OMICS Publishing Group

OMICS Publishing Group is a predatory publisher of open access academic journals.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9] It started publishing its first journal in 2008.[1] By 2015, it claimed over 700 journals, although about half of them were defunct.[10] Its subsidiaries include iMedPub LTD and Conference Series LLC LTD. Other organisations linked to OMICS are EuroSciCon Ltd, Allied Academies, Trade Science Inc, and Meetings International.[11]

OMICS has come under attack by numerous academics and the United States government over the validity of the peer review by OMICS journals, the appropriateness of its fees and marketing, and the apparent advertising of the names of scientists as journal editors or conference speakers without their knowledge or permission.[4][5][6][7][8] The U.S. National Institutes of Health sent a cease-and-desist letter to OMICS in 2013, demanding it to discontinue with false claims of affiliation with U.S. government entities or employees.[7] In August 2016 OMICS became the first academic publisher to be sued by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC), for deceptive practices.

OMICS has responded to criticisms by avowing a commitment to open access publishing, claiming that detractors are traditional subscription-based publishers who feel threatened by their open access publishing model.[10] It responded to the FTC suit by maintaining that their practices were legal and claiming that corporate interests were driving the suit. It has also threatened a prominent critic, Jeffrey Beall, with a US$1 billion lawsuit for defamation.[12]

OMICS Publishing Group
OMICS Publishing Group
Parent companyOMICS Group Inc
StatusActive
Founded2007
FounderSrinubabu Gedela
Country of originIndia
Headquarters locationHyderabad
DistributionWorldwide
Publication typesOpen access journals
Nonfiction topicsScience, technology, and medicine
Revenue$11.6 million (2016)[1]
No. of employees1500[2]
Official websitewww.omicsonline.org

History

OMICS Publishing Group was founded in 2007 by Srinubabu Gedela,[12] who remains the company's director.[13][14] He apparently founded OMICS because of his difficulty in accessing high-cost journal contents as a PhD student.[1]

It started its first open-access journal, the Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics, in 2008.[1] In 2012, OMICS Group had more than 200 journal titles, about 60% of which had no content.[12] By 2015, it claimed over 700 titles, but about half of them were defunct.[10] Several OMICS journals have names similar to existing publications. For instance, BioMed Central established the Journal of Biomedical Science in 1994,[15] while OMICS established the Journal of Biomedical Sciences in 2012.[16]

OMICS employed around 2000 people, about 2/3rd of whom are females.[1] In 2016, the company had revenue of $11.6 million and incurred a profit of about $1.2 million.[1] The Government of India has waived off taxes whilst granting subsidized land for the construction of new headquarters.[1]

Publishing activities

OMICS operates on an open access model, wherein the author pays for publication and the publisher makes the articles available for free. According to The Chronicle of Higher Education, some open access journals are legitimate, while others are vanity publications "that accept virtually any article to collect fees from the authors." There is not always a clear distinction between the two.[4] The publication fee for OMICS journals vary from the low hundreds up to $4,000. There is no charge to withdraw a manuscript, as long as it is withdrawn within ten days of submission.[17]

In addition to publishing journals, OMICS also organizes conferences. In 2017, about 3,000 such conferences were organized. The conference arm makes up about 60% of OMICS' revenue.[1]

Criticism of publishing practices

OMICS is widely regarded as a predatory publisher.[3][4][5][6][7][8] It has been subject to widespread criticism, notably by Jeffrey Beall, who included OMICS in his list of "potential, possible, or probable predatory" publishers. Among the criticism leveled at OMICS are that its journals are not actually peer-reviewed as advertised, often contain mistakes, and that its fees are excessive.[12] OMICS says that its activities are legitimate and ethical, and that the quality of its editorial control does need improvement.[4][13] Other criticisms of OMICS include the publication of pseudoscientific articles,[4] deceptive marketing practices,[12][7] targeting of young investigators or those in lower income regions,[7][8] holding papers hostage by disallowing their withdrawal (preventing them from being published by other journals).[18]

