November 27

November 27 is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 34 days remaining until the end of the year.

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References

  1. ^ Leonard, John William (1914). Woman's Who's who of America: A Biographical Dictionary of Contemporary Women of the United States and Canada, 1914-1915. American Commonwealth Company.

External links

2019 Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series

The 2019 Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series will be the 71st season of NASCAR professional stock car racing in the United States, and the 48th modern-era Cup series season. The season begins at Daytona International Speedway with the Advance Auto Parts Clash, the Can-Am Duel qualifying races and the 61st running of the Daytona 500. The regular season will end with the Brickyard 400 in September. The playoffs will end with the Ford EcoBoost 400 at Homestead-Miami Speedway on November 17, 2019. Joey Logano of Team Penske enters as the defending series champion.

The 2019 season is the fifth of the current 10-year television contract with Fox Sports and NBC Sports and the fourth of a five-year race sanctioning agreement with all tracks. It is the first season in which Ford fields the Mustang GT, replacing the Fusion.

Bruce Lee

Lee Jun-fan (Chinese: 李振藩; November 27, 1940 – July 20, 1973), known professionally as Bruce Lee (Chinese: 李小龍), was a Hong Kong-American actor, director, martial artist, martial arts instructor, and philosopher. He was the founder of the martial art Jeet Kune Do, one of the wushu or kung fu styles. Lee was the son of Cantonese opera star Lee Hoi-chuen. He is considered by commentators, critics, media, and other martial artists to be one of the most influential martial artists and a pop culture icon of the 20th century. He is often credited with helping to change the way Asians were presented in American films.Lee was born in the Chinatown area of San Francisco, California, on November 27, 1940, to parents from Hong Kong, and was raised with his family in Kowloon, Hong Kong. He was introduced to the film industry by his father and appeared in several films as a child actor. Lee moved to the United States at the age of 18 to receive his higher education at the University of Washington in Seattle, and it was during this time that he began teaching martial arts. His Hong Kong and Hollywood-produced films elevated the traditional Hong Kong martial arts film to a new level of popularity and acclaim, sparking a surge of interest in Chinese martial arts in the West in the 1970s. The direction and tone of his films dramatically changed and influenced martial arts and martial arts films in the US, Hong Kong, and the rest of the world.He is noted for his roles in five feature-length films: Lo Wei's The Big Boss (1971) and Fist of Fury (1972); Golden Harvest's Way of the Dragon (1972), directed and written by Lee; Golden Harvest and Warner Brothers' Enter the Dragon (1973) and The Game of Death (1978), both directed by Robert Clouse. Lee became an iconic figure known throughout the world, particularly among the Chinese, based upon his portrayal of Chinese nationalism in his films and among Asian Americans for defying stereotypes associated with the emasculated Asian male. He trained in the art of Wing Chun and later combined his other influences from various sources into the spirit of his personal martial arts philosophy, which he dubbed Jeet Kune Do (The Way of the Intercepting Fist).

Lee held dual nationality in Hong Kong and the US. He died in Kowloon Tong on July 20, 1973, at the age of 32.

CM Punk

Phillip Jack Brooks (born October 26, 1978), better known by the ring name CM Punk, is an American mixed martial artist, comic book writer and retired professional wrestler. He is currently signed to both the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), where he competes in the welterweight division, and to Cage Fury Fighting Championships (CFFC), where he works as a commentator. He is perhaps best known for his time in WWE, where he is recognized as the sixth longest reigning WWE Champion of all-time.

Brooks began his professional wrestling career on the American independent circuit, primarily with Ring of Honor (ROH) until 2005, when he signed with World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE). During his 15-year career, Brooks won the WWE Championship twice, WWE's World Heavyweight Championship three times, and the ECW and ROH World Championships once each. By winning WWE's World Tag Team Championship (with Kofi Kingston) and Intercontinental Championship, he became WWE's 19th Triple Crown Champion and the fastest to achieve this feat, in 203 days. He was voted WWE Superstar of the Year at the 2011 Slammy Awards, and Wrestler of the Year in 2011 and 2012 by readers of Pro Wrestling Illustrated.

