship of the Polish Republic Thunderbolt) was the first Allied naval vessel to locate the German battleship Bismarck, and drew its deadly fire—nearly being destroyed—while other units of the Royal Navy task force caught up to sink the Bismarck.

After World War II, Piorun was returned to the Royal Navy and recommissioned as HMS Noble before being scrapped in 1955.

ORP Piorun2
ORP Piorun returns to Plymouth after the struggle against the German battleship Bismarck
History
United Kingdom
Name: HMS Nerissa
Operator: Royal Navy
Ordered: 15 April 1939[1]
Builder: John Brown & Company, Clydebank
Cost: £400,963.16s
Laid down: 26 July 1939
Launched: 7 May 1940
Notes: Transferred to Polish Navy, October 1940
Poland
Name: ORP Piorun
Namesake: Lightning
Operator: Polish Navy
Completed: 4 November 1940
Acquired: Transferred to Polish Navy, October 1940
Commissioned: 4 November 1940
Identification: Pennant number: G65
Fate: Returned to Royal Navy, 1946
United Kingdom
Name: HMS Noble
Acquired: August 1946
Recommissioned: 26 October 1946
Fate: Scrapped, 1955
General characteristics (as built)
Class and type: N-class destroyer
Displacement:
Length: 356 ft 6 in (108.7 m) (o/a)
Beam: 35 ft 9 in (10.9 m)
Draught: 12 ft 6 in (3.8 m)
Installed power:
Propulsion: 2 Shafts; 2 steam turbines
Speed: 36 knots (67 km/h; 41 mph)
Range: 5,500 nmi (10,200 km; 6,300 mi) at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph)
Complement: 183
Sensors and
processing systems:
Armament:

History

The ship was built by John Brown & Company of Clydebank, Glasgow. She was laid down in July 1939, launched on 7 May 1940 and completed on 4 November 1940. Initially commissioned into the Royal Navy as HMS Nerissa, she was later transferred to the Polish Navy as a replacement for the destroyer ORP Grom, which had been lost off the Norwegian coast on 4 May 1940.

Piorun was based in Great Britain and commanded by Commander Eugeniusz Pławski. Between 13 and 15 March 1941, while undergoing repairs in John Brown's shipyard, she took part in the defence of Clydebank against air raids by the Luftwaffe. A memorial to the ship's crew was later erected in Clydebank.

Bismarck action

The Polish Institute and Sikorski Museum (24136934585)
Contemporary secret report commending Piorun

On 22 May 1941, Piorun, with ships of the British 4th Destroyer Flotilla (HMS Cossack, HMS Maori, HMS Sikh and HMS Zulu), commanded by Captain Philip Vian, provided additional escort to troop convoy WS8B en route from Glasgow to the Indian Ocean. On 25 May, Vian's destroyers (including Piorun) were detached from the convoy to join the search for the German battleship Bismarck.

Piorun took part, along with the British destroyers, in the search for Bismarck (she was the first of the destroyers to spot the German ship). She joined in the shadowing of and torpedo attacks on the German battleship the night before Bismarck was sunk. Arriving first on the scene with the British Tribal-class destroyer Maori, Piorun charged at Bismarck by herself, while Maori manoeuvred for position to fire torpedoes. Alone, Piorun exchanged fire with Bismarck for an hour, with neither side scoring any hits—although after the third salvo, Bismarck missed by only 20 yards (18 m), causing Pławski to pull away.

According to one report (detailed at the Auschwitz I exhibition, Oświęcim, Poland), Pławski transmitted the message "I am a Pole" before commencing fire on Bismarck; other sources say the signal to commence fire was "Trzy salwy na cześć Polski" ("Three salvoes in honor of Poland").[2][3] This manoeuvre and the subsequent withdrawal caused Piorun to lose contact with Bismarck.

Piorun was very low on fuel, so at 05:00 she was ordered home before she had used her torpedoes. Pławski was reluctant to leave the area and ignored Vian's order for an hour before returning to the United Kingdom.[4]

Subsequent activity

Piorun subsequently operated in the Mediterranean, taking part in Operation Halberd, one of the Malta convoys and Operation Husky, the invasion of Sicily. In 1944 she was transferred to the Home Fleet.

Piorun took part in Operation Deadlight, and took part in the sinking of the captured German Type XXI submarines U-2329, U-2334, U-2335, U-2337, U-2350 and U-2363.