It has also been suggested that OMICS provides fake lists of scientists as journal editors to create an impression of scientific legitimacy, even though they are not any involved in the review or editing process.[4][1] One such editor-in-chief was contacted by Science, where he stated that he had never handled any papers;[7] in an interview with The Hindu, another said he had not been informed of his purported editorship.[8] Other academics have said that OMICS published articles unaltered in spite of their request for revisions.[10] The company has also been slow to remove the names of editorial board members who requested to terminate their relationship with OMICS activities, in some cases taking almost two years.[13][10] One author received an invoice for US$2700 after her paper was accepted; this fee was not mentioned in the email message OMICS sent her to solicit a submission.[6] In 2012, while one OMICS journal rejected a paper after the reviewer noticed it was plagiarized from one of his own co-authored paper; another OMICS journal published the same paper later that year. When the reviewer again pointed this out, the paper was removed from OMICS' website in 2014 but no official retraction was posted.[19] In 2013, an OMICS journal accepted a bogus and obviously flawed publication submitted as part of a sting operation by Science.[20][21] Critics assert that the main purpose of the publisher is commercial rather than academic.[4][5]

In September 2014, Pubmed Central blacklisted OMICS journals, claiming serious concerns over OMICS' publishing practices.[7] In 2017, Scopus delisted several OMICS journals for "publication concerns".[22]

A Bloomberg L.P. investigation in 2017 noted a tendency of pharmaceutical companies to publish in these journals; which might have stemmed from a self-interest in skipping rigorous review procedures.[1] They were also the major sponsors of OMICS conferences.[1]

OMICS Conferences

In 2013, Jeffrey Beall reported that OMICS has added conducting "predatory meetings" to its publications activity[23] including under the ConferenceSeries banner.[24] Beall criticised the financial arrangements for OMICS conferences and urged all scholars to refrain from any dealing with these conferences.[23]

An example of such a meeting is the 2016 International Conference on Atomic and Nuclear Physics, organised by ConferenceSeries, and to which Christoph Bartneck, an Associate Professor in Information Technology at New Zealand's University of Canterbury, was invited. With little knowledge of nuclear physics, Bartneck used iOS's auto complete function to write the paper, choosing randomly from its suggestions after starting each sentence,[25] and submitted it under the name Iris Pear (a reference to Siri and Apple).[26] A sample sentence from the abstract for the resulting manuscript was: "The atoms of a better universe will have the right for the same as you are the way we shall have to be a great place for a great time to enjoy the day you are a wonderful person to your great time to take the fun and take a great time and enjoy the great day you will be a wonderful time for your parents and kids"[25] and the 516-word abstract contained the words "good" and "great" a combined total of 28 times.[26] Despite being obvious nonsense, the work was accepted within three hours of submission and a conference registration fee of US$1099 requested.[25][26] Bartneck commented that he was "reasonably certain that this is a money-making conference with little to no commitment to science," a comment he based on the poor quality of the review process and the high cost of attendance.[25] Gedela said that Bartneck’s paper "slipped through" for being submitted "so close to the deadline".[1]

In another example, Tom Spears of the Ottawa Citizen repeatedly submitted to OMICS conferences several sting abstracts that included "Evolution of flight characteristics in avian-porcine physiology" and "Strategies for remediation of benthic and pelagic species dependent on coral reefs: Cases of T. migratorius and G. californianus." which respectively claimed to explain how pigs fly and claimed roadrunner birds lived underwater.[27] In yet another case, OMICS accepted a randomly-generated nonsense paper to an ethics journal, and later accepted the same paper to a conference on geriatrics and nursing.[28]

It has been also found that many academic or government scientists are advertised as speakers or organizers for OMICS conferences, without their agreement.[7]

Action by US government agencies

In April 2013, OMICS received a cease-and-desist letter from the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) after a complaint filed by Ken Witwer, who said he had been fooled by OMICS's deceptive marketing. The letter alleged that OMICS used images and names of employees that either no longer worked at NIH or did not provide permission, and asked OMICS not to use the name of its agencies institutes or employees for anything other than "true factual statements".[7] OMICS responded by modifying its website and providing emails and letters from the NIH employees ostensibly agreeing to serve as editors of OMICS journals. Those employees later said that while they did agree to serve as editors, they did not provide permission for their names to be used in marketing materials; furthermore, they had not actually handled any manuscripts.[7]

