The Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) is a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization founded in 2001 by former U.S. Senator Sam Nunn and philanthropist Ted Turner in the United States, which works to prevent catastrophic attacks and accidents with weapons of mass destruction and disruption – nuclear, biological, radiological, chemical, and cyber.
UN Security Council Resolution 1887 supported the WINS mission, calling for states to “share best practices with a view to improved safety standards and nuclear security practices and raise standards of nuclear security to reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism.”
NTI has been engaged in developing, shaping, and implementing nuclear security projects. In addition to building global awareness, NTI engages in model programs to inspire private and governmental efforts toward nuclear, biological, and chemical threat reduction.
The Nuclear Threat Initiative serves as the Secretariat for the "Nuclear Security Project", in cooperation with the Hoover Institution. Former Secretary of State George P. Shultz, former Secretary of Defense William J. Perry, former Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger and former Senator Sam Nunn guide the project—an effort to galvanize global action to reduce urgent nuclear dangers and build support for reducing reliance on nuclear weapons, ultimately ending them as a threat to the world.
In 2002, NTI provided the additional $5 million of private money needed (combined with $3 million from the US government) to safely move 48 kg of highly enriched uranium (enough for two nuclear weapons) from the defunct Vinča nuclear reactor near Belgrade to a facility in the Russian Federation to be blended down for use as a conventional nuclear fuel.
In 2008, NTI helped create the World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS), in Vienna, as part of its focus to secure nuclear materials worldwide. Today, the organization has more than 3,800 members from 118 countries. The Economist wrote, “WINS is a place where, for the first time, those with the practical responsibility for looking after nuclear materials—governments, power plant operators, laboratories, universities—can meet to swap ideas and develop best practices.”
In early 2018, NTI received a $6 million grant from the Open Philanthropy Project. The grant will be used to "help strengthen its efforts to mitigate global biological threats that have increased as the world has become more interconnected." In January 2018 NTI announced that it had received $250,000 in support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. That money will help advance NTI's efforts in developing a "Global Health Security Index". The index would analyze a country's biological programs and policies.
The organization produced the 2005 film, Last Best Chance, which aired on HBO, and the 2010 documentary film Nuclear Tipping Point: which President Obama screened at the White House in April 2010.
NTI catalyzed the development of an international low-enriched uranium bank to back up the marketplace and prevent the proliferation of nuclear technology by ensuring that countries will have access to the fuel needed for peaceful purposes. NTI advisor Warren Buffett provided $50 million to jump-start the reserve, which will be owned and managed by the International Atomic Energy Agency and located in Kazakhstan.
NTI produces a biennial "Nuclear Security Index" in partnership with the Economist Intelligence Unit. The "NTI Index" benchmarks nuclear security conditions across 176 countries and holds governments accountable for properly securing dangerous nuclear materials. According to NTI, The NTI Index, now in its 3rd edition, is the premiere resource for political leaders, government officials, experts, academics, and the news media worldwide on nuclear materials security.
NTI has developed and released recommendations on securing and eliminating radiological sources used and stored at thousands of sites across more than 100 countries. These sources can be used by terrorists to build radiological “dirty bombs” that would incite mass panic, deny access, require extensive and expensive decontamination and have serious economic consequences. Many of these sources, which are used in industry and health-care settings, have minimal or no physical protection—and technological advances have made it possible to replace many of these sources with safer, effective alternatives.
NTI has received international recognition for work to improve biosecurity, primarily through creating disease surveillance networks. Whether a biological threat is natural or intentional, disease surveillance is a key step in rapid detection and response. Because the response of a health system in one country could have a direct and immediate impact on a neighboring country, or even continent, NTI developed projects that foster cooperation among public health officials across political and geographic boundaries. In 2003, NTI created the Middle East Consortium for Infectious Disease Surveillance (MECIDS) with participation from Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority. Despite tensions in the region, MECIDS continues to share official health data and conduct infectious disease prevention training. NTI also created and nurtured Connecting Organizations for Disease Surveillance (CORDS), which in 2013 launched as independent NGO that links international disease surveillance networks, supported by the World Health Organization, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Ernest J. Moniz has served as chief executive officer since June, 2017, and Joan Rohlfing serves as president. Co-chaired by Moniz, Nunn and Ted Turner, NTI is governed by an expert and influential Board of Directors with both current and emeritus members from the United States, Japan, India, Pakistan, China, Jordan, Sweden, France and the United Kingdom. They include:
Advisors to the Board of Directors include leading figures in science, business and international security. Advisors to the Board include:
NTI's staff includes experts in international affairs, nonproliferation, security and military issues, public health, medicine and communications, who have operational experience in their areas of specialty.