Brooks used the CM Punk moniker his entire career, and consistently portrayed the character of an outspoken, sharp-tongued, anti-establishment, straight edge iconoclast. Most of the straight edge principles he portrayed, such as not drinking alcohol or not taking recreational drugs, are his real life views. Depending on his alignment as a hero or villain, he emphasized different aspects of the straight edge culture to garner the desired audience reaction.After becoming disgruntled in WWE, Punk retired from professional wrestling in 2014. He pursued a career in mixed martial arts and was signed by the UFC in December of that year. His first professional fight took place on September 10, 2016, at UFC 203 against Mickey Gall, where he was defeated via submission in the first round. He lost his second bout to Mike Jackson via unanimous decision on June 9, 2018, at UFC 225.

Floribama Shore

Floribama Shore (officially known as MTV Floribama Shore) is an American reality television series that premiered on MTV from November 27, 2017 in the United States. It is a successor to Jersey Shore. The location of the show is set in the Florida Panhandle along the beach that stretches all the way to Alabama. Floribama Shore documents eight young adults who live together during the summer in the Gulf Coast at Panama City Beach. During their time, they are filmed partying, working, living in a new environment, and bonding.On January 8, 2018, MTV renewed the series for a second season, which premiered on July 9, 2018.

Frozen (2013 film)

Frozen is a 2013 American 3D computer-animated musical fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. The 53rd Disney animated feature film, it is inspired by Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale "The Snow Queen". It tells the story of a fearless princess who sets off on a journey alongside a rugged iceman, his loyal reindeer, and a naive snowman to find her estranged sister, whose icy powers have inadvertently trapped their kingdom in eternal winter.

Frozen underwent several story treatments before being commissioned in 2011, with a screenplay written by Jennifer Lee, who also co-directed with Chris Buck. The film features the voices of Kristen Bell, Idina Menzel, Jonathan Groff, Josh Gad, and Santino Fontana. Christophe Beck was hired to compose the film's orchestral score, while Robert Lopez and Kristen Anderson-Lopez wrote the songs.

Frozen premiered at the El Capitan Theatre in Hollywood, California, on November 19, 2013, had a limited release on November 22 and went into general theatrical release on November 27. It was met with positive reviews and praise for its visuals, screenplay, themes, music, and voice acting; some film critics consider Frozen to be the best Disney animated feature film since the studio's renaissance era. The film also achieved significant commercial success, earning $1.276 billion in worldwide box office revenue, including $400 million in the United States and Canada and $247 million in Japan. It ranks as the highest-grossing animated film of all time, the 13th highest-grossing film of all time, the highest-grossing film of 2013, and the third highest-grossing film in Japan. It was also the highest-earning film with a female director in terms of US earnings, until surpassed by Warner Bros. Pictures' Wonder Woman. With over 18 million home media sales in 2014, it became the best-selling film of the year in the United States. By January 2015, Frozen had become the all-time best-selling Blu-ray Disc in the United States.Frozen won two Academy Awards for Best Animated Feature and Best Original Song ("Let It Go"), the Golden Globe Award for Best Animated Feature Film, the BAFTA Award for Best Animated Film, five Annie Awards (including Best Animated Feature), two Grammy Awards for Best Compilation Soundtrack for Visual Media and Best Song Written for Visual Media ("Let It Go"), and two Critics' Choice Movie Awards for Best Animated Feature and Best Original Song ("Let It Go"). An animated short sequel, Frozen Fever, premiered on March 13, 2015, an animated featurette titled Olaf's Frozen Adventure, premiered on November 22, 2017, and a feature-length sequel is set for release on November 22, 2019.

Google

Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.