FTC suit

In August 2016, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) filed a suit against OMICS, two of it's affiliated companies and Gedela, charging them with deceptive publishing practices[18] and seeking an unspecified monetary reimbursement for academics, duped by them.[1] In it's first-ever suit against an academic publisher[29], they alleged Omics’s peer-review processes to be a “sham” and their claiming of renowned academics in their editorial board and/or as speakers at its conferences without their consent, to be intentionally deceptive.[1] FTC also noted a failure to disclose publishing fees prior to accepting pieces, citing of dubious impact factors and false assertions about their journals being indexed in PubMed, when they aren’t.[1]

In response to the lawsuit, OMICS rejected the various allegations, maintaining that their processes were legal and claiming that corporate interests were driving the suit.[30][31]

The federal court of Nevada handed down a preliminary injunction in November 2017, preventing OMICS from "making misrepresentations" about their journals and conferences, as well as requiring that OMICS clearly disclose all article processing charges.[31]

Legal threat to Jeffrey Beall

In 2013, OMICS Publishing Group sent a letter to University of Colorado librarian Jeffrey Beall stating that they intended to sue him and were seeking $1 billion in damages. In their six-page letter, OMICS stated that Beall's blog is "ridiculous, baseless, impertinent", and "smacks of literal unprofessionalism and arrogance".[32] Beall said that he found the letter "to be poorly written and personally threatening", and that he thought that "the letter is an attempt to detract from the enormity of OMICS's editorial practices".[33]

OMICS' law firm said it was pursuing damages under India's Information Technology Act 2000, referring to section 66A, which makes it illegal to use a computer to publish "any information that is grossly offensive or has menacing character" or to publish false information. It stated that three years in prison was a possible penalty, although a U.S. lawyer said that the threats seemed to be a "publicity stunt" that was meant to "intimidate".[12] An editorial in the New Delhi-based India Today cited the incident as evidence that Section 66A should be discarded to eliminate its use in "stifling political dissent, crushing speech and ... enabling bullying".[34] In 2015, section 66A was struck down by the Supreme Court of India in an unrelated case.[35][36]

