Nuclear power plant

A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor. As it is typical of thermal power stations, heat is used to generate steam that drives a steam turbine connected to a generator that produces electricity. As of 23 April 2014, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports there are 450 nuclear power reactors in operation[1] in 31 countries.[2]

Nuclear plants are usually considered to be base load stations since fuel is a small part of the cost of production[3] and because they cannot be easily or quickly dispatched. Their operations and maintenance (O&M) and fuel costs are, along with hydropower stations, at the low end of the spectrum and make them suitable as base-load power suppliers. The cost of spent fuel management, however, is somewhat uncertain.

Kernkraftwerk Grafenrheinfeld - 2013
A nuclear power station (Grafenrheinfeld Nuclear Power Plant, Grafenrheinfeld, Bavaria, Germany). The nuclear reactor is contained inside the spherical containment building in the center – left and right are cooling towers which are common cooling devices used in all thermal power stations, and likewise, emit water vapor from the non-radioactive steam turbine section of the power plant.

History

Chp controlroom
The control room at an American nuclear power station

Electricity was generated by a nuclear reactor for the first time ever on September 3, 1948 at the X-10 Graphite Reactor in Oak Ridge, Tennessee in the United States, which was the first nuclear power station to power a light bulb.[4][5][6] The second, larger experiment occurred on December 20, 1951 at the EBR-I experimental station near Arco, Idaho in the United States.

On June 27, 1954, the world's first nuclear power station to generate electricity for a power grid, the Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant, started operations in Obninsk, in the Soviet Union.[7] The world's first full scale power station, Calder Hall in England, opened on October 17, 1956.[8] The world's first full scale power station solely devoted to electricity production (Calder Hall was also meant to produce plutonium), the Shippingport Atomic Power Station in the United States, was connected to the grid on December 18, 1957.

Components

The key components common to current nuclear power plants are:

Systems

Boiling water reactor english
BWR schematic
PressurizedWaterReactor
Pressurized water reactor
HPR1000, reactor coolant system
Primary coolant system showing reactor pressure vessel (red), steam generators (purple), pressurizer (blue), and pumps (green) in the three coolant loop Hualong One pressurized water reactor design

The conversion to electrical energy takes place indirectly, as in conventional thermal power stations. The fission in a nuclear reactor heats the reactor coolant. The coolant may be water or gas, or even liquid metal, depending on the type of reactor. The reactor coolant then goes to a steam generator and heats water to produce steam. The pressurized steam is then usually fed to a multi-stage steam turbine. After the steam turbine has expanded and partially condensed the steam, the remaining vapor is condensed in a condenser. The condenser is a heat exchanger which is connected to a secondary side such as a river or a cooling tower. The water is then pumped back into the steam generator and the cycle begins again. The water-steam cycle corresponds to the Rankine cycle.

Nuclear reactor

The nuclear reactor is the heart of the station. In its central part, the reactor's core produces heat due to nuclear fission. With this heat, a coolant is heated as it is pumped through the reactor and thereby removes the energy from the reactor. Heat from nuclear fission is used to raise steam, which runs through turbines, which in turn powers the electrical generators.

Nuclear reactors usually rely on uranium to fuel the chain reaction. Uranium is a very heavy metal that is abundant on Earth and is found in sea water as well as most rocks. Naturally occurring uranium is found in two different isotopes: uranium-238 (U-238), accounting for 99.3% and uranium-235 (U-235) accounting for about 0.7%. Isotopes are atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons. Thus, U-238 has 146 neutrons and U-235 has 143 neutrons. Different isotopes have different behaviors. For instance, U-235 is fissile which means that it is easily split and gives off a lot of energy making it ideal for nuclear energy. On the other hand, U-238 does not have that property despite it being the same element. Different isotopes also have different half-lives. A half-life is the amount of time it takes for half of a sample of a radioactive element to decay. U-238 has a longer half-life than U-235, so it takes longer to decay over time. This also means that U-238 is less radioactive than U-235.

Since nuclear fission creates radioactivity, the reactor core is surrounded by a protective shield. This containment absorbs radiation and prevents radioactive material from being released into the environment. In addition, many reactors are equipped with a dome of concrete to protect the reactor against both internal casualties and external impacts.[9]

Steam turbine

The purpose of the steam turbine is to convert the heat contained in steam into mechanical energy. The engine house with the steam turbine is usually structurally separated from the main reactor building. It is so aligned to prevent debris from the destruction of a turbine in operation from flying towards the reactor.

