Nygaardsvold's Cabinet

Nygaardsvold's Cabinet (later becoming the Norwegian government-in-exile) was appointed on 20 March 1935,[1] the second Labour cabinet in Norway. It brought to an end the non-socialist, minority Governments that had been dominating politics since the introduction of the parliamentary system in 1884, and replaced it with stable, Labour Governments that, with the exception of during World War II, would last until the coalition cabinet Lyng in 1963.[2]

Since the cabinet Hornsrud intermezzo in the winter of 1928, a one-month Labour Government, the Labour Party had changed from revolutionary communism to social democracy. The main reason for the change of course was the realization of that Government power could be used for reforms that could lessen the impact of the economic crisis. In the 1933 election the party used the slogans "Work for everyone" and "Country and city, hand in hand". The last time the party portrayed itself as revolutionary was the 1930 election.

The Labour Party advanced in the 1933 election, but did not get a majority. Instead they made a compromise with the Farmer Party, allowing the cabinet Nygaardsvold to enter the Council of State. The party did not get majority in the 1936 election either, and continued to govern thanks to fluctuating support from various opposition parties.

The night before 9 April 1940, the Norwegian Government was, like most other authorities in the country, surprised by the German Operation Weserübung. It chose resistance, though in a rather fumbling and unclear way, especially initially. The Government left Norway on 7 June 1940 after the capitulation and established itself in London the same day, along with King Haakon VII and Crown Prince Olav.[2]

Back in Norway, over the course of the war, four cabinets were instated by Vidkun Quisling and Josef Terboven, as the de facto Governments of Norway. The Government-in-exile is sometimes referred to as the London Cabinet. It returned to Norway on 31 May 1945 aboard the UK troop ship RMS Andes.[3] On 12 June, Nygaardsvold announced his resignation, and on 25 June, the pan-political first cabinet Gerhardsen took over.

Below are the four de facto Governments in Oslo during the war, either sympathising with or actually appointed by German Forces. The Reichskommissar in Oslo was Josef Terboven.

Nygaardsvold Cabinet
Nygaardsvold's Cabinet. From left: Minister of Finance Adolf Indrebø, Minister of Defence Fredrik Monsen, Minister of Foreign Affairs Halvdan Koht, Prime Minister Johan Nygaardsvold, Minister of Agriculture Hans Ystgaard, Minister of Trade Alfred Madsen, Minister of Social Affairs Kornelius Bergsvik, Minister of Education Nils Hjelmtveit and Minister of Justice Trygve Lie

Cabinet Nygaardsvold

Norwegian Government-in-exile (5096990445)
Building in London occupied by the Norwegian government-in-exile.
Portfolio Minister Period Party
Prime Minister Johan Nygaardsvold 20 March 1935 – 25 June 1945 Labour
Minister of Agriculture Hans Ystgaard 20 March 1935 – 25 June 1945 Labour
Minister of Church Affairs and Education Nils Hjelmtveit 20 March 1935 – 25 June 1945 Labour
Minister of Defence Christian Fredrik Monsen 20 March 1935 – 15 November 1935 Labour
Adolf Indrebø 15 November 1935 – 20 December 1935 Labour
Oscar Torp 20 December 1935 – 15 August 1936 Labour
Christian Fredrik Monsen 15 August 1936 – 22 December 1939 Labour
Birger Ljungberg 22 December 1939 – 28 November 1942 Labour
Oscar Torp 28 November 1942 – 25 June 1945 Labour
Minister of Finance Adolf Indrebø 20 March 1935 – 13 November 1936 Labour
Kornelius Bergsvik 13 November 1936 – 1 July 1939 Labour
Oscar Torp 1 July 1939 – 28 November 1941 Labour
Paul Hartmann 28 November 1941 – 25 June 1945 Resistance
Minister of Foreign Affairs Halvdan Koht 20 March 1935 – 19 November 1940 Labour
Trygve Lie 19 November 1940 – 25 June 1945 Labour
Minister of Justice Trygve Lie 20 March 1935 – 19 November 1939 Labour
Terje Wold 19 November 1939 – 25 June 1945 Labour
Minister of Labour Johan Nygaardsvold 20 March 1935 – 2 October 1939 Labour
Olav Hindahl 2 October 1939 – 25 June 1945 Labour
Minister of Social Affairs Kornelius Bergsvik 20 March 1935 – 13 November 1936 Labour
Oscar Torp 13 November 1936 – 1 July 1939 Labour
Sverre Støstad 1 July 1939 – 25 June 1945 Labour
Minister of Shipping Arne Sunde 1 October 1942 – 25 June 1945 Liberal
Minister of Supply Trygve Lie 2 October 1939 – 19 November 1940 Labour
Arne Sunde 19 November 1940 – 1 October 1942 Liberal
Anders Rasmus Frihagen 1 October 1942 – 25 June 1945 Labour
Minister of Trade, Shipping,
Industry, Crafts and Fisheries
Alfred Madsen 20 March 1935 – 1 July 1939 Labour
Trygve Lie 1 July 1939 – 2 October 1939 Labour
Anders Rasmus Frihagen 2 October 1939 – 7 June 1940 Labour
Terje Wold 7 June 1940 – April 1942 Labour
Anders Rasmus Frihagen April 1942 – 1 October 1942 Labour
Olav Hindahl 1 October 1942 – 9 March 1945 Labour
Sven Nielsen 9 March 1945 – 25 June 1945 Conservative