Google was founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph.D. students at Stanford University in California. Together they own about 14 percent of its shares and control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock. They incorporated Google as a privately held company on September 4, 1998. An initial public offering (IPO) took place on August 19, 2004, and Google moved to its headquarters in Mountain View, California, nicknamed the Googleplex. In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google is Alphabet's leading subsidiary and will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page who became the CEO of Alphabet.

The company's rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products, acquisitions, and partnerships beyond Google's core search engine (Google Search). It offers services designed for work and productivity (Google Docs, Google Sheets, and Google Slides), email (Gmail/Inbox), scheduling and time management (Google Calendar), cloud storage (Google Drive), social networking (Google+), instant messaging and video chat (Google Allo, Duo, Hangouts), language translation (Google Translate), mapping and navigation (Google Maps, Waze, Google Earth, Street View), video sharing (YouTube), note-taking (Google Keep), and photo organizing and editing (Google Photos). The company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, and Chrome OS, a lightweight operating system based on the Chrome browser. Google has moved increasingly into hardware; from 2010 to 2015, it partnered with major electronics manufacturers in the production of its Nexus devices, and it released multiple hardware products in October 2016, including the Google Pixel smartphone, Google Home smart speaker, Google Wifi mesh wireless router, and Google Daydream virtual reality headset. Google has also experimented with becoming an Internet carrier (Google Fiber, Project Fi, and Google Station).Google.com is the most visited website in the world. Several other Google services also figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube and Blogger. Google is the most valuable brand in the world as of 2017, but has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns, tax avoidance, antitrust, censorship, and search neutrality. Google's mission statement is "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful", and its unofficial slogan was "Don't be evil" until the phrase was removed from the company's code of conduct around May 2018.

Guy Fieri

Guy Ramsay Fieri (US: ; né Ferry; born January 22, 1968) is an American restaurateur, author, game show host, and an Emmy Award winning television personality. He co-owns three restaurants in California, licenses his name to restaurants in New York City and Las Vegas, Nevada, and is known for his television series on the Food Network.

By mid-2010, the Food Network had made Fieri the "face of the network". In 2010, The New York Times reported that Fieri brought an "element of rowdy, mass-market culture to American food television", and that his "prime-time shows attract more male viewers than any others on the network".

Internet Archive

The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books. As of October 2016, its collection topped 15 petabytes. In addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet.

The Internet Archive allows the public to upload and download digital material to its data cluster, but the bulk of its data is collected automatically by its web crawlers, which work to preserve as much of the public web as possible. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains more than 308 billion web captures. The Archive also oversees one of the world's largest book digitization projects.

Founded by Brewster Kahle in May 1996, the Archive is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit operating in the United States. It has an annual budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources: revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, grants, donations, and the Kahle-Austin Foundation.Its headquarters are in San Francisco, California. Most of its staff work in its book-scanning centers. The Archive has data centers in three Californian cities: San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond. To prevent losing the data in case of e.g. a natural disaster, the Archive attempts to create copies of (parts of) the collection at more distant locations, currently including the Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Egypt and a facility in Amsterdam. The Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium and was officially designated as a library by the state of California in 2007.The Internet Archive visual arts residency, which is organized by Amir Saber Esfahani and Andrew McClintock, is designed to connect artists with the archive’s 40 petabytes of digitized materials. Over the course of the yearlong residency, visual artists create a body of work which culminates in an exhibition. The hope is to connect digital history with the arts and create something for future generations to appreciate online or off. Previous artists in residence include Taravat Talepasand and Jenny Odell.

Iron Man 3

Iron Man 3 (stylized onscreen as Iron Man Three) is a 2013 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character Iron Man, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures.1 It is the sequel to 2008's Iron Man and 2010's Iron Man 2, and the seventh film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). The film was directed by Shane Black from a screenplay he co-wrote with Drew Pearce, and stars Robert Downey Jr. as Tony Stark / Iron Man, alongside Gwyneth Paltrow, Don Cheadle, Guy Pearce, Rebecca Hall, Stéphanie Szostak, James Badge Dale, Jon Favreau, and Ben Kingsley. In Iron Man 3, Tony Stark deals with the stress and trauma caused by the events of The Avengers, while investigating a string of terrorist attacks led by the mysterious Mandarin, and comes into a conflict with an old enemy: Aldrich Killian.