In the case of a pressurized water reactor, the steam turbine is separated from the nuclear system. To detect a leak in the steam generator and thus the passage of radioactive water at an early stage, an activity meter is mounted to track the outlet steam of the steam generator. In contrast, boiling water reactors pass radioactive water through the steam turbine, so the turbine is kept as part of the radiologically controlled area of the nuclear power station.

Generator

The generator converts mechanical power supplied by the turbine into electrical power. Low-pole AC synchronous generators of high rated power are used.

Cooling system

A cooling system removes heat from the reactor core and transports it to another area of the station, where the thermal energy can be harnessed to produce electricity or to do other useful work. Typically the hot coolant is used as a heat source for a boiler, and the pressurized steam from that drives one or more steam turbine driven electrical generators.[10]

Safety valves

In the event of an emergency, safety valves can be used to prevent pipes from bursting or the reactor from exploding. The valves are designed so that they can derive all of the supplied flow rates with little increase in pressure. In the case of the BWR, the steam is directed into the suppression chamber and condenses there. The chambers on a heat exchanger are connected to the intermediate cooling circuit.

Main condenser

The main condenser is a large cross-flow shell and tube heat exchanger that takes wet vapor, a mixture of liquid water and steam at saturation conditions, from the turbine-generator exhaust and condenses it back into sub-cooled liquid water so it can be pumped back to the reactor by the condensate and feedwater pumps.[11] In the main condenser the wet vapor turbine exhaust come into contact with thousands of tubes that have much colder water flowing through them on the other side. The cooling water typically come from a natural body of water such as a river or lake. Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, located in the desert about 60 miles west of Phoenix, Arizona, is the only nuclear facility that does not use a natural body of water for cooling, instead it uses treated sewage from the greater Phoenix metropolitan area. The water coming from the cooling body of water is either pumped back to the water source at a warmer temperature or returns to a cooling tower where it either cools for more uses or evaporates into water vapor that rises out the top of the tower. [12]

Feedwater pump

The water level in the steam generator and the nuclear reactor is controlled using the feedwater system. The feedwater pump has the task of taking the water from the condensate system, increasing the pressure and forcing it into either the steam generators (in the case of a pressurized water reactor) or directly into the reactor (for boiling water reactors).

Emergency power supply

Continuous power supply to the reactor is critical to ensure safe operation. Most nuclear stations require at least two distinct sources of offsite power for redundancy. These are usually provided by multiple transformers that are sufficiently separated and can receive power from multiple transmission lines. In addition, in some nuclear stations, the turbine generator can power the station's loads while the station is online, without requiring external power. This is achieved via station service transformers which tap power from the generator output before they reach the step-up transformer. This is in addition to station service transformers that receive offsite power directly from the switch yard. Even with the redundancy of two power sources, total loss of offsite power is still possible. For this reason, nuclear power stations are also equipped with emergency generators.

Workers in a nuclear power station

In the United States and Canada, workers except for management, professional (such as engineers) and security personnel are likely to be members of either the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) or the Utility Workers Union of America (UWUA), or one of the various trades and labor unions representing Machinist, laborers, boilermakers, millwrights, ironworkers etc.

Economics

Kerncentrale Doel in werking
Some nuclear reactors in operation release clouds of non-radioactive water vapor to get rid of waste heat. Pictured: Doel Nuclear Power Station

The economics of new nuclear power stations is a controversial subject, and multibillion-dollar investments ride on the choice of an energy source. Nuclear power stations typically have high capital costs, but low direct fuel costs, with the costs of fuel extraction, processing, use and spent fuel storage internalized costs. Therefore, comparison with other power generation methods is strongly dependent on assumptions about construction timescales and capital financing for nuclear stations. Cost estimates take into account station decommissioning and nuclear waste storage or recycling costs in the United States due to the Price Anderson Act. With the prospect that all spent nuclear fuel/"nuclear waste" could potentially be recycled by using future reactors, generation IV reactors are being designed to completely close the nuclear fuel cycle. However, up to now, there has not been any actual bulk recycling of waste from a NPP, and on-site temporary storage is still being used at almost all plant sites due to construction problems for deep geological repositories. Only Finland has stable repository plans, therefore from a worldwide perspective, long-term waste storage costs are uncertain. On the other hand, construction, or capital cost aside, measures to mitigate global warming such as a carbon tax or carbon emissions trading, increasingly favor the economics of nuclear power. Further efficiencies are hoped to be achieved through more advanced reactor designs, Generation III reactors promise to be at least 17% more fuel efficient, and have lower capital costs, while futuristic Generation IV reactors promise 10000-30000% greater fuel efficiency and the elimination of nuclear waste.