She was returned to the Royal Navy in 1946, as HMS Noble and scrapped in 1955.

Notes

  1. ^ "ORP Piorun (G 65)". U-boat.net. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  2. ^ Jerzy Pertek, Wielkie dni małej floty (Great Days of a Small Fleet), Wydawnictwo Poznańskie, 1990.
  3. ^ Damski, Z. Atakuje was Piorun, Wydawnictwo MON, 1981.
  4. ^ Pursuit: the Sinking of the Bismarck. UK: Book Club Associates. 1975. p. 175.

References

  • Colledge, J. J.; Warlow, Ben (2006) [1969]. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy (Rev. ed.). London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. OCLC 67375475.
  • English, John (2001). Afridi to Nizam: British Fleet Destroyers 1937–43. Gravesend, Kent: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-64-9.
  • Friedman, Norman (2006). British Destroyers & Frigates: The Second World War and After. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-86176-137-6.
  • Hodges, Peter; Friedman, Norman (1979). Destroyer Weapons of World War 2. Greenwich: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 978-0-85177-137-3.
  • Langtree, Charles (2002). The Kelly's: British J, K, and N Class Destroyers of World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-422-9.
  • Lenton, H. T. (1998). British & Empire Warships of the Second World War. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-048-7.
  • March, Edgar J. (1966). British Destroyers: A History of Development, 1892–1953; Drawn by Admiralty Permission From Official Records & Returns, Ships' Covers & Building Plans. London: Seeley Service. OCLC 164893555.
  • Rohwer, Jürgen (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945: The Naval History of World War Two (Third Revised ed.). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-119-2.
  • Whitley, M. J. (1988). Destroyers of World War Two: An International Encyclopedia. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-326-1.
Eugeniusz Pławski

Eugeniusz Józef Stanisław Pławski (March 26, 1895 – May 23, 1972) was a Polish Navy officer who served in World War I and World War II. He was the commander of the ORP Piorun (G65) during the hunt for Bismarck.

G65

G65 may refer to:

Mercedes-AMG G65 AMG

ORP Piorun (G65)

G65 Baotou–Maoming Expressway

Grumman G-65 Tadpole

Index of World War II articles (O)