Atlantic Storm was a ministerial exercise simulating the top-level response to a bioterror incident. The simulation operated on January 14, 2005 in Washington, D.C. It was created in part to reveal the current international state of preparedness and possible political and public health issues that might evolve from such a crisis.The project was sponsored by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the German Marshall Fund of the United States, and the Nuclear Threat Initiative. Organization efforts were provided by the Center for Biosecurity of UPMC, the Center for Transatlantic Relations of Johns Hopkins University, and the Transatlantic Biosecurity Network.Charles B. Curtis
Charles B. Curtis (born April 27, 1940) is an American lawyer, currently Senior Advisor (nonresident) to the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Vice Chair of the United States Department of State's International Security Advisory Board, 2011 through 2017, former Member of the National Academies Intelligence Science and Technology Experts Group, and President Emeritus of the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), a non-profit organization working to reduce the threats from nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. As well as working in private practice for more than sixteen years Curtis served as the last Chairman of the Federal Power Commission and the first Chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission from 1977 to 1981. In 1994 he was appointed and confirmed as Under Secretary and then Deputy Secretary of the US Department of Energy. He has held positions on the staff of the U.S. House of Representatives, the U.S. Treasury Department, and the Securities and Exchange Commission.Conference on Disarmament
The Conference on Disarmament (CD) is a multilateral disarmament forum established by the international community to negotiate arms control and disarmament agreements based at the Palais des Nations in Geneva. The Conference meets annually in three separate sessions in Geneva.Defense industry of Iran
Iran's military industry manufactures various types of arms and military equipment. According to Iranian officials, the country sold $100 million worth of military equipment in 2003. and as of 2006 had exported weapons to 57 countries. Iran's military industry, under the command of Iran's Ministry of Defense, is composed of the following main components:
Security of Telecommunication and Information Technology (STI) is also part of the Iranian defense industry.Ernest Moniz
Ernest Jeffrey Moniz, GCIH (born December 22, 1944) is an American nuclear physicist and former United States Secretary of Energy, serving under U.S. President Barack Obama from May 2013 to January 2017. In June 2017, Moniz became co-chairman and chief executive officer of the Nuclear Threat Initiative, a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization working to prevent catastrophic attacks with weapons of mass destruction and disruption--nuclear, biological, radiological and cyber. He served as the Associate Director for Science in the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the Executive Office of the President of the United States from 1995 to 1997 and was Under Secretary of Energy from 1997 to 2001 during the Clinton Administration.
Moniz is one of the founding members of The Cyprus Institute and has served at Massachusetts Institute of Technology as the Cecil and Ida Green Professor of Physics and Engineering Systems, as the Director of the Energy Initiative, and as the Director of the Laboratory for Energy and the Environment.On March 4, 2013, Moniz was nominated by President Obama to replace outgoing Energy Secretary Steven Chu for his second term. His appointment was confirmed by the Senate in a unanimous vote on May 16, 2013.European Leadership Network
European Leadership Network (ELN) is a pan-European think-tank focusing on European foreign, defence and security issues based in London, United Kingdom. The ELN's Director is Sir Adam Thomson, former UK Permanent Representative to NATO.Fajr-3
The Fajr-3 (rarely Fadjr-3) (Persian: فجر-۳) is an Iranian heavy 240 mm intermediate-range multiple-launch artillery rocket (MLRS). The Fajr-3 is a license-built copy, with slight modifications, of a North Korean MLRS called the M-1985. The Fajr-3 was introduced in the 1990s and has since been exported to Hamas and Hezbollah.