In Eastern Europe, a number of long-established projects are struggling to find finance, notably Belene in Bulgaria and the additional reactors at Cernavoda in Romania, and some potential backers have pulled out.[14] Where cheap gas is available and its future supply relatively secure, this also poses a major problem for nuclear projects.[14]

Analysis of the economics of nuclear power must take into account who bears the risks of future uncertainties. To date all operating nuclear power stations were developed by state-owned or regulated utilities[15] where many of the risks associated with construction costs, operating performance, fuel price, and other factors were borne by consumers rather than suppliers. Many countries have now liberalized the electricity market where these risks and the risk of cheaper competitors emerging before capital costs are recovered, are borne by station suppliers and operators rather than consumers, which leads to a significantly different evaluation of the economics of new nuclear power stations.[16]

Following the 2011 Fukushima I nuclear accidents, costs are likely to go up for currently operating and new nuclear power stations, due to increased requirements for on-site spent fuel management and elevated design basis threats.[17] However many designs, such as the currently under construction AP1000, use passive nuclear safety cooling systems, unlike those of Fukushima I which required active cooling systems, which largely eliminates the need to spend more on redundant back up safety equipment.

Safety and accidents

In his book, Normal accidents, Charles Perrow says that multiple and unexpected failures are built into society's complex and tightly-coupled nuclear reactor systems. Such accidents are unavoidable and cannot be designed around.[18] An interdisciplinary team from MIT has estimated that given the expected growth of nuclear power from 2005 – 2055, at least four serious nuclear accidents would be expected in that period.[19][20] However the MIT study does not take into account improvements in safety since 1970.[21][22] To date, there have been five serious accidents (core damage) in the world since 1970 (one at Three Mile Island in 1979; one at Chernobyl in 1986; and three at Fukushima-Daiichi in 2011), corresponding to the beginning of the operation of generation II reactors. This leads to on average one serious accident happening every eight years worldwide.

Modern nuclear reactor designs have had numerous safety improvements since the first-generation nuclear reactors. A nuclear power plant cannot explode like a nuclear weapon because the fuel for uranium reactors is not enriched enough, and nuclear weapons require precision explosives to force fuel into a small enough volume to go supercritical. Most reactors require continuous temperature control to prevent a core meltdown, which has occurred on a few occasions through accident or natural disaster, releasing radiation and making the surrounding area uninhabitable. Plants must be defended against theft of nuclear material (for example to make a dirty bomb) and attack by enemy military (which has occurred)[23] planes or missiles, or planes hijacked by terrorists.

Controversy

View of Chernobyl taken from Pripyat
The abandoned city of Prypiat, Ukraine, following the Chernobyl disaster. The Chernobyl nuclear power station is in the background.

The nuclear power debate is about the controversy[24][25][26][27] which has surrounded the deployment and use of nuclear fission reactors to generate electricity from nuclear fuel for civilian purposes. The debate about nuclear power peaked during the 1970s and 1980s, when it "reached an intensity unprecedented in the history of technology controversies", in some countries.[28][29]

Proponents argue that nuclear power is a sustainable energy source which reduces carbon emissions and can increase energy security if its use supplants a dependence on imported fuels.[30] Proponents advance the notion that nuclear power produces virtually no air pollution, in contrast to the chief viable alternative of fossil fuel. Proponents also believe that nuclear power is the only viable course to achieve energy independence for most Western countries. They emphasize that the risks of storing waste are small and can be further reduced by using the latest technology in newer reactors, and the operational safety record in the Western world is excellent when compared to the other major kinds of power plants.[31]