Acquisition of Canadian publishers

In late September 2016, OMICS acquired two Canadian publishers, Andrew John Publishing and Pulsus Group, and sixteen journals published by them.[37] The acquisition led to a decline in publishing standards for these journals,[38] caused concern that the names of the publishers were being hijacked to lend credence to bogus science, and led to six of the sixteen journals stating their intention to terminate their publishing contracts with OMICS.[37] Gedela claimed that the publisher will only have minimal influence on the editorial policy and content of the journals, and reiterated OMICS' position that they are a legitimate publisher.[39]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Medical Journals Have a Fake News Problem, Bloomberg, 29 August 2017
  2. ^ "Chanting success mantra, scientific way". The Hindu. 6 March 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
  3. ^ a b Beall, Jeffrey. "The OMICS Publishing Group's Empire is Expanding". Scholarly OA. Archived from the original on 2015-10-22.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Stratford, Michael (2012-03-04). "'Predatory' Online Journals Lure Scholars Who Are Eager to Publish". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Chronicle.com. Retrieved 2012-10-02.
  5. ^ a b c d Beall, Jeffrey (2010-07-01). "Update: Predatory Open-Access Scholarly Publishers". The Charleston Advisor. Charleston.publisher.ingentaconnect.com. Retrieved 2012-10-02.
  6. ^ a b c d Declan Butler, "Investigating journals: The dark side of publishing", Nature, 27 March 2013
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Jocelyn Kaiser, "ScienceInsider: U.S. Government Accuses Open Access Publisher of Trademark Infringement" Archived 2013-05-10 at the Wayback Machine, Science, 9 May 2013
  8. ^ a b c d e "On the Net, a scam of a most scholarly kind" The Hindu, 26 September 2012.
  9. ^ Yadav, Shyamlal (2018-07-19). "Inside India's fake research paper shops: pay, publish, profit". The Indian Express. Retrieved 2018-07-30.
  10. ^ a b c d e "Predatory publishers criticised for 'unethical, unprincipled' tactics". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 11 November 2015.
  11. ^ All those OMICS linked companies in one place. Graham Readfearn (weblog), January 12, 2018. Accessed October 10, 2018
  12. ^ a b c d e f Jake New (15 May 2013). "Publisher Threatens to Sue Blogger for $1-Billion". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
  13. ^ a b c Gina Kolata, "Scientific Articles Accepted (Personal Checks, Too)", New York Times, 8 April 2013
  14. ^ "Pharma Body meeting". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 22 Oct 2013.
  15. ^ Journal of Biomedical Science. LocatorPlus. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 1994.
  16. ^ "Journal of Biomedical Sciences, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2012". www.jbiomeds.com.
  17. ^ "Omics International Article Processing Charges". Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  18. ^ a b FTC, "FTC Charges Academic Journal Publisher OMICS Group Deceived Researchers"; Complaint Alleges Company Made False Claims, Failed to Disclose Steep Publishing Fees. Press Release, 26 Aug. 2016. Complaint filed with the District Court of Nevada, 25 Aug. 2016 (PDF available).
  19. ^ Paul Jump, "Rejected work gets back in the line-up", Times Higher Education, 7 August 2014
  20. ^ Bohannon, John (2013). "Who's Afraid of Peer Review?". Science. 342 (6154): 60–65. doi:10.1126/science.342.6154.60. PMID 24092725.
  21. ^ "Data and Documents". Science. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
  22. ^ McCook, Alison (2017-03-27). "Multiple OMICS journals delisted from major index over concerns". Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2017-04-03.
  23. ^ a b Beall, Jeffrey; Levine, Richard (25 January 2013). "OMICS Goes from "Predatory Publishing" to "Predatory Meetings"". Scholarly Open Access. Archived from the original on 5 June 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  24. ^ Beall, Jeffrey (13 October 2016). "Bogus British Company "Accredits" OMICS Conferences". Scholarly Open Access. Archived from the original on 6 November 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  25. ^ a b c d Hunt, Elle (22 October 2016). "Nonsense paper written by iOS autocomplete accepted for conference". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  26. ^ a b c Bartneck, Christoph (20 October 2016). "iOS Just Got A Paper On Nuclear Physics Accepted At A Scientific Conference". University of Canterbury Human Interface Technology (HIT) Lab, New Zealand. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  27. ^ Spears, Tom (3 March 2017). "When pigs fly: Fake science conferences abound for fraud and profit". Ottawa Citizen.
  28. ^ Spears, Tom (5 June 2017). "Fake science publisher offers shoddy continuing education for doctors, nurses". Ottawa Citizen.
  29. ^ McCook, Alison (26 August 2016), "U.S. government agency sues publisher, charging it with deceiving researchers", Retraction Watch
  30. ^ Oransky, Ivan; Marcus, Adam (2 September 2016), "Are 'predatory' publishers' days numbered?", STAT
  31. ^ a b ""U.S. court temporarily halts 'deceptive practices' of so-called predatory publisher". CTVnews. 23 November 2017. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  32. ^ New, Jake (15 May 2013). "Publisher Threatens to Sue Blogger for $1-Billion". Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  33. ^ Chappell, Bill (15 May 2013). "Publisher Threatens Librarian With $1 Billion Lawsuit". NPR. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  34. ^ Rohan Venkataramakrishnan (2013-05-19). "Send Section 66A bullies home". India Today. Retrieved 2013-05-19.
  35. ^ Jayant Sriram (2015-03-24). "SC strikes down 'draconian' Section 66A". The Hindu.
  36. ^ "Supreme Court of India, Writ Petition (Criminal) No.167 of 2012" (PDF).
  37. ^ a b "Canadian medical journals hijacked for junk science". The Toronto Star. 29 September 2016. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
  38. ^ "Offshore firm accused of publishing junk science takes over Canadian journals". CTV News. 29 September 2016. Retrieved 11 October 2016..
  39. ^ "Full statement by Srinubabu Gedela, CEO and Managing Director of OMICS Group". CTV News. 28 September 2016. Retrieved 11 October 2016.

External links

Academic journal

An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation, scrutiny, and discussion of research. They are usually peer-reviewed or refereed. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, and book reviews. The purpose of an academic journal, according to Henry Oldenburg (the first editor of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society), is to give researchers a venue to "impart their knowledge to one another, and contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, and perfecting all Philosophical Arts, and Sciences."The term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields; this article discusses the aspects common to all academic field journals. Scientific journals and journals of the quantitative social sciences vary in form and function from journals of the humanities and qualitative social sciences; their specific aspects are separately discussed.

The first academic journal was Journal des sçavans (January 1665), followed soon after by Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (March 1665), and Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences (1666). The first fully peer-reviewed journal was Medical Essays and Observations (1733).