The Fajr-3 launcher fires twelve 5.2 meter long, 240 millimeter-calibre Fajr-3 artillery rockets, with a range of 43 kilometres, weighing 407 kilograms each and carrying 90-kilogram fragmentation warheads with 45 kg of high explosive (HE). Fajr means 'dawn' in Arabic.International Conference on Nuclear Disarmament, Oslo, 2008
The International Conference on Nuclear Disarmament took place in Oslo on 26 and 27 February 2008. It was organized by The Government of Norway, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority in collaboration with the NTI (Nuclear Threat Initiative) and the Hoover Institute. The Conference, entitled "Achieving the Vision of a World Free of Nuclear Weapons", had the purpose of building consensus between nuclear
weapon states and non-nuclear weapon states and about the importance of all the actions in the NPT.
The specific aims were twofold:
To identify and formulate disarmament, non-proliferation and nuclear risk reduction proposals that can realistically be implemented in the mid-term (2–5 years)
To discuss long-term objectives and how progress can be made toward achieving them.The conference focused on the discussion over several issues, some of them were: what nuclear-weapon states and non-nuclear-weapon states can do to reduce the role of nuclear weapons in national security policies, how regional conflicts impact efforts to reduce nuclear dangers, the role of treaties and ways of reconciling nuclear energy expansion with nonproliferation efforts.International Luxembourg Forum on Preventing Nuclear Catastrophe
The International Luxembourg Forum on Preventing Nuclear Catastrophe (also The Luxembourg Forum) — is an international non-governmental organisation uniting leading world-renowned experts on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, materials and delivery vehicles.
The Forum was established pursuant to a decision passed by the International Conference on Preventing Nuclear Catastrophe held in Luxembourg on May 24–25, 2007. The Conference discussed new challenges and threats to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the underlying nuclear non-proliferation regime, the threat of nuclear terrorism, developments in controlling nuclear technologies, enhancement of IAEA safeguards and the current situation in problematic states and regions (the Middle East, East and South Asia).
To achieve a practical strengthening of the nuclear non-proliferation regime, the Conference participants prepared a final document and called it the Luxembourg Conference Declaration. The Declaration reflects the opinion of 57 independent experts on global security, arms control and disarmament from 14 countries, and included a roadmap to resolution of the complex nuclear situation.
The most important result of the conference was the establishment of a permanent Luxembourg Forum, which originally included the 43 parties to the Declaration. The results of the Conference and the official Declaration were presented on December 18, 2007 in Moscow.The Conference was one of the most relevant events dealing exclusively with nuclear non-proliferation issues. Attendees included:
Sergey Kirienko, Director General of Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation;
Nikolay Laverov, Vice President of the Russian Academy of Sciences;
Mohammed ElBaradei, former Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA);
William Perry, Stanford University Professor, former U.S. Secretary of Defense;
Hans Blix, WMDC Chairman, former IAEA Director General;
Yukiya Amano, IAEA Director General.The Forum’s President is Viatcheslav Moshe Kantor, an international activist and philanthropist who is also President of the European Jewish Congress and President of the European Council on Tolerance and Reconciliation. Dr. Kantor contributed significantly to preparing and holding the Luxembourg Conference and chaired its Organizing Committee.
The Forum is governed by an International Advisory Council (IAC) and a Supervisory Board (SBC).
The IAC brings together over 50 leading experts on the global security, sets Forum agendas and participates in preparing the Forum’s final documents for circulation to political leaders, diplomats and the heads of international and non-governmental organisations.
