A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible. In general usage, a wide variety of dried seeds are called nuts, but in a botanical context "nut" implies that the shell does not open to release the seed (indehiscent). The translation of "nut" in certain languages frequently requires paraphrases, as the word is ambiguous.
Most seeds come from fruits that naturally free themselves from the shell, unlike nuts such as hazelnuts, chestnuts, and acorns, which have hard shell walls and originate from a compound ovary. The general and original usage of the term is less restrictive, and many nuts (in the culinary sense), such as almonds, pecans, pistachios, walnuts, and Brazil nuts, are not nuts in a botanical sense. Common usage of the term often refers to any hard-walled, edible kernel as a nut. Nuts are an energy-dense and nutrient-rich food source.
A nut in botany is a simple dry fruit in which the ovary wall becomes increasingly hard as it matures, and where the seed remains unattached or free within the ovary wall. Most nuts come from the pistils with inferior ovaries (see flower) and all are indehiscent (not opening at maturity). True nuts are produced, for example, by some plant families of the order Fagales.
A small nut may be called a "nutlet". In botany, this term specifically refers to a pyrena or pyrene, which is a seed covered by a stony layer, such as the kernel of a drupe. Walnuts and hickories (Juglandaceae) have fruits that are difficult to classify. They are considered to be nuts under some definitions, but are also referred to as drupaceous nuts. "Tryma" is a specialized term for hickory fruits.
In common use, a "tree nut" is, as the name implies, any nut coming from a tree. This most often comes up regarding allergies, where some people are allergic specifically to peanuts (which are not tree nuts), others to a wider range of nuts that grow in trees.
A nut in cuisine is a much less restrictive and older meaning of the word than the narrow meaning of nut in botany; the term is applied to many seeds that are not botanically nuts. Any large, oily kernels found within a shell and used in food are commonly called nuts.
Nuts are an important source of nutrients for both humans and wildlife. Because nuts generally have a high oil content, they are a highly prized food and energy source. A large number of seeds are edible by humans and used in cooking, eaten raw, sprouted, or roasted as a snack food, or pressed for oil that is used in cookery and cosmetics.
Some fruits and seeds that do not meet the botanical definition but are nuts in the culinary sense are:
Nuts are the source of energy and nutrients for the new plant. They contain a relatively large quantity of calories, essential unsaturated and monounsaturated fats including linoleic acid and linolenic acid, vitamins, and essential amino acids. Many nuts are good sources of vitamin E, vitamin B2, folate, fiber, and the essential minerals magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, copper, and selenium. Nuts are most healthy in their raw unroasted form because roasting can significantly damage and destroy fats during the process.
This table lists the percentage of various nutrients in four unroasted seeds.
|Name||Protein||Total fat||Saturated fat||Polyunsaturated fat||Monounsaturated fat||Carbohydrate|
The nut of the horse-chestnut tree (Aesculus species, especially Aesculus hippocastanum), is called a conker in the British Isles. Conkers are inedible to humans and many animals because they contain toxic glucoside aesculin. They are used in a popular children's game, known as conkers, where the nuts are threaded onto a strong cord and then each contestant attempts to break their opponent's conker by hitting it with their own. Horse chestnuts are also popular slingshot ammunition.
The Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) is a South American tree in the family Lecythidaceae, and also the name of the tree's commercially harvested edible seeds.Cydia (moth)
Cydia is a large genus of tortrix moths, belonging to the tribe Grapholitini of subfamily Olethreutinae. Its distinctness from and delimitation versus the tribe's type genus Grapholita requires further study.Moths in this genus are generally small and dull brown; their caterpillars are yellow or white and wormlike. Cydia includes many species of economic importance due to the damage their caterpillars inflict as pests of agricultural crops, especially fruit and nut trees. On the other hand, some Cydia species have been used for biological control of invasive weeds, and many of these small moths and their caterpillars are an important food source for other animals. A few species from the Hawaiian Islands are suspected to be extinct due to disappearance of their food plants.
Another well-known species is the jumping bean moth (C. deshaisiana), whose caterpillars live in Sebastiania seeds, turning them into the famous "Mexican jumping beans".Cydia kurokoi
Cydia kurokoi, the nut fruit tortrix, is a moth of the family Tortricidae. It is found in Japan, the Korean Peninsula and eastern China.
The wingspan is about 20 mm. Adults are on wing in August and September. There is one generation per year.
The larvae feed on Castanea seguinii, Castanea mollitissima, Castanea crenata and Quercus acutissima. The larvae feed inside the fruits of chestnut trees and damage them.M
M (named em ) is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.Outline of sustainable agriculture
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to sustainable agriculture:
Sustainable agriculture – applied science that integrates three main goals, environmental health, economic profitability, and social and economic equity. These goals have been defined by a variety of philosophies, policies and practices, from the vision of farmers and consumers. Perspectives and approaches are very diverse, the following topics intend to help understanding what sustainable agriculture is.Pome
In botany, a pome (derived from Latin pōmum, meaning "fruit") is a type of fruit produced by flowering plants in the subtribe Malinae of the family Rosaceae.Victory garden
Victory gardens, also called war gardens or food gardens for defense, were vegetable, fruit, and herb gardens planted at private residences and public parks in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and Germany during World War I and World War II. George Washington Carver wrote an agricultural tract and promoted the idea of what he called a "Victory Garden". They were used along with Rationing Stamps and Cards to reduce pressure on the public food supply. Besides indirectly aiding the war effort, these gardens were also considered a civil "morale booster" in that gardeners could feel empowered by their contribution of labor and rewarded by the produce grown. This made victory gardens a part of daily life on the home front.
Types of fruits
|Types of fruits|
|Categories of fruits|
|True, or botanical nuts|
|Edible plants / roots|
|Sap / Gum / etc.|