After the release of Iron Man 2 in May 2010, Favreau, who served as director, decided not to return, and in February 2011 Black was hired to write and direct the film. Black and Pearce opted to make the script more character-centric and focused on thriller elements, which also uses concepts from the "Extremis" story arc by Warren Ellis. Throughout April and May 2012, the film's supporting cast was filled out, with Kingsley, Pearce, and Hall brought in to portray key roles. Filming began on May 23, and lasted through December 17, 2012, primarily at EUE/Screen Gems Studios in Wilmington, North Carolina. Additional shooting took place at various locations around North Carolina, as well as Florida, China, and Los Angeles. The visual effects were handled by 17 companies, including Scanline VFX, Digital Domain, and Weta Digital. The film was converted to 3D in post-production.

Iron Man 3 premiered at the Grand Rex in Paris on April 14, 2013, and released in the United States on May 3. The film received praise for its performances, visual effects, action sequences, humor, story, and Brian Tyler's musical score, while reception to its plot twist was mixed. It was a huge box office success, grossing over $1.2 billion worldwide, making it the second-highest-grossing film of 2013 overall, and the second-highest-grossing film released in 2013 in the United States and Canada. It became the sixteenth film to gross over $1 billion and the fifth-highest-grossing film of all time, with its opening weekend ranking as the sixth-highest-grossing opening of all time. The film received a nomination for the Academy Award in the category of Best Visual Effects, and received another nomination for the BAFTA Award in the same category.

Josh McDaniels

Joshua Thomas McDaniels (born April 22, 1976) is an American football coach who is the offensive coordinator of the New England Patriots of the National Football League (NFL). McDaniels was one of the few members of the Patriots' coaching staff that has been there for all five of their Super Bowl wins; he was with the team initially from 2001 to 2008, serving in multiple capacities. He is the highest-paid offensive coordinator in the NFL.

In 2009, McDaniels was hired as the head coach of the Denver Broncos. At the time of his hiring, 33-year-old McDaniels was the youngest head coach in the NFL, although less than a week later the Tampa Bay Buccaneers named Raheem Morris, who is five months younger, as their head coach. McDaniels was fired by Denver after a 3–9 start in 2010. He spent the 2011 season as offensive coordinator of the St. Louis Rams, but he was released by the Rams for the 2011 playoffs to serve as an offensive assistant for the Patriots in their run to Super Bowl XLVI, before returning to the team as offensive coordinator that following season.

Kansas City Chiefs

The Kansas City Chiefs are a professional American football team based in Kansas City, Missouri. The Chiefs compete in the National Football League (NFL) as a member club of the league's American Football Conference (AFC) West division. The team was founded in 1960 as the Dallas Texans by businessman Lamar Hunt and was a charter member of the American Football League (AFL). (They are not associated with the NFL Dallas Texans.) In 1963, the team relocated to Kansas City and assumed their current name. The Chiefs joined the NFL as a result of the merger in 1970. The team is valued at over $2 billion. Hunt's son, Clark, serves as chairman and CEO. While Hunt's ownership stakes passed collectively to his widow and children after his death in 2006, Clark represents the Chiefs at all league meetings and has ultimate authority on personnel changes.