The Supervisory Board holds regular meetings to elaborate guidelines for action. The Supervisory Council includes:
Hans Blix, Ambassador, former Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Chairman of the Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission;
Igor Ivanov, President of the Russian International Affairs Council, former Foreign Minister and Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation, MGIMO University professor;
Henry Kissinger, Chairman of Kissinger Associates, former US Secretary of State, Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs;
Samuel Nunn, Co-Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer of the Nuclear Threat Initiative;
Des Browne, Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Nuclear Threat Initiative, Founder and a Current Member of the Top Level Group of Parliamentarians for Nuclear Disarmament and Non-Proliferation; Chairman of the Board of Trustees and Directors of the European Leadership Network, former UK Secretary of State for Defence;
William Perry, Professor of the Stanford University, former Secretary of the U.S. Department of Defense;
Roald Sagdeev, Distinguished University Professor, Department of Physics at the University of Maryland, Director Emeritus of the Russian Space Research Institute, Academician;
Jayantha Dhanapala, Distinguished Associate Fellow at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), former President of Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, UN Under-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs;
Vladimir Lukin, Deputy Chair of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Federation Council of Russia (Russian Senate), President of the Russian Paralympic Committee, Professor of the National Research University – Higher School of Economics, Member of the Supervisory Board of the International Luxembourg Forum (former Chairman of the Committee on International Relations and Deputy Chairman of the State Duma, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the United States of America, Commissioner on Human Rights for the Russian Federation);
Rolf Ekeus, Ambassador, former High Commissioner on National Minorities at the OSCE and Chairman of the Governing Board of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI);
Gareth Evans, Chancellor of the Australian National University (former Australian Senator and Member of Parliament, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Australia.Last Best Chance
Last Best Chance is an educational DVD that reveals the modern nuclear threat of international terrorist organizations, produced by the Nuclear Threat Initiative. The DVD is freely available through the NTI-supported website. The film stars Fred Thompson as President Charles Ross.
The name of the film is a reference to a quote by Abraham Lincoln.Nuclear Tipping Point
Nuclear Tipping Point is a 2010 documentary film produced by the Nuclear Threat Initiative. It features interviews with four American government officials who were in office during the Cold War period, but are now advocating for the elimination of nuclear weapons: Henry Kissinger, George Shultz, Sam Nunn, and William Perry. Michael Douglas narrated the film.These "Four Cold Warriors", who each contributed in important ways to the nuclear arms race, built on classical deterrence theory, now argue that we must eliminate all nuclear weapons or face disaster on an enormous scale. Former Secretary Kissinger puts the new danger this way: "The classical notion of deterrence was that there was some consequences before which aggressors and evildoers would recoil. In a world of suicide bombers, that calculation doesn’t operate in any comparable way". Shultz has said, "If you think of the people who are doing suicide attacks, and people like that get a nuclear weapon, they are almost by definition not deterrable".The film was screened at the White House on April 6, 2010.Nuclear program of Egypt
President Adly Mansour announced on 7 November 2013 that Egypt was restarting its nuclear power program in El Dabaa; a deal was reached with the residents in which it was agreed that a residential area will also be built. The Egyptian minister of electricity, Ahmed Emam, has called the project "necessary" because of a small amount of renewable energy sources and not enough fuel.Pierre Lellouche
Pierre Lellouche (born 3 May 1951) is a French politician and a member of The Republicans party. He was Secretary of State for Foreign Trade under the Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry, Christine Lagarde. He was also the President of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly from November 2004 to 17 November 2006. He was elected deputy of Sarcelles in 1993, and retained his seat at the National Assembly until 2002. He has been director of the Nuclear Threat Initiative and a member of the Trilateral Commission. He is of Jewish origin.Project Devil
Project Devil was one of two early liquid-fueled missile projects developed by India, along with Project Valiant, in the 1970s. The goal of Project Devil was to produce a short-range surface-to-air missile. Although discontinued in 1980 without achieving full success, Project Devil, led to the later development of the Prithvi missile in the 1980s.Project Valiant
Project Valiant was one of two early liquid-fueled missile projects developed by India, along with Project Devil in the 1970s. The goal of Project Valiant was to produce an intercontinental ballistic missile. Although discontinued in 1974 without achieving success, Project Valiant, like Project Devil, led to the later development of the Prithvi missile in the 1980s.Rolf Ekéus
Carl Rolf Ekéus (born 7 July 1935 in Kristinehamn, Sweden) is a Swedish diplomat. From 1978 to 1983, he was a representative to the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, and he has worked on various other disarmament committees and commissions.
