The ORCID iD (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) is a nonproprietary alphanumeric code to uniquely identify scientific and other academic authors and contributors. This addresses the problem that a particular author's contributions to the scientific literature or publications in the humanities can be hard to recognize as most personal names are not unique, they can change (such as with marriage), have cultural differences in name order, contain inconsistent use of first-name abbreviations and employ different writing systems. It provides a persistent identity for humans, similar to that created for content-related entities on digital networks by digital object identifiers (DOIs).
The ORCID organization, ORCID Inc., offers an open and independent registry intended to be the de facto standard for contributor identification in research and academic publishing. On 16 October 2012, ORCID launched its registry services and started issuing user identifiers.
|Full name||Open Researcher and Contributor ID|
|Introduced||16 October 2012|
|Managing organisation||ORCID, Inc.|
|No. of digits||16|
|Check digit||MOD 11-2|
ORCID was first announced in 2009 as a collaborative effort by the research community "to resolve the author name ambiguity problem in scholarly communication". The "Open Researcher Contributor Identification Initiative" - hence the name ORCID - was created temporarily prior to incorporation.
A prototype was developed on software adapted from that used by Thomson Reuters for its ResearcherID system. ORCID, Inc., was incorporated as an independent nonprofit organization incorporated in August 2010 in Delaware, United States of America, with an international board of directors. Its executive Director, Laure Haak, was appointed in April 2012. From 2016, the board is chaired by Veronique Kiermer of PLOS (the former chair was Ed Pentz of Crossref). ORCID is freely usable and interoperable with other ID systems. ORCID launched its registry services and started issuing user identifiers on 16 October 2012. Formally, ORCID iDs are specified as URIs, for example, the ORCID iD for John Wilbanks is https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4510-0385 (both https:// and http:// forms are supported; the former became canonical in November 2017). However, some publishers use the short form, e.g. "ORCID: 0000-0002-4510-0385" (as a URN).
ORCID iDs are a subset of the International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI), under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (as ISO 27729), and the two organizations are cooperating. ISNI will uniquely identify contributors to books, television programmes, and newspapers, and has reserved a block of identifiers for use by ORCID, in the range 0000-0001-5000-0007 to 0000-0003-5000-0001. It is therefore possible for a person to legitimately have both an ISNI and an ORCID iD – effectively, two ISNIs.
Both ORCID and ISNI use 16-character identifiers, using the digits 0–9, and separated into groups of four by hyphens. The final character, which may also be a letter "X" representing the value "10" (for example, Nick Jennings' ORCID iD is https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0166-248X, Stephen Hawking's is https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9079-593X) is a MOD 11-2 check digit conforming to the ISO/IEC 7064:2003 standard.
The aim of ORCID is to aid "the transition from science to e-Science, wherein scholarly publications can be mined to spot links and ideas hidden in the ever-growing volume of scholarly literature". Another suggested use is to provide each researcher with "a constantly updated ‘digital curriculum vitae’ providing a picture of his or her contributions to science going far beyond the simple publication list". The idea is that other organizations will use the open-access ORCID database to build their own services.
It has been noted in an editorial in Nature that ORCID, in addition to tagging the contributions that scientists make to papers, "could also be assigned to data sets they helped to generate, comments on their colleagues’ blog posts or unpublished draft papers, edits of Wikipedia entries and much else besides".
In April 2014, ORCID announced plans to work with the Consortia Advancing Standards in Research Administration Information to record and acknowledge contributions to peer review.
In an open letter dated 1 January 2016 eight publishers, including the Royal Society, the American Geophysical Union, Hindawi, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, PLOS, and Science, committed to requiring all authors in their journals to have an ORCID iD.
By the end of 2013 ORCID had 111 member organizations and over 460,000 registrants. On 15 November 2014, ORCID announced the one-millionth registration. As of 11 February 2019, the number of registered accounts reported by ORCID was 5,987,657. The organizational members include many research institutions such as Caltech and Cornell University, and publishers such as Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and Nature Publishing Group. There are also commercial companies including Thomson Reuters, academic societies and funding bodies.
Grant-making bodies such as the Wellcome Trust (a charitable foundation) have also begun to mandate that applicants for funding provide an ORCID identifier.