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Ouvrage Boussois

Ouvrage Bovenberg

Ouvrage Brehain

Ouvrage Cap Martin

Ouvrage Castillon

Ouvrage Cave à Canon

Ouvrage Champ de Tir

Ouvrage Chatelard

Ouvrage Col Agnon

Ouvrage Col de Brouis

Ouvrage Col de Buffere

Ouvrage Col de Crous

Ouvrage Col de Restefond

Ouvrage Col des Banquettes

Ouvrage Col des Gardes

Ouvrage Col du Caire Gros

Ouvrage Col du Fort

Ouvrage Col du Granon

Ouvrage Coucou

Ouvrage Coume Annexe Nord

Ouvrage Coume Annexe Sud

Ouvrage Coume

Ouvrage Denting

Ouvrage Einseling

Ouvrage Eth

Ouvrage Ferme Chappy

Ouvrage Fermont

Ouvrage Flaut

Ouvrage Fontvive Nord-ouest

Ouvrage Four a Chaux

Ouvrage Fressinen

Ouvrage Galgenberg

Ouvrage Gondran

Ouvrage Gordolon

Ouvrage Grand Hohekirkel

Ouvrage Granges Communes

Ouvrage Hackenberg

Ouvrage Haut-Poirier

Ouvrage Hobling

Ouvrage Hochwald

Ouvrage Immerhof

Ouvrage Janus

Ouvrage Kerfent

Ouvrage Kobenbusch

Ouvrage L'Agaisen

Ouvrage La Beole

Ouvrage La Dea

Ouvrage La Moutiere

Ouvrage La Serena

Ouvrage Latiremont

Ouvrage Laudrefang

Ouvrage Le Lavoir

Ouvrage Lembach

Ouvrage Les Aittes

Ouvrage Les Rochilles

Ouvrage Mauvais Bois

Ouvrage Metrich

Ouvrage Michelsberg

Ouvrage Molvange

Ouvrage Mont Agel

Ouvrage Mont des Welches

Ouvrage Monte Grosso

Ouvrage Mottemberg

Ouvrage Oberheid

Ouvrage Otterbiel

Ouvrage Pas du Roc

Ouvrage Plan Caval

Ouvrage Plate Lombard

Ouvrage Reservoir

Ouvrage Restefond

Ouvrage Rimplas

Ouvrage Roche Lacroix

Ouvrage Rochonvillers

Ouvrage Rohrbach

Ouvrage Roquebrunne

Ouvrage Saint Antoine

Ouvrage Saint Gobain

Ouvrage Saint Ours Bas

Ouvrage Saint Ours Haut

Ouvrage Saint Ours Nord-est

Ouvrage Saint Roch

Ouvrage Sainte Agnes

Ouvrage Salmagne

Ouvrage Sapey

Ouvrage Sarts

Ouvrage Schiesseck

Ouvrage Schoenenbourg

Ouvrage Sentzich

Ouvrage Simserhof

Ouvrage Soetrich

Ouvrage Teting

Ouvrage Valdeblore

Ouvrage Village Coume

Ouvrage Welschhof

Ouvry Lindfield Roberts

Ova A. Kelley

Over Here (TV serial)

Overloon War Museum

Overlord (1994 video game)

Oveta Culp Hobby

Ovitz family

OVP (firearm)

Owen Chamberlain

Owen J. Baggett

Owen submachine gun

Owen Tudor Boyd

Owen W. Siler

Ox Emerson

Oxmo Puccino

Oy Insinööritoimisto Ratas

List of Allied vessels involved in Operation Neptune

This is a list of Allied vessels of World War II that took part in the Normandy Landings, code named Operation Neptune.

USS Achernar (AKA-53)

HMS Adventure (M23)

HMS Ajax (22)

HMAS Albatross (1928)

HMCS Alberni (K103)

HMCS Algonquin (R17)

USS Amesbury (DE-66)

USS Ancon (AGC-4)USS Ann Arndel (AP-76)

SS Antenor (1924)

HMS Arethusa (26)

HMS Argonaut (61)

USS Arkansas (BB-33)

USS Armstrong County (LST-57)

HMS Ashanti (F51)

SS Audacious (1913)

USS Augusta (CA-31)

USS Auk (AM-57)

HMS Avon Vale (L06)

USS Baldwin (DD-624)

USS Bamberg County (LST-209)

USS Barnett (APA-5)

USS Barton (DD-722)

USS Bates (DE-68)

USS Bayfield (APA-33)

HMS Beagle (H30)

HMS Belfast (C35)

HMS Bellona (63)

HMS Black Prince (81)

USS Blanco County (LST-344)

HMS Blankney (L30)

USS Blessman (DE-69)

ORP Błyskawica

HMS Boadicea (H65)

HMS Boxer (F121)

USS Broadbill (AM-58)

USS Bulloch County (LST-509)

HMS Bulolo

USS Caddo Parish (LST-515)

USS Calaveras County (LST-516)

USS Calhoun County (LST-519)

HMCS Cape Breton (K350)

HMS Capetown (D88)

USS Carmick (DD-493)

USS Cayuga County (LST-529)

HMS Centurion (1911)

HMS Ceres (D59)

USS Charles Carroll (APA-28)

USS Chase County (LST-532)

USS Cheboygan County (LST-533)

USS Chelan County (LST-542)

USS Chickadee (AM-59)

USS Corry (DD-463)

French battleship Courbet (1911)

HMCS Cowichan (J146)

HMS Cygnet (H83)

HMS Dacres (K472)

HMS Danae (D44)

HMS Decoy (H75)

HMS Despatch (D30)

HMS Diadem (84)USS Dorethea L. Dix (AP-67

SS Dover Hill

USS Doyle (DMS-34)

HMS Dragon (D46)

HMS Durban (D99)

HMS Emerald (D66)

USS Emmons (DD-457)

SS Empire Bunting

HMS Enterprise (D52)

HMS Erebus (I02)

HMS Eskimo (F75)

HMS Express (H61)

HMS Fame (H78)

HMS Faulknor (H62)

Flores-class gunboat

HNLMS Flores

HMS Forester (H74)

USS Frankford (DD-497)

HMS Frobisher (D81)

HMS Fury (H76)

French cruiser Georges Leygues

HMS Glasgow (C21)

USS Glennon (DD-620)

HMS Grenville (R97)

HMS Griffin (H31)