Allied Academies

Allied Academies is a reportedly-fraudulent corporation chartered under the laws of North Carolina. It presents itself as an association of scholars, with supporting and encouraging research and the sharing and exchange of knowledge as its stated aims. The organization consists of 14 affiliate academies, which provide awards to academics and publish academic journals both online and in hard copy for members. Since 2015 the organization has been listed on Jeffrey Beall's list of "potential, possible, or probable predatory scholarly open-access publishers". It is in a partnership with OMICS Publishing Group which uses its website and logo.

Ariel Fernandez

Ariel Fernandez (born Ariel Fernández Stigliano, April 8, 1957) is an Argentinian–American physical chemist and pharmaceutical researcher.

Beall's List

Beall's List was a list of predatory open-access publishers that was maintained by University of Colorado librarian Jeffrey Beall on his blog Scholarly Open Access. The list aimed to document open-access publishers who did not perform real peer review, effectively publishing any article as long as the authors pay the open access fee. Originally started as a personal endeavor in 2008, Beall's List became a widely followed piece of work by the mid-2010s. Its influence led some publishers on the list to threaten defamation lawsuits against Beall, as well as to lodge official complaints against Beall's work to the University of Colorado. As a result, Beall deactivated his blog and the list in January 2017.

The closure of Beall's List was cited by some as a tragedy, and successors have set out to continue Beall's work.

Canadian Journal of Respiratory Therapy

The Canadian Journal of Respiratory Therapy (French: Revue canadienne de la thérapie respiratoire) is a quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on respiratory therapy and pulmonology. It was published on behalf of the Canadian Society of Respiratory Therapists by the Pulsus Group, until this company was acquired by the OMICS Publishing Group in 2016. This led the society to cancel their publishing agreement with Pulsus, switching instead to Canadian Science Publishing. No issues were produced with OMICS. The editor-in-chief is Justin Sorge (Canadian Institute for Substance Use Research).

Federal Trade Commission

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act. Its principal mission is the promotion of consumer protection and the elimination and prevention of anticompetitive business practices, such as coercive monopoly. It is headquartered in the Federal Trade Commission Building in Washington, D.C.

The Federal Trade Commission Act was one of President Woodrow Wilson's major acts against trusts. Trusts and trust-busting were significant political concerns during the Progressive Era. Since its inception, the FTC has enforced the provisions of the Clayton Act, a key antitrust statute, as well as the provisions of the FTC Act, 15 U.S.C. § 41 et seq. Over time, the FTC has been delegated with the enforcement of additional business regulation statutes and has promulgated a number of regulations (codified in Title 16 of the Code of Federal Regulations).

Future Medicine

Future Medicine is a privately owned company based in London, United Kingdom. It was part of Future Science Publishing Group, primarily to publish peer-reviewed medical journals. Future Medicine publishes hybrid and full open access journals.

George Perry (neuroscientist)

George Perry (born April 12, 1953 in Lompoc, California) is the former Dean of the College of Sciences, Semmes Distinguished University Chair in Neurobiology, Chief Scientist of the Brain Health Consortium and Professor of Biology and Chemistry at the University of Texas at San Antonio. Perry is recognized in the field of Alzheimer's disease research particularly for his work on oxidative stress.

Harold Loh

Harold Hao Loh (Chinese: 羅浩; pinyin: Luó Hào; born 28 May 1937) is a Chinese-born Taiwanese biochemist.

Loh graduated from National Taiwan University and completed a doctorate in biochemistry from the University of Iowa, as did his friend Yuan-Chuan Lee. Loh then moved to the University of California, San Francisco as a postdoctoral researcher under Eddy Leong Way, after which he joined the UCSF Medical Center faculty. In 1989, Loh began teaching at the University of Minnesota, where he was named Frederick and Alice Stark Professor of Pharmacology, and later appointed to a Regents Professorship. Loh serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy. Since 1986, Loh has been a member of Academia Sinica.