  1. ^ "The cabinet of Johan Nygaardsvold" (in Norwegian). NorgesLexi.com. Retrieved 2008-08-30.
  2. ^ a b Friis 1965.
  3. ^ Nicol, Stuart (2001). MacQueen's Legacy; Ships of the Royal Mail Line. Two. Brimscombe Port and Charleston, SC: Tempus Publishing. p. 170. ISBN 0-7524-2119-0.

See also

Further reading

  • Friis, Erik J (1965). "The Norwegian Government-In-Exile, 1940–45". Scandinavian Studies. Essays Presented to Dr. Henry Goddard Leach on the Occasion of his Eighty-fifth Birthday. pp. 422–444.
Preceded by
Third cabinet Mowinckel
Norwegian Council of State
Succeeded by
de facto
Quisling cabinet (1942)
de jure
First cabinet Gerhardsen (1945)
Anders Fjelstad

Anders Fjelstad (10 October 1879 – 1955) was a Norwegian politician for the Centre Party, then called Bondepartiet (The Farmers' Party). He was consultative councillor of state 1940-1943 in the exile Nygaardsvold's Cabinet.


Arbeideren ("The Worker") was a daily newspaper published in Oslo, Norway.

It was started on 2 November 1929 as the official party newspaper from the Communist Party. It lent its name from a Hamar-based newspaper of the same name, which had gone defunct on 4 October. More directly, it replaced Norges Kommunistblad which just had gone bankrupt. Its first editor was Arvid G. Hansen, who had been the last editor of Norges Kommunistblad. He remained in the chair until 1931.Reinert Torgeirson was editor from 1931 to 1932, followed by Erling Bentzen. In 1934 he was fired for not following the directions of the Comintern, the superior organ of the Communist Party of Norway. Henry W. Kristiansen became the new editor-in-chief, having been deposed as party leader. The publication was irregular, sometimes it came daily, sometimes weekly. From 1937 it was a daily newspaper, supported by the party while it siphoned support from other party newspapers, such as Arbeidet.Henry W. Kristiansen still sat as editor on 9 April 1940, when World War II reached Norway with the German invasion. The newspaper became controversial among many. First, because it strongly criticized the existing Norwegian Fascist party Nasjonal Samling as well as Fascism in general. For this it was confiscated on 25 April. Second, because it criticized the actions of the legal government, Nygaardsvold's Cabinet, and its alliance with Great Britain. The newspaper was edited out of "neutrality" concerns; this was because of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. As the invading Germans tightened their rule of Norway, Arbeideren was forbidden and stopped on 16 August 1940. Kristiansen died in Neuengamme concentration camp in 1942.After the war, Arbeideren never returned, and Friheten became the official party organ. Arbeideren was probed into during the legal purge in Norway after World War II for its criticism towards the legal government in 1940, but the case was closed since Kristiansen, and former board member of the newspaper Ottar Lie, were dead.

Arne Ording

Arne Ording (7 May 1898 – 26 July 1967) was a Norwegian historian and politician for Mot Dag and the Labour Party.