Between 1991 and 1997 he was director of the United Nations Special Commission on Iraq, the United Nations disarmament observers in Iraq after the Gulf War. In late July 2002 he reportedly said in the Svenska Dagbladet newspaper that during his time in this position he attempted to resist attempts by the United States to use the Commission to perform espionage. His successor as director was Richard Butler. Iraq suspended the inspections in 1998 after claiming that it was a cover for espionage.
Journalist Andrew Cockburn reported in Britain's The First Post that Ekéus told him how former U.S. President Bill Clinton attempted to prevent Saddam Hussein's Iraq from being certified as free of weapons of mass destruction. Despite Ekéus' belief that Iraq was nearly certifiable as being free of such weapons, U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright announced that United Nations sanctions would not be lifted until such time as Hussein was no longer in power. The Iraqi government responded by ending its previous cooperation with the U.N. weapons inspectors.Ekéus later became Sweden's ambassador to the United States and the chairman of the board of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
According to the journalist Christopher Hitchens, Ekéus "told me that he'd been offered by Tariq Aziz in person, to his face, a bribe of a million and a half dollars to change his inspection report. That was going on throughout the entire process. Rolf wouldn't, of course, agree to take it, but if they were asking him, it means they were asking everybody."
The story has also been covered by The Telegraph.In January 2000, Ekéus was nominated to head the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspections Commission (UNMOVIC), charged with investigating allegations that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction. But Ekéus' name failed to receive the approval of the UN Security Council, due to the opposition of France, Russia and China, and so Hans Blix was appointed instead.
Ekéus was High Commissioner on National Minorities at the OSCE from 2001 till 2007, as well as on the board of directors for the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI). Since 2005, Ekéus has been a Commissioner of the International Commission on Missing Persons (ICMP). He is also Member of the Supervisory Council of the International Luxembourg Forum on Preventing Nuclear Catastrophe, a not-for-profit organization uniting leading experts on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, materials and delivery vehicles.Sam Nunn
Samuel Augustus Nunn Jr. (born September 8, 1938) is an American lawyer and politician. Currently the co-chairman of the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), a charitable organization working to prevent catastrophic attacks with nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons, Nunn served for 24 years as a United States Senator from Georgia (1972 until 1997) as a member of the Democratic Party. His political experience and credentials on national defense reportedly made him a potential running mate for Democratic presidential candidates John Kerry (2004) and Barack Obama (2008).Siegfried S. Hecker
Siegfried S. Hecker (born October 2, 1943) is an American metallurgist and nuclear scientist. He served as Director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory from 1986 till 1997 and is now affiliated with Stanford University, where he is research professor emeritus in the Department of Management Science and Engineering in the School of Engineering, and senior fellow emeritus at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies.Vladimir Lukin
Vladimir Petrovich Lukin (Russian: Влади́мир Петро́вич Луки́н; born 13 July 1937, in Omsk) is Russian liberal political activist who served as Human Rights Commissioner of Russia from February 2004 to March 2014. He is the President of the Russian Paralympic Committee.Vladimir Lukin was raised by his relatives, as his parents had been repressed by the Stalinist regime soon after his birth.
In 1990s, Lukin was one of the founders of the liberal-democratic Yabloko Party (the letter L in "Yabloko" came from his name). He previously served as the deputy chairman of the Russian Duma, chair of the Duma's Foreign Affairs Committee and as Ombudsman. He is a director on the board of the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), and is also a former Ambassador to the United States. He is considered a long-time specialist in U.S.-Soviet/Russian strategic arms control issues and is a member of Russia's Council on Foreign and Defense Policy, an independent association of national security experts.
On 18 February 2009, at President Medvedev's recommendation, the Russian Duma voted him another five-year term as human rights commissioner. This term expired in March 2014, and Lukin was replaced by Ella Pamfilova.
In 2014, Lukin was awarded the Paralympic Order.