JOP

JOP may refer to:

Java optimized processor, an implementation of a Java Virtual Machine

Jon Oliva's Pain, an American heavy metal band

Jop van der Linden (born 1990), Dutch footballer

Mariusz Jop (born 1978), Polish footballer

JOP: Journal of the Pancreas, a journal published by the predatory OMICS Publishing Group

Jeffrey Beall

Jeffrey Beall is an American librarian, best known for drawing attention to "predatory open access publishing", a term he coined, and for creating what is now widely known as Beall's list, a list of potentially predatory open-access publishers. He is a critic of the open access publishing movement, and is especially known for his blog Scholarly Open Access. He has also written on this topic in The Charleston Advisor, in Nature, in Learned Publishing, and elsewhere.When Beall created his list, he was employed at the University of Colorado Denver. More recently, he was a librarian at Auraria Library in Denver until March 2018.

Journal of Surgery

Journal of Surgery may refer to

Journal of Surgery (OMICS Publishing Group journal), published by OMICS Publishing Group

Journal of Surgery (Science Publishing Group journal), published by Science Publishing Group

Medicinal Chemistry (disambiguation)

Medicinal chemistry is a discipline involving chemistry and pharmacology.

Medicinal Chemistry may also refer to:

Clinical chemistry, area of chemistry also known as medical biochemistry

Medicinal Chemistry (Bentham Open journal), published by Bentham Open

Medicinal Chemistry (OMICS Publishing Group journal), published by OMICS Publishing Group

Michael Silbermann

Michael Silbermann is an Israeli maxillofacial surgeon and health educator. He is currently the executive director of the Middle East Cancer Consortium.

Plastic Surgery (journal)

Plastic Surgery (formerly Canadian Journal of Plastic Surgery) is a peer-reviewed medical journal dealing with plastic surgery. It is the official journal of several national Canadian societies: the Canadian Society of Plastic Surgeons, the Canadian Society for Aesthetic (Cosmetic) Plastic Surgery, the Groupe pour l'Avancement de la Microchirurgie Canada, and the Canadian Society for Surgery of the Hand (Manus Canada). The journal covers both research and material dealing with continuing medical education and society guidelines. It was published by the Pulsus Group, which was placed on Jeffrey Beall's list of "Potential, possible, or probable" predatory open-access publishers following its sale to OMICS Publishing Group. The journal subsequently switched publishers and is now published by SAGE Publications.

Predatory conference

Predatory conferences or predatory meetings are meetings set up to appear as legitimate scientific conferences but which are exploitative as they do not provide proper editorial control over presentations, and advertising can include claims of involvement of prominent academics who are, in fact, uninvolved. They are an expansion of the predatory open access publishing business model, which involves the creation of academic publications built around an exploitative business model that generally involves charging publication fees to authors without providing the editorial and publishing services associated with legitimate journals.

Predatory open-access publishing

Predatory open-access publishing, or sometimes write-only publishing, is an exploitative open-access academic publishing business model that involves charging publication fees to authors without providing the editorial and publishing services associated with legitimate journals (open access or not). The idea that they are "predatory" is based on the view that academics are tricked into publishing with them, though some authors may be aware that the journal is poor quality or even fraudulent. New scholars from developing countries are said to be especially at risk of being misled by predatory practices."Beall's List", a report that was regularly updated by Jeffrey Beall of the University of Colorado until January 2017, set forth criteria for categorizing publications as predatory. The list was taken offline by the author in January 2017. A demand by Frontiers Media to open a misconduct case against Beall was reported as the reason Beall closed the list, but an investigation by the university was closed with no findings. After the closure, other efforts to identify predatory publishing have sprouted, such as the paywalled Cabell's blacklist, as well as other lists (some based on the original listing by Beall).

Pulsus Group

Pulsus Group is a Health informatics and Healthcare services company and a publisher of scientific, technical, and medical literature. It was formed in 1984, primarily to publish peer-reviewed medical journals. As of 2016, Pulsus publishes 49 hybrid and full open-access journals, 15 of which have been adopted as the official publications of the related medical societies. Pulsus Group conducts conferences in association with scientific societies.OMICS Publishing Group, an open access publisher widely regarded as predatory, purchased Pulsus in 2016, causing controversy and putting the future of the journals into question. The company has been placed on Jeffrey Beall's list of "Potential, possible, or probable" predatory open-access publishers.

Wai-Ching Lam

Wai-Ching Lam (MD, FRCSC) is a Chinese Albert Bing-Ching Young Professor of ophthalmology at The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto and a co-chairman of the Asian-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

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