Opponents say that nuclear power poses many threats to people and the environment, and that costs do not justify benefits. Threats include health risks and environmental damage from uranium mining, processing and transport, the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation or sabotage, and the unsolved problem of radioactive nuclear waste.[32][33][34] Another environmental issue is discharge of hot water into the sea. The hot water modifies the environmental conditions for marine flora and fauna. They also contend that reactors themselves are enormously complex machines where many things can and do go wrong, and there have been many serious nuclear accidents.[35][36] Critics do not believe that these risks can be reduced through new technology.[37] They argue that when all the energy-intensive stages of the nuclear fuel chain are considered, from uranium mining to nuclear decommissioning, nuclear power is not a low-carbon electricity source.[38][39][40] Those countries that do not contain uranium mines cannot achieve energy independence through existing nuclear power technologies. Actual construction costs often exceed estimates, and spent fuel management costs do not have a clear time limit.

Reprocessing

Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuel.[41] Reprocessing serves multiple purposes, whose relative importance has changed over time. Originally reprocessing was used solely to extract plutonium for producing nuclear weapons. With the commercialization of nuclear power, the reprocessed plutonium was recycled back into MOX nuclear fuel for thermal reactors.[42] The reprocessed uranium, which constitutes the bulk of the spent fuel material, can in principle also be re-used as fuel, but that is only economic when uranium prices are high or disposal is expensive. Finally, the breeder reactor can employ not only the recycled plutonium and uranium in spent fuel, but all the actinides, closing the nuclear fuel cycle and potentially multiplying the energy extracted from natural uranium by more than 60 times.[43]

Nuclear reprocessing reduces the volume of high-level waste, but by itself does not reduce radioactivity or heat generation and therefore does not eliminate the need for a geological waste repository. Reprocessing has been politically controversial because of the potential to contribute to nuclear proliferation, the potential vulnerability to nuclear terrorism, the political challenges of repository siting (a problem that applies equally to direct disposal of spent fuel), and because of its high cost compared to the once-through fuel cycle.[44] In the United States, the Obama administration stepped back from President Bush's plans for commercial-scale reprocessing and reverted to a program focused on reprocessing-related scientific research.[45]

Accident indemnification

The Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage puts in place an international framework for nuclear liability.[46] However states with a majority of the world's nuclear power stations, including the U.S., Russia, China and Japan, are not party to international nuclear liability conventions.

In the U.S., insurance for nuclear or radiological incidents is covered (for facilities licensed through 2025) by the Price-Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act.

Under the Energy policy of the United Kingdom through its Nuclear Installations Act 1965, liability is governed for nuclear damage for which a UK nuclear licensee is responsible. The Act requires compensation to be paid for damage up to a limit of £150 million by the liable operator for ten years after the incident. Between ten and thirty years afterwards, the Government meets this obligation. The Government is also liable for additional limited cross-border liability (about £300 million) under international conventions (Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and Brussels Convention supplementary to the Paris Convention).[47]

Decommissioning

Nuclear decommissioning is the dismantling of a nuclear power station and decontamination of the site to a state no longer requiring protection from radiation for the general public. The main difference from the dismantling of other power stations is the presence of radioactive material that requires special precautions to remove and safely relocate to a waste repository.

Generally speaking, nuclear stations were originally designed for a life of about 30 years.[48][49] Newer stations are designed for a 40 to 60-year operating life.[50] The Centurion Reactor is a future class of nuclear reactor that is being designed to last 100 years.[51] One of the major limiting wear factors is the deterioration of the reactor's pressure vessel under the action of neutron bombardment,[49] however in 2018 Rosatom announced it had developed a thermal annealing technique for reactor pressure vessels which ameliorates radiation damage and extends service life by between 15 and 30 years.[52]

Decommissioning involves many administrative and technical actions. It includes all clean-up of radioactivity and progressive demolition of the station. Once a facility is decommissioned, there should no longer be any danger of a radioactive accident or to any persons visiting it. After a facility has been completely decommissioned it is released from regulatory control, and the licensee of the station no longer has responsibility for its nuclear safety.