The Chiefs have won three AFL championships, in 1962, 1966, and 1969 and became the second AFL team (after the New York Jets) to defeat an NFL team in an AFL–NFL World Championship Game, when they defeated the Minnesota Vikings in Super Bowl IV. The team's victory on January 11, 1970, remains the club's last championship game victory and appearance to date, and occurred in the final such competition prior to the leagues' merger coming into full effect. The Chiefs were also the second team, after the Green Bay Packers, to appear in more than one Super Bowl (and the first AFL team to do so) and the first to appear in the championship game in two different decades. Despite post-season success early in the franchise’s history, the team has struggled to find success in the playoffs since. As of the conclusion of the 2017–18 playoffs, they have lost 11 of their last 12 playoff games including eight straight from 1993–2015.

Lady Gaga

Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta (born March 28, 1986), known professionally as Lady Gaga, is an American singer, songwriter, and actress. She is known for her unconventionality and provocative work, as well as visual experimentation. Gaga began performing as a teenager, singing at open mic nights and acting in school plays. She studied at Collaborative Arts Project 21, through New York University's Tisch School of the Arts, before dropping out to pursue a music career. After Def Jam Recordings canceled her contract, Gaga worked as a songwriter for Sony/ATV Music Publishing, where Akon helped her sign a joint deal with Interscope Records and his own label KonLive Distribution in 2007. She rose to prominence the following year with her debut album, the electropop record The Fame, and its chart-topping singles "Just Dance" and "Poker Face". A follow-up EP, The Fame Monster (2009), featuring the singles "Bad Romance", "Telephone", and "Alejandro", also proved successful.

Gaga's second full-length album Born This Way (2011) explored electronic rock and techno-pop. The album peaked atop the US Billboard 200 and sold more than one million copies in the country during its first week. Its title track became the fastest selling song on the iTunes Store with over a million downloads in less than a week. Gaga experimented with EDM on her third studio album Artpop (2013), which reached number one in the US and included the single "Applause". Her collaborative jazz album with Tony Bennett, titled Cheek to Cheek (2014), and her soft rock-influenced fifth studio album, Joanne (2016), also topped the US charts. During this period, Gaga ventured into acting, playing leading roles in the miniseries American Horror Story: Hotel (2015–2016), for which she received a Golden Globe Award, and the critically acclaimed musical romantic drama A Star Is Born (2018). She also contributed to the latter's soundtrack, which made her the only woman to achieve five US number one albums in the 2010s. Its lead single "Shallow" earned Gaga a Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song.

Having sold 27 million albums and 146 million singles as of January 2016, Gaga is one of the best-selling music artists in history. Her achievements include several Guinness World Records, six Grammys, three Brit Awards, and an award from the Songwriters Hall of Fame and the Council of Fashion Designers of America. Gaga has been declared Billboard's Artist of the Year and included among Forbes's power and earnings rankings. She was ranked at number four on VH1's Greatest Women in Music in 2012, finished second on Time's 2011 readers' poll of the most influential people of the past ten years, and was named Billboard's Woman of the Year in 2015. She is known for her philanthropy and social activism, including LGBT rights, and for her non-profit organization, the Born This Way Foundation, which focuses on promoting youth empowerment and combating bullying.

Meghan, Duchess of Sussex

Meghan, Duchess of Sussex (born Rachel Meghan Markle; August 4, 1981), is a retired American actress who became a member of the British royal family upon her marriage to Prince Harry.

Markle was born and raised in Los Angeles, California, and has a mixed ethnic heritage. During her studies at Northwestern University, she began playing small roles in American television series and films. From 2011 to 2017, she played Rachel Zane, on the American legal drama series Suits. An outspoken feminist, Markle has addressed issues of gender inequality, and her lifestyle website The Tig featured a column profiling influential women. She represented international charity organisations in the 2010s. She has received recognition for her fashion and style, releasing a line of clothing in 2016.

From 2011 until their divorce in 2013, Markle was married to actor and producer Trevor Engelson. In 2017, she announced her engagement to Prince Harry, grandson of Queen Elizabeth II, and moved to London. She retired from acting, closed her social media accounts, and started undertaking public engagements as part of the British royal family. She became the Duchess of Sussex upon her marriage to Prince Harry in May 2018.