Arne Sunde

Arne Toralf Sunde (6 December 1883 – 30 July 1972) was a Norwegian politician, Olympic shooter and army officer. He is best known for his participation in the 1940 Norwegian Campaign, his participation in Nygaardsvold's Cabinet during its 1940–1945 exile in London and three years as a United Nations ambassador. Sunde was President of the United Nations Security Council in June 1949 and July 1950.

Fredrik Monsen

Christian Fredrik Monsen (27 April 1878 – 31 January 1954) was a Norwegian politician for the Labour Party and the Communist Party.

He was born in Kristiania as a son of Ludvig Monsen (1854–1942) and Josefine Aurora Marcelie Dehn (1852–1942).Monsen edited the newspaper Demokraten from 1913 to 1916 and was a member of Hamar city council from 1907 to 1945, serving as mayor in 1916–1919. He was elected to the Parliament of Norway from the Market towns of Hedmark and Oppland counties in 1922, and was re-elected on six occasions. He represented the Labour Party, except for the term 1925–1927 when he represented the Communist Party. During his last term, from December 10, 1945 to January 10, 1949, he was the President of the Storting. Already before the 1945 election, when the old Parliament was convened, Monsen was installed in the Presidium as the Labour Party dropped their former member of the presidium Magnus Nilssen.Monsen headed the Ministry of Defence during the short-lived Hornsrud's Cabinet in 1928 and then during Nygaardsvold's Cabinet. Unsusually for a Minister of Defence, Monsen was an antimilitarist and wrote three anti-militarist pamphlets (Sannheten om militærvesenet, Avvæbning eller militarisme and Militært vanvidd eller civil fornuft).

Gerhardsen's First Cabinet

Gerhardsen's First Cabinet, often called the Unification Cabinet (Norwegian: Samlingsregjeringen), was a Norwegian government appointed to serve under Prime Minister Einar Gerhardsen between 25 July and 5 November 1945, in the aftermath of the Second World War.

The preceding Nygaardsvold's Cabinet had been appointed nine years earlier, but in 1940, just before scheduled elections, Norway was invaded by Germany, and the government had to flee to London. When the war was over, Nygaardsvold's Cabinet abdicated after returning to Norway, and a panpolitical, coalition government was appointed by King Haakon VII to sit until an election for the Parliament of Norway could be held.

The cabinet is noteworthy in Norwegian political history for being the first one to include a woman, Kirsten Hansteen, who was Consultative Councillor of State in the Ministry of Social Affairs, the only one ever to have members from the Communist Party of Norway (one of whom was Hansteen), and the only time the Labour Party sat in a coalition government before Stoltenberg's Second Cabinet was appointed in 2005.

Gustav Adolf Jebsen

Gustav Adolf Jebsen (30 January 1884 – 20 January 1951) was a Norwegian industrialist.

Johan Nygaardsvolds plass

Johan Nygaardsvolds plass is a town square in Oslo, Norway.

It is located between the offices of the Ministry of Finance, Høyblokka ("High Block"), and Y Block in Regjeringskvartalet. The square encompasses the Regjeringsparken ("The Government Park") with a water feature and an allée of trees. The square and park were designed by architect firm of Lunde & Løvseth.

The square is named after Prime Minister Johan Nygaardsvold (1879-1952) who was Prime Minister in Norway from 20 March 1935 to 25 June 1945 as the leader of Nygaardsvold's Cabinet.

No buildings have an address on this square.

List of Norwegian governments

This is a list of Norwegian governments with parties and Prime Ministers. Within coalition governments the parties are listed according to parliamentary representation with the most popular party first. The Prime Ministers' parties are italicized.

List of political parties in Norway

This article lists political parties in Norway.

Norway has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which no one party can easily gain a majority of the 169 legislative seats. Parties may cooperate to form coalition governments.