Historic accidents

Fukushima I by Digital Globe crop
The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan, the worst nuclear accident in 25 years, displaced 50,000 households after radiation leaked into the air, soil and sea.[53] Radiation checks led to bans of some shipments of vegetables and fish.[54]

The Chernobyl disaster occurred in April 1986, it is considered the worst nuclear accident in history. An experiment was being carried out on one of the reactors in the plant. The purpose of the experiment was to find out the reactor's safety in the event of the failure of the main electricity supply to the plant. Right after the experiment began there was a steam explosion which exposed the reactor's graphite moderator to air, which caused it to ignite. The resulting fire sent highly radioactive plumes of smoke into the atmosphere for about ten days. The radioactive plume spread over large areas of Europe. Approximately 350,000 people were evacuated from the 3200 kilometers squared exclusion zone. The accident caused 31 direct deaths from the explosion and radiation poisoning, and several more deaths in the population exposed to high radiation doses.[55]

The nuclear industry says that new technology and oversight have made nuclear station much safer, but 57 small accidents have occurred since the Chernobyl disaster in 1986 until 2008. Two thirds of these mishaps occurred in the US.[19] The French Atomic Energy Agency (CEA) has concluded that technical innovation cannot eliminate the risk of human errors in nuclear station operation.

According to Benjamin Sovacool, an interdisciplinary team from MIT in 2003 estimated that given the expected growth of nuclear power from 2005 – 2055, at least four serious nuclear accidents would be expected in that period.[19] However the MIT study does not take into account improvements in safety since 1970.[21][22]

Flexibility of nuclear power stations

Nuclear stations are used primarily for base load because of economic considerations. The fuel cost of operations for a nuclear station is smaller than the fuel cost for operation of coal or gas plants. Since most of the cost of nuclear power plant is capital cost, there is almost no cost saving by running it at less than full capacity.

Nuclear power plants are routinely used in load following mode on a large scale in France, although "it is generally accepted that this is not an ideal economic situation for nuclear stations."[56] Unit A at the German Biblis Nuclear Power Plant is designed to in- and decrease its output 15% per minute between 40 and 100% of its nominal power.[57] Boiling water reactors normally have load-following capability, implemented by varying the recirculation water flow.

Future power stations

A new generation of designs for nuclear power stations, known as the Generation IV reactors, are the subject of active research. Many of these new designs specifically attempt to make fission reactors cleaner, safer and/or less of a risk to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Passively safe stations (such as the ESBWR) are available to be built[58] and other reactors that are designed to be nearly fool-proof are being pursued.[59] Fusion reactors, which are still in the early stages of development, diminish or eliminate some of the risks associated with nuclear fission.[60]

Two 1600 MWe European Pressurized Reactors (EPRs) are being built in Europe, and two are being built in China. The reactors are a joint effort of French AREVA and German Siemens AG, and will be the largest reactors in the world. One EPR is in Olkiluoto, Finland, as part of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant. The reactor was originally scheduled to go online in 2009, but has been repeatedly delayed,[61][62] and as of September 2014 has been pushed back to 2018.[63] Preparatory work for the EPR at the Flamanville Nuclear Power Plant in Flamanville, Manche, France was started in 2006, with a scheduled completion date of 2012.[64] The French reactor has also been delayed, and was projected to launch in mid 2020.[65][66] The two Chinese EPRs are part of the Taishan Nuclear Power Plant in Taishan, Guangdong. The Taishan reactors were scheduled to go online in 2014 and 2015,[67] first criticality was achieved at Taishan Unit 1 in 2018.[68]

As of March 2007, there are seven nuclear power stations under construction in India, and five in China.[69]

In November 2011 Gulf Power stated that by the end of 2012 it hopes to finish buying off 4000 acres of land north of Pensacola, Florida in order to build a possible nuclear power station.[70]

In 2010 Russia launched a floating nuclear power station. The £100 million vessel, the Akademik Lomonosov, is the first of seven stations that will bring vital energy resources to remote Russian regions.[71]

By 2025, Southeast Asia nations plan to have a total of 29 nuclear power stations: Indonesia will have 4 nuclear power stations, Malaysia 4, Thailand 5 and Vietnam 16 from nothing at all in 2011.[72]

In 2013 China had 32[73] nuclear reactors under construction, the highest number in the world.