HMCS Haida (G63)

USS Harding (DD-625)

HMS Havelock (H88)

HMS Hawkins (D86)USS Henrico (APA-45)

HMS Hero (H99)

USS Hobson (DD-464)

HMCS Huron (G24)

HMS Impulsive (D11)

HMS Inconstant (H49)

SS Iserlohn (1909)

HMS Isis (D87)

Java-class cruiser

HMS Javelin (F61)

HMS Jervis (F00)USS Joseph T. Dickman (APA-13)

HMS Kelvin (F37)

HMS Kempenfelt (R03)

HMS Kingsmill (K484)

HMCS Kitchener (K225)

ORP Krakowiak (L115)

French destroyer La Combattante

USS Laffey (DD-724)

HMS Largs

HMS Lawford (K514)

HMS Londonderry (U76)

HMS Loch Fada (K390)

{{HMS|Loch Killin|K391}

HMS Locust T28

USS LST-5

USS LST-266

USS LST-279

USS LST-288

USS LST-306

USS LST-356

USS LST-371

USS LST-380

USS LST-389

USS LST-521

HMS Loyalty (J217)

HMS Magpie (U82)

HMS Malaya

HMS Mauritius (80)

USS McCook (DD-496)

USS Meredith (DD-726)

HMS Middleton (L74)

French cruiser Montcalm

HMS Montrose (D01)

USS Murphy (DD-603)

HMS Nelson (28)

USS Nevada (BB-36)

USS Nuthatch (AM-60)

HNoMS Nordkapp

USS O'Brien (DD-725)

HMS Onslow (G17)

HMS Oribi (G66)

HMS Orion (85)

USS Osprey (AM-56)

USS Partridge (ATO-138)

USS PC-1261

USS Pheasant (AM-61)

ORP Piorun (G65)

USS Quincy (CA-71)

HMS Ramillies (07)

USS Raven (AM-55)

USS Rich (DE-695)

HMS Roberts (F40)

HMS Rodney (29)

USS Samuel Chase (APA-26)

USS Satterlee (DD-626)

HMS Saumarez (G12)

HMS Scourge (G01)

HMS Scylla (98)

HMCS Sioux (R64)

HMS Sirius (82)

HMS Skate (1917)

ORP Ślązak (L26)

HNLMS Soemba

USS Staff (AM-114)

HMS Starling (U66)

HMS Statice (K281)

HMS Stevenstone (L16)

HNoMS Stord (G26)

HNoMS Svenner (G03)

USS Swift (AM-122)

HMS Tanatside (L69)

USS Texas (BB-35)USS Thomas Jefferson (AOA-30)

USS Thompson (DD-627)

USS Threat (AM-124)

USS Thurston (AP-77)USS Tide (AM-125)

USS Tuscaloosa (CA-37)

HMS Ulster (R83)

HMS Ulysses (R69)

HMS Undaunted (R53)

HMS Undine (R42)

HMS Urania (R05)

HMS Urchin (R99)

HMS Ursa (R22)

HMS Vanquisher (D54)

HMS Venus (R50)

HMS Versatile (D32)

HMS Verulam (R28)

HMS Vesper (D55)

HMS Vigilant (R93)

HMS Virago (R75)

HMS Vivacious (D36)

HMS Volunteer (D71)

HMS Walker (D27)

HMS Wanderer (D74)

HMS Warspite (03)

HMS Watchman (D26)

SS West Cheswald

MS West Grama

MS West Honaker

SS West Nohno

HMS Whimbrel (U29)

HMS Whitehall (D94)

HMS Wild Goose (U45)

SS Winona

HMS Wrestler (1918)

X-class submarine

List of shipwrecks in the Channel Islands

The list of shipwrecks in the Channel Islands lists some of the ships that wrecked on or sank in the waters of the Bailiwick of Guernsey and the Bailiwick of Jersey. The list includes ships that sustained a damaged hull, which were later refloated and repaired.

There are at least 700 identified shipwrecks and another 100 unidentified, in Bailiwick of Guernsey waters alone.Jersey experiences some of the largest tidal ranges in the world, up to 12 metres; Guernsey has slightly less dramatic tides. The mass of water moving in and out gives rise to fast moving currents. Alderney has the Alderney Race, which can run up to about twelve knots during equinoctial tides. These combined with the numerous smaller islands, offshore reefs, and isolated rocks extending up to 13 miles (21 km) from the main islands, as well as the Islands' location close to the English Channel shipping channels, has resulted in thousands of shipwrecks over the centuries.