London Cabinet

A London Cabinet can refer to a number of government cabinets:

Nygaardsvold's Cabinet, the Norwegian government-in-exile between 7 June 1940 and 31 May 1945

One of the four Dutch governments-in-exile between 13 May 1940 and May 1945:

Second De Geer Cabinet

First Gerbrandy Cabinet

Second Gerbrandy Cabinet

Third Gerbrandy Cabinet

Nils Hjelmtveit

Nils Hjelmtveit (21 July 1892 – 30 October 1985) was a Norwegian educator and politician for the Labour Party. He was mayor of Stokken, MP from 1925 to 1930, Minister of Education and Church Affairs from 1935 to 1945 and County Governor of Aust-Agder from 1945 to 1961.

Oliver H. Langeland

Oliver Hansen Langeland (30 January 1887 – 9 February 1958) was a Norwegian military officer and civil servant. He had careers in both civil service and the military, and is best known as leader of Milorg District 13 from 1942 to 1944.

Oscar Torp

Oscar Fredrik Torp (8 June 1893 – 1 May 1958) was a Norwegian politician for the Norwegian Labour Party. He was party leader from 1923 to 1945, and mayor of Oslo in 1935 and 1936. In 1935 he became acting Minister of Defence in the government of Johan Nygaardsvold. He was also Minister of Social Affairs from 1936 to 1939, and then Minister of Finance from 1939 to 1942. He was appointed Minister of Defence again in 1942 in the London-based Norwegian exile government. He continued until the election in 1945 when he became Minister of Provisioning and Reconstruction until 1948.

Hailing from Skjeberg, he was first elected to the Parliament of Norway representing Oslo in 1936, but did not take a seat in the Parliament until 1948. He then became the faction leader for the Labour Party in Parliament. He became Prime Minister of Norway in 1951 when Einar Gerhardsen stepped down from this position; the move was reversed in 1955 when Torp became President of the Storting. He held this position until his death.

Quisling regime

The Quisling regime or Quisling government are common names used to refer to the fascist collaborationist government led by Vidkun Quisling in German-occupied Norway during the Second World War. The official name of the regime from 1 February 1942 until its dissolution in May 1945 was Nasjonale regjering (English: National Government). Actual executive power was retained by the Reichskommissariat Norwegen, headed by Josef Terboven.

Given the use of the term quisling, the name Quisling regime can also be used as a derogatory term referring to political regimes perceived as treasonous puppet governments imposed by occupying foreign enemies.

Society Guard

The Society Guard (Norwegian: Samfundsvernet), sometimes Norwegian Society Guard (Norsk Samfundsvern), was a volunteer paramilitary organisation in Norway. It was founded in 1923 in connection to the anti-strike Society Aid (Samfundshjelpen). Organised by the centre-right parties, these "emergency groups" were prepared to mobilise in case of war or revolution. The organisation was directed specifically against the Marxist labour movement, and recruited officers and volunteers for an armed guard against revolutionary activists. Led by officers, it was organised in small secret armed groups. In accordance with the "police law" of 1928, it could be used as a reserve police force. Around 1930, it reportedly had between 10,000 and 15,000 members.From 1925, the organisation was led by Ragnvald Hvoslef. Other leading figures included Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen. The organisation Leidangen which emerged in 1931 had its background in the Society Guard. To counter such organisations, the Labour Party started organising "Labour Protection Groups" in the 1930s. The Society Guard was dissolved in 1935 following the establishment of the Labour Party Nygaardsvold's Cabinet, after it was revealed that it operated military training with material from the Norwegian Army. According to Hans Fredrik Dahl, the Society Guard was the closest Norway came to a White Guard.

Sverre Krogh (editor)

Sverre Krogh (11 March 1883 – 26 October 1957) was a Norwegian actuary, newspaper editor and politician for the Labour and Communist Labour parties. He later became a Nazi, working for Norwegian and German Nazis during the Second World War.

Undersøkelseskommisjonen av 1945

Undersøkelseskommisjonen av 1945 was a commission appointed by the Parliament of Norway in 1945 and chaired by Gustav Heiberg, given the task to investigate the role of the three branches of power; the Norwegian Parliament, Government and Supreme Court as well as the Administrative Council in 1940. The six reports with nine annexes published by the commission in 1946 and 1947, are regarded as an important source on the events in 1940.

Belgium Belgium
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia
France Free France
Greece Kingdom of Greece
Luxembourg Luxembourg
Netherlands Netherlands
Norway Norway
Poland Poland
Yugoslavia Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Unrecognised groups
Related topics

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.