Expansion at two nuclear power stations in the United States, Vogtle and V. C. Summer Nuclear Power Station, located in Georgia and South Carolina, respectively, were scheduled to be completed between 2016 and 2019. The construction of the two South Carolina reactors have been abandoned due to cost overruns and the bankruptcy of Westinghouse Electric Company (who designed and was building the reactors) in March 2017[74]. The two new Vogtle reactors, and the two new reactors at Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station, represented the first nuclear power construction projects in the United States since the Three Mile Island nuclear accident in 1979. The UK government has given the go-ahead for the Hinkley Point C nuclear power station.[75]

Several countries have begun thorium-based nuclear power programs. Thorium is four times more abundant in the earth's crust than uranium. Over 60% of thorium's ore monazite is found in five countries: Australia, the United States, India, Brazil, and Norway. These thorium resources are enough to power current energy needs for thousands of years.[76] The thorium fuel cycle is able to generate nuclear energy with a lower output of radiotoxic waste than the uranium fuel cycle.[77]

See also

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External links

Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant

The Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant (Turkish: Akkuyu Nükleer Güç Santrali) is a nuclear power plant under development at Akkuyu, in Büyükeceli, Mersin Province, Turkey. It will be the country's first nuclear power plant.

Bailly Nuclear Power Plant

The Bailly Nuclear Power Plant was a nuclear power plant project to be located near the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Porter County, Indiana, United States. The project was proposed by the Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO) in 1967; however, it was cancelled in 1981.It was to have capacity one 644 MW boiling water reactor and it was expected to cost $1.8 billion. Construction started on January 1, 1974.Construction was opposed by the "Concerned Citizens Against the Bailly Nuclear Site", an interest group established in 1972. It opposed the project legally and also through the procedures of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and other relevant government agencies. The group broke up in 1982 after cancellation of the project.

Black Fox Nuclear Power Plant

The Black Fox Nuclear Power Plant was a nuclear power plant proposed by the Public Service Company of Oklahoma (PSO) in May 1973. It was cancelled in 1982.

Bodega Bay Nuclear Power Plant

The Bodega Bay Nuclear Power Plant was a proposed Northern California nuclear power facility that was stopped by local activism in the 1960s and never built. The foundations, located 2 miles (3.2 km) west of the active San Andreas Fault, were being dug at the time the plant was cancelled. The action has been termed "the birth of the anti-nuclear movement."

Brennilis Nuclear Power Plant

The Brennilis Nuclear Power Plant (EL-4) is a decommissioned site located in the Monts d'Arrée in the commune of Brennilis in Finistère, France.

Callaway Nuclear Generating Station

The Callaway Plant is a nuclear power plant located on a 2,767 acres (1,120 ha) site in Callaway County, Missouri, near Fulton, Missouri. It began operating on December 19, 1984. The plant, which is the state's only commercial nuclear unit, has one 1,190-megawatt Westinghouse four-loop pressurized water reactor and a General Electric turbine-generator. It is owned by the Ameren Corporation and operated by subsidiary Ameren Missouri.

Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant or Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station (Ukrainian: Чорнобильська атомна електростанція, Chornobyls'ka Atomna Elektrostantsiya, Russian: Чернобыльская АЭС, Chernobyl'skaya AES) is a decommissioned nuclear power station near the city of Pripyat, Ukraine, 14.5 km (9.0 mi) northwest of the city of Chernobyl, 16 km (9.9 mi) from the Belarus–Ukraine border, and about 110 km (68 mi) north of Kiev. Reactor Number 4 was the site of the Chernobyl disaster in 1986 and the power plant is now within a large restricted area known as the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Both the zone and the former power plant are administered by the State Agency of Ukraine of the Exclusion Zone (Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources). All four reactors have been shut down.

The nuclear power plant site clean-up is scheduled for completion in 2065. On January 3, 2010, a Ukrainian law stipulating a programme toward this objective came into effect.

Fugen Nuclear Power Plant

Fugen ふげん (Fugen) was a prototype Japanese nuclear test reactor.

Fugen was a domestic Japanese design for a demonstration Advanced Thermal Reactor. It was a heavy water moderated, boiling light water cooled reactor.

The reactor was started in 1979 and shut down in 2003. As of 2018, it is undergoing decommissioning.

It is located in Myōjin-chō, in the city of Tsuruga, Fukui.

The name "Fugen" is derived from Fugen Bosatsu (Samantabhadra), a Buddhist deity.

The reactor was the first in the world to use a full MOX fuel core.

It had 772 assemblies, the most in the world. It has received the title of a historic landmark from the American Nuclear Society.

The design boils ordinary water like a boiling water reactor (BWR) but uses heavy water as a moderator as in a CANDU reactor.