In several countries, consortia, including government bodies as partners, are operating at a national level to implement ORCID. For example, in Italy, seventy universities and four research centres are collaborating under the auspices of the Conference of Italian University Rectors (CRUI) and the National Agency for the Evaluation of the University and Research Institutes (ANVUR), in a project implemented by Cineca, a not-for-profit consortium representing the universities, research institutions, and the Ministry of Education. In Australia, the government's National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and Australian Research Council (ARC) "encourage all researchers applying for funding to have an ORCID identifier". The French scientific article repository HAL is also inviting its users to enter their ORCID iD.
In addition to members and sponsors, journals, publishers, and other services have included ORCID in their workflows or databases. For example, the Journal of Neuroscience, Springer Nature, the Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Europe PMC, the Japanese National Institute of Informatics's Researcher Name Resolver, Wikipedia, and Wikidata.
Some online services have created tools for exporting data to, or importing data from, ORCID. These include Scopus, Figshare, Thomson Reuters' ResearcherID system, Researchfish, the British Library (for their EThOS thesis catalogue), ProQuest (for their ProQuest Dissertations and Theses service), and Frontiers Loop.
Third-party tools allow the migration of content from other services into ORCID, for example Mendeley2ORCID, for Mendeley.
ORCID also announced today that Thomson Reuters has provided ORCID with a perpetual license and royalty free use of ResearcherID code and intellectual property, giving ORCID the critical technology to create its system.
Josiah Carberry is a fictitious person.
It’s official! 1M of you have an ORCID iD! We thank the community, and look forward to continued collaboration.
Albert Fert (French: [fɛʁ]; born 7 March 1938) is a French physicist and one of the discoverers of giant magnetoresistance which brought about a breakthrough in gigabyte hard disks. Currently, he is an emeritus professor at Université Paris-Sud in Orsay and scientific director of a joint laboratory ('Unité mixte de recherche') between the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (National Scientific Research Centre) and Thales Group. He was awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Peter Grünberg.Andrew Phillip Brown
Andrew Phillip Brown (born 1951) is a conservation biologist and taxonomist at the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation. He is also curator of Orchidaceae and Myoporaceae at the Western Australian Herbarium and a foundation member of the Australian Orchid Foundation and the Western Australia Native Orchid Study and Conservation Group. He is the author of more than 100 journal articles and seven books on the flora of Western Australia including a field guide to the eremophilas of that state.Austin Mast
Austin R. Mast is a research botanist. Born in 1972, he obtained a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 2000. He is currently an associate professor within the Department of Biological Science at Florida State University (FSU), and has been director of FSU's Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium since August 2003.One of his main areas of research is the phylogenetics of Grevilleoideae, a subfamily of Proteaceae. In 2005 he showed the genus Banksia to be paraphyletic with respect to Dryandra, Collaborating with Australian botanist Kevin Thiele, he subsequently transferred all Dryandra taxa to Banksia, publishing over 120 taxonomic names in the process. The change has been adopted by the Western Australian Herbarium, although has met with some controversy.He has recently started work on the Deep South Plant Specimen Imaging Project, which seeks to create a repository of annotated high-resolution digital images of plant specimens within the East Gulf Coastal Plain, a region with a very high diversity of rare and endangered plants.Bengt I. Samuelsson
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Colin Peter Groves (24 June 1942 – 30 November 2017) was Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia.Born in England, Groves completed a Bachelor of Science at University College London in 1963, and a Doctor of Philosophy at the Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine in 1966. From 1966 to 1973, he was a Postdoctoral Researcher and Teaching Fellow at the University of California, Berkeley, Queen Elizabeth College and the University of Cambridge. He emigrated to Australia in 1973 and joined the Australian National University, where he was promoted to full Professor in 2000 and remained Emeritus Professor until his death.Professor Groves' research interests included human evolution, primates, mammalian taxonomy, skeletal analysis, biological anthropology, ethnobiology, cryptozoology, and biogeography. He conducted extensive fieldwork in Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, India, Iran, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Along with the Czech biologist Professor Vratislav Mazák, Groves was the describer of Homo ergaster. Groves also wrote Primate Taxonomy published by the Smithsonian Institution Press in 2001, and Ungulate Taxonomy, co-authored by Peter Grubb (2011, Johns Hopkins Press).