The Bailiwick of Guernsey comprises the islands of Guernsey, Alderney, Sark, Herm and a number of smaller islands, islets and rocks. See List of islands of the Bailiwick of Guernsey for a complete list of their smaller islands.

Les Casquets or (The) Casquets ( kas-KETS); is a group of rocks 13 km west of Alderney and are part of an underwater sandstone ridge. Other parts which emerge above the water are the islets of Burhou and Ortac. Little vegetation grows on them.

The Bailiwick of Jersey comprises the island of Jersey and a number of smaller islets and rocks, most of which are covered at high tide. See List of islands of the Bailiwick of Jersey for a complete list of their smaller islands.

Les Écréhous NE of Jersey consists of two reefs which form an extensive shoal area 7 miles (11 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide.Les Minquiers 9 miles (14 km) S of Jersey, its largest island is only 50 metres by 20 metres, but at low water, Les Minquiers has a land area greater than 100km².

The deliberate wrecking of ships has not been a Channel Island trait, although the recovery of goods from a natural wreck has always been undertaken. Smuggling and Privateer's have abounded in the Islands' waters over many centuries.

Modern navigation systems have helped reduce the number of disasters, but shipping still receive warnings of waters around the Channel Islands

Military history of France during World War II

The military history of France during World War II covers three periods. From 1939 until 1940, which witnessed a war against Germany by the French Third Republic. The period from 1940 until 1945, which saw competition between Vichy France and the Free French Forces under General Charles de Gaulle for control of the overseas empire. And 1944, witnessing the landings of the Allies in France (Normandy, Provence), expelling the German Army and putting an end to the Vichy Regime.

France and Britain declared war on Germany when they invaded Poland in September 1939. After the Phoney War from 1939 to 1940, within seven weeks, the Germans invaded and defeated France and forced the British off the continent. France formally surrendered to Germany.

In August 1943, the de Gaulle and Giraud forces merged in a single chain of command subordinated to Anglo-American leadership, meanwhile opposing French forces on the Eastern Front were subordinated to Soviet or German leaderships. This in-exile French force together with the French Forces of the Interior (FFI) played a variable-scale role in the eventual liberation of France by the Western Allies and the defeat of Vichy France, Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, and the Japanese empire. Vichy France fought for control over the French overseas empire with the Free French forces, which were helped by Britain and the U.S. By 1943, all of the colonies, except for Indochina, had joined the Free French cause.The number of Free French troops grew with Allied success in North Africa and subsequent rallying of the Army of Africa which pursued the fight against the Axis fighting in many campaigns and eventually invading Italy, occupied France and Germany from 1944 to 1945 by demanding unconditional surrender to the Axis Powers in the Casablanca Conference. On October 23, 1944, Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union officially recognized de Gaulle's regime as the Provisional Government of the French Republic (GPRF) which replaced the in-exile Vichy French State (its government having fled to Sigmaringen in western Germany) and preceded the Fourth Republic (1946).

Recruitment in liberated France led to enlargements of the French armies. By the end of the war in Europe in May 1945, France had 1,250,000 troops, 10 divisions of which were fighting in Germany. An expeditionary corps was created to liberate French Indochina then occupied by the Japanese. During the course of the war, French military losses totaled 212,000 dead, of which 92,000 were killed through the end of the campaign of 1940, 58,000 from 1940 to 1945 in other campaigns, 24,000 lost while serving in the French resistance, and a further 38,000 lost while serving with the German Army (including 32,000 "malgré-nous").

ORP Piorun

Two ships of the Polish Navy have been named ORP Piorun (Polish: lightning):

ORP Piorun (G65), an N-class destroyer (formerly HMS Nerissa) transferred to the free Polish Navy based in Britain in October 1940. During the war she saw several engagements with U-boats and took part in the final battle of Bismarck. She was transferred back to the Royal Navy after the end of the war.

ORP Piorun (1994), an Orkan-class fast attack craft built in the German Democratic Republic for its navy and originally named Project 660. After German reunification the unfinished hulls were bought by the Polish Navy and completed by Northern Shipyard in Gdańsk. Piorun is currently in service.

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Polish naval ship classes of World War II
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