Melvins

Melvins are an American rock band whose early work was key to the development of both grunge and sludge metal. The band formed in 1983 in Montesano, Washington. They have mostly performed as a trio, as well as a quartet with either two drummers/bassists in recent years. Since 1984, vocalist and guitarist Buzz Osborne and drummer Dale Crover have been constant members. The band was named after a supervisor at a Thriftway in Montesano, Washington, where Osborne also worked as a clerk. "Melvin" was disliked by other employees, and the band's members felt it to be an appropriately ridiculous name.

Shannon Moore

Shannon Brian Moore (born July 27, 1979) is an American professional wrestler. He is best known for his work with World Championship Wrestling (WCW) between 1999 and 2001 and with World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) for several years in the 2000s. He has also worked for Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA).

Moore befriended Matt and Jeff Hardy as a child, and they later trained him to wrestle. He debuted in 1995, and competed for several North Carolina-based promotions, winning several Light Heavyweight Championships. He also wrestled for the Hardys' promotion, Organization of Modern Extreme Grappling Arts (OMEGA), where he won the OMEGA Light Heavyweight Championship twice and the OMEGA New Frontiers Championship once. In 1999, he signed with WCW, and became part of 3 Count, a boy band parody. The three members of 3 Count jointly won the WCW Hardcore Championship in 2000. In 2001, he briefly held the NWA Wildside Tag Team Championship with Shane Helms.

He later joined the then-WWF in 2001, and was assigned to Heartland Wrestling Association, a developmental territory, where he won the HWA Tag Team Championship with Evan Karagias. After debuting on the SmackDown brand, he became a follower of 'Mattitude' and appeared regularly as Matt Hardy's sidekick. Between late 2003 and 2005, Moore was used mainly in WWE's cruiserweight division, until his release in July 2005. After a stint on the independent circuit, Moore joined TNA in December 2005. In March 2006, he re-signed with WWE, initially appearing on the ECW brand, before returning to SmackDown in 2007. He formed a tag team with Jimmy Wang Yang, and the pair challenged unsuccessfully for the WWE Tag Team Championship on several occasions. Following his release in August 2008, he once again returned to the independent circuit, before rejoining TNA in January 2010. He soon formed a tag team, known as Ink Inc., with Jesse Neal in April.

Aside from wrestling, Moore is also a tattoo artist, and owned a tattoo parlor known as Gas Chamber Ink in Southern Pines, North Carolina. He is also a musician, having written his own entrance music, and was part of the band Peroxwhy?gen with Jeff Hardy.

Solar eclipse of November 27, 2095

An annular solar eclipse will occur on Sunday, November 27, 2095. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. An annular solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is smaller than the Sun's, blocking most of the Sun's light and causing the Sun to look like an annulus (ring). An annular eclipse appears as a partial eclipse over a region of the Earth thousands of kilometres wide.

The Simpsons (season 16)

The Simpsons' sixteenth season (November 7, 2004 – May 15, 2005) began on Sunday, November 7, 2004 and contained 21 episodes, beginning with Treehouse of Horror XV. The season contains six hold-over episodes from the season 15 (FABF) production line. Season 16 was released on DVD and Blu-ray in Region 1 on December 3, 2013, Region 2 on December 2, 2013, and Region 4 on December 11, 2013. This was also the first season to air on Channel 4, new episodes started airing on November 5th 2004.

The Ultimate Fighter

The Ultimate Fighter is an American reality television series and mixed martial arts (MMA) competition produced by Fox Sports 1 and the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC). It previously aired for fourteen seasons on Spike TV. The show features professional MMA fighters living together in Las Vegas, Nevada, and follows them as they train and compete against each other for a prized contract with the UFC. The series debuted on January 17, 2005, with its first episode, "The Quest Begins". To date, there have been twenty seven seasons of the show, two per calendar year. Each season features either one or two weight classes in the tournament.