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Curtis Gove Callan Jr. (born October 11, 1942) is a theoretical physicist and a professor at Princeton University. He has conducted research in gauge theory, string theory, instantons, black holes, strong interactions, and many other topics. He was awarded the Sakurai Prize in 2000 ("For his classic formulation of the renormalization group, his contributions to instanton physics and to the theory of monopoles and strings") and the Dirac Medal in 2004.Donna Strickland
Donna Theo Strickland (born 27 May 1959) is a Canadian optical physicist and pioneer in the field of pulsed lasers. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2018, together with Gérard Mourou, for the invention of chirped pulse amplification. She is a professor at the University of Waterloo.She served as fellow, vice president, and president of The Optical Society, and is currently chair of their Presidential Advisory Committee.Drew Fudenberg
Drew Fudenberg (born March 2, 1957 in New York City) is the Paul A. Samuelson Professor of Economics at MIT. His extensive research spans many aspects of game theory, including equilibrium theory, learning in games, evolutionary game theory, and many applications to other fields. Fudenberg was also one of the first to apply game theoretic analysis in industrial organization, bargaining theory, and contract theory. He has also authored papers on repeated games, reputation effects, and behavioral economics.International Standard Name Identifier
The International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks.
ISNI can be used to disambiguate names that might otherwise be confused, and links the data about names that are collected and used in all sectors of the media industries.
It was developed under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as Draft International Standard 27729; the valid standard was published on 15 March 2012. The ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9 (TC 46/SC 9) is responsible for the development of the standard.Juan Martín Maldacena
Juan Martín Maldacena (September 10, 1968 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) is a theoretical physicist. Among his many discoveries, the most famous one is the most reliable realization of the holographic principle – namely the AdS/CFT correspondence, the conjecture about the equivalence of string theory on Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, and a conformal field theory defined on the boundary of the AdS space. In 2013, Maldacena co-authored an analysis of the 2012 black hole firewall paradox with Leonard Susskind, arguing that the paradox can be resolved if entangled particles are connected by minor wormholes."Kevin Thiele
Kevin R. Thiele was curator of the Western Australian Herbarium until 2015. His research interests include the systematics of the plant families Proteaceae, Rhamnaceae and Violaceae, and the conservation ecology of grassy woodland ecosystems. He is also interested in biodiversity informatics, and is involved in the design of software for the Global Biodiversity Infrastructure Facility.He obtained a PhD from the University of Melbourne in 1993, and has since had a number of publications, notably a treatment of the Rhamnaceae for the Flora of Australia series of monographs, and, with Pauline Ladiges, a taxonomic arrangement of Banksia. In 2007 he collaborated with Austin Mast to transfer Dryandra to Banksia.He uploaded over 2000 images to Wikipedia Commons of Western Australian plants and their components.Lyman Page
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This unique identifier aims at solving the problem of author identification. In scientific literature it is common to cite name, surname, and initials of the authors of an article. Sometimes, however, there are authors with the same name, with the same initials, or the journal misspells names, resulting in several spellings for the same authors, and different authors with the same spelling.
On the ResearcherID website, authors are asked to link their ResearcherID to their own articles. In this way, they can also keep their publication list up to date and online. A comprehensive view of an author's total output can thus be given, since not all publications are indexed by Web of Science. This is particularly important for researchers in fields that predominantly use peer-reviewed conference articles (computer science) or in fields that focus on publishing books and chapters in books (humanities and disciplines in the social sciences).
The combined use of the Digital Object Identifier with the ResearcherID allows a unique association of authors and scientific articles. It can be used to link researchers with registered trials or identify colleagues and collaborators in the same field of research.ResearcherID has been criticized for being commercial and proprietary, but also praised as "an initiative addressing the common problem of author misidentification".ResearcherID enables data exchange between its database and ORCID, and vice versa.Roderick MacKinnon
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Theodor Otto Diener (born February 28, 1921) is the Swiss-American plant pathologist who, in 1971, discovered that the causative agent of the potato spindle tuber disease is not a virus, but a novel agent, which consists solely of a short strand of single-stranded RNA without a protein capsid, eighty times smaller than the smallest viruses. He proposed to name it and similar agents to be discovered viroids.
Viroids displace viruses as the smallest infectious agents known.Timothy Williamson
Timothy Williamson (born 6 August 1955) is a British philosopher whose main research interests are in philosophical logic, philosophy of language, epistemology and metaphysics. He is the Wykeham Professor of Logic at the University of Oxford, and fellow of New College, Oxford.William Daniel Phillips
William Daniel Phillips (born November 5, 1948) is an American physicist. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physics, in 1997, with Steven Chu and Claude Cohen-Tannoudji.