The electrical output was 165 MW and the thermal output was 557 MW.

Core temperature: 300 °C

Pellet centerline temperature: 2200 °C

Fuel conversion time: 6 monthsThe plant is located on a site that covers 267,694 m2 (66 acres); buildings occupy 7,762 m2 (1.9 acres), and it has 46,488 m2 of floor space. It employed 256 workers.

Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (福島第一原子力発電所, Fukushima Daiichi Genshiryoku Hatsudensho) is a disabled nuclear power plant located on a 3.5-square-kilometre (860-acre) site in the towns of Ōkuma and Futaba in the Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. The plant suffered major damage from the magnitude 9.0 earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan on March 11, 2011. The chain of events caused radiation leaks and permanently damaged several reactors, making them impossible to restart. By political decision, the remaining reactors were not restarted.

First commissioned in 1971, the plant consists of six boiling water reactors. These light water reactors drove electrical generators with a combined power of 4.7 GWe, making Fukushima Daiichi one of the 15 largest nuclear power stations in the world. Fukushima was the first nuclear plant to be designed, constructed and run in conjunction with General Electric and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO).The March 2011 disaster disabled the reactor cooling systems, leading to releases of radioactivity and triggering a 30 km evacuation zone surrounding the plant; the releases continue to this day. On April 20, 2011, the Japanese authorities declared the 20 km evacuation zone a no-go area which may only be entered under government supervision.

In April 2012, Units 1-4 were decommissioned. Units 2-4 were decommissioned on April 19, while Unit 1 was the last of these four units to be decommissioned on April 20 at midnight. In December 2013 TEPCO decided none of the undamaged units will reopen.

The sister nuclear plant Fukushima Daini ("number two"), 12 km (7.5 mi) to the south, is also run by TEPCO. It also suffered serious damages during the tsunami, especially at the seawater intakes of all four units, but could be shut down and brought to a safe state through extraordinary actions by the plant crew.

Haven Nuclear Power Plant

The Haven Nuclear Power Plant was a proposed nuclear power plant in Haven, Wisconsin north of Sheboygan at the site of closed military camp called Camp Haven. The power plant was proposed in the 1970s by Wisconsin Electric, but was never built. Two 900 MWe Westinghouse pressurized water reactor were proposed in 1973. Reactor one was canceled in 1978 and reactor two was canceled in 1980. After plans never materialized, the Kohler Company purchased the site. Construction of the Whistling Straits golf course began in 1995.

Krško Nuclear Power Plant

The Krško Nuclear Power Plant (Slovene: Jedrska elektrarna Krško, JEK, or Nuklearna elektrarna Krško, NEK, Croatian: Nuklearna elektrana Krško) is located in Vrbina in the Municipality of Krško, Slovenia. The plant was connected to the power grid on October 2, 1981 and went into commercial operation on January 15, 1983. It was built as a joint venture by Slovenia and Croatia which were at the time both part of Yugoslavia.

The plant is a 2-loop Westinghouse pressurized water reactor, with a rated thermal capacity of 1,994 thermal megawatts (MWt) and 696 megawatts-electric (MWe). It runs on enriched uranium (up to 5 weight-percent 235U), fuel mass 48.7 t, with 121 fuel elements, demineralized water as the moderator, and 36 bundles of 20 control rods each made of silver, indium and cadmium alloys to regulate power. Its sister power plant is Angra I in Brazil.The operating company Nuklearna elektrarna Krško (NEK) is co-owned by the Slovenian state-owned company Gen-Energija and the Croatian state-owned company Hrvatska elektroprivreda (HEP). The power plant provides more than one-quarter of Slovenia's and 15 percent of Croatia's power.

List of nuclear power stations

The following page lists all nuclear power stations that are larger than 1,000 MW in current net capacity. Those power stations that are smaller than 1,000 MW, and those that are only at a planning or proposal stage, may be found in regional lists at the end of the page or in the list of nuclear reactors. The list is based on figures from PRIS (Power Reactor Information System) maintained by International Atomic Energy Agency.

Marble Hill Nuclear Power Plant

Marble Hill Nuclear Power Station was an unfinished nuclear power plant in Saluda Township, Jefferson County, near Hanover, Indiana, USA. In 1984, the Public Service Company of Indiana announced it was abandoning the half-finished nuclear power plant, on which $2.5 billion had already been spent.

Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant

Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant (Russian: Обнинская АЭС, Obninskaja AES [pronunciation ]) was built in the "Science City" of Obninsk, Kaluga Oblast, about 110 km southwest of Moscow. It was the first grid-connected nuclear power plant in the world, i.e. the first nuclear reactor that produced electricity industrially, albeit at small scale. It was located at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering. The plant is also known as APS-1 Obninsk (Atomic Power Station 1 Obninsk). It remained in operation between 1954 and 2002, although its production of electricity for the grid ceased in 1959; thereafter it functioned as a research and isotope production plant only.According to Lev Kotchetkov, who was there at the time: "Although utilisation of generated heat was going on, and production of isotopes was even enhanced, the main task was to carry out experimental studies on 17 test loops installed in the reactor." The technology perfected in the Obninsk pilot plant was later employed on a much larger scale in the RBMK reactors.

R. E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant

The Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, commonly known as Ginna ( ghih-NAY), is a nuclear power plant located on the southern shore of Lake Ontario, in the town of Ontario, Wayne County, New York, approximately 20 miles (32 km) east of Rochester, New York. It is a single unit Westinghouse 2-Loop pressurized water reactor, similar to those at Point Beach, Kewaunee, and Prairie Island. Having gone into commercial operation in 1970, Ginna became the oldest nuclear power reactor still in operation in the United States when the Oyster Creek power plant was permanently shutdown on September 17, 2018.

Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant

The Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, more commonly known as Seabrook Station, is a nuclear power plant located in Seabrook, New Hampshire, United States, approximately 40 miles (64 km) north of Boston and 10 miles (16 km) south of Portsmouth. Two units (reactors) were planned, but the second unit was never completed due to construction delays, cost overruns and troubles obtaining financing. The construction permit for the plant was granted in 1976, and construction on Unit 1 was completed in 1986. Full power operation of Unit 1 began in 1990. Unit 2 has been canceled and most of its major components sold to other plants. With its 1,244-megawatt electrical output, Seabrook Unit 1 is the largest individual electrical generating unit on the New England power grid. It is the second largest nuclear plant in New England after the two-unit Millstone Nuclear Power Plant in Connecticut.

Sears Isle Nuclear Power Plant

Sears Isle Nuclear Power Plant was a nuclear power plant proposed by Central Maine Power in 1974 as a single 1,150 MW nuclear reactor built by Westinghouse. It was to be built on Sears Island in Maine, but the project was canceled in 1977.

Trojan Nuclear Power Plant

Trojan Nuclear Power Plant was a pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant in the northwest United States, located southeast of Rainier, Oregon, and the only commercial nuclear power plant to be built in Oregon. There was public opposition to the plant from the design stage. The three main opposition groups were the Trojan Decommissioning Alliance, Forelaws on the Board, and Mothers for Peace. There were largely non-violent protests from 1977, and subsequent arrests of participants.

After only 16 years of service, the plant was closed in 1992 by its operator, Portland General Electric (PGE), after cracks were discovered in the steam-generator tubing. Decommissioning and demolition of the plant began the following year and was completed in 2006.While operating, Trojan represented more than 12% of the electrical generation capacity of Oregon. The site lies about twelve miles (20 km) north of St. Helens, on the west (south) bank of the Columbia River.

Ågesta Nuclear Plant

The nuclear power station Ågesta (ASEA) was the first Swedish commercial nuclear power plant. Construction started in 1957 and ended in 1962, operations began in 1964 and continued until 1974. The station primarily provided district heating (68 MW) for the Stockholm suburb Farsta, as well as a small amount of electricity, 12 MW. It is widely assumed that the underground reactors had military purposes, being able to produce plutonium.The companies Stockholms Elverk and Statens Vattenfallsverk were responsible for the building of the Ågesta plant. Before it was finished, another larger reactor, the R4 nuclear reactor was built at Marviken. The R4 reactor was intended for both electricity and plutonium production but it was cancelled in 1970.

The Ågesta reactor, with 10 MW, was much smaller than the later Swedish reactor types. The reactor was part of a project called "the Swedish line" (Svenska Linjen), an international initiative to use natural uranium (not enriched) for fuel in commercial power plants. The shutdown of the plant was mostly a result of low oil prices and poor economics.

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