The historic Forrest Griffin vs. Stephan Bonnar fight in the first season drew millions of viewers to the show and launched the sport into the mainstream. Because of this success, The Ultimate Fighter was regarded as instrumental to the survival and expansion of the UFC and mixed martial arts into the mainstream. Many current and past UFC fighters are alumni of the show, with some competitors going on to become coaches in future seasons. The show has undergone multiple format changes since its inception, including the introduction of the wildcard bout. Many winners have gone on to compete for UFC championships with some becoming UFC champions.

The Ultimate Fighter was originally an experimental series financed by the former owners of the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), Lorenzo and Frank Fertitta III. The series was aired on Spike TV as a last resort measure to gain mainstream exposure for mixed martial arts (MMA).During the early days of Spike TV, the channel wanted sports programming, but had no budget for sports licensing fees. Spike TV founder Albie Hecht began a search to find programming with broad appeal that the network could afford. In the end, Spike narrowed its choices down to the UFC and K-1. Hecht flew to Japan to meet with the head of K-1, but insulted his geisha, so the meeting did not go well. Weeks later, Hecht met with Lorenzo Fertitta in Las Vegas. Hecht was impressed by the UFC's celebrity following, its plan to acquire and consolidate smaller promotions into the UFC, and with Dana White's ability to be a "Vince McMahon"-like personality.Hecht saw K-1 as a safer bet, given it had more international notoriety. He was also not a fan of the grappling aspects of MMA, but the UFC rebuffed his suggestion to change the rules of the sport to accommodate striking. Hecht credits Kevin Kay and his editorial collaboration with the UFC for highlighting the show's story lines, which he believes helped drive its ratings success.Airing after World Wrestling Entertainment's flagship show WWE Raw, The Ultimate Fighter's debut episode was able to garner a 57% retention rate in viewers from Raw, which was double the usual rate for Spike TV. It is believed by some that WWE's Vince McMahon had to approve The Ultimate Fighter following Raw, but this is incorrect. According to Hecht, McMahon did not have the final say, but given his stature and Raw's' importance to Spike TV at the time, the network wanted McMahon to "be on board" with the program lineup. At the time, Hecht believes the WWE did not see the UFC as a challenge.The live finale for the first season saw the historic bout of Forrest Griffin vs. Stephan Bonnar. Now widely regarded as the most influential fight in MMA history, the bout took place in what was the first ever MMA event on live and free television. The bout ended in a unanimous decision victory for Griffin and led to the show's renewal on Spike TV. Regarding the success of the show, UFC president Dana White said, "It's amazing to think.... how close we came to not being here today. If it weren't for what these guys did, I don't know if there would even be a UFC. I'll never forget these guys. Ever."The renewal of the show saw UFC produce two more series, before subsequent renewals. In order to garner more attention for the sport, The Ultimate Fighter utilizes gimmicks: one notable example, in the ninth season, employed a country vs. country theme, with the United States competing against the United Kingdom. These gimmicks enabled the UFC to appeal to fans that had been recently introduced to the sport during UFCs penetration into the European market. The Ultimate Fighter also drew record viewing figures for Spike TV when YouTube sensation Kimbo Slice participated in the tenth season. Slice's fight against veteran Roy Nelson attracted viewers to the sport, drawing an audience of 6.1 million, making it one of the most viewed MMA fights in history.As part of a new broadcasting relationship between the UFC and Fox Sports, The Ultimate Fighter moved to FX beginning in season 15. Season 14 was the final season of the series to air on Spike, who considered the relationship to be "incredibly beneficial in building both our brands.” In September 2013, the series moved to Fox's new mainstream sports network Fox Sports 1.Because of the need to keep the fight results secret until the airing of the episode, each fight on The Ultimate Fighter is officially an "exhibition", and as such does not count towards the fighters overall record.

Verizon Communications

Verizon Communications Inc. (listen ) ( və-RY-zən) is an American multinational telecommunications conglomerate and a corporate component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. The company is based at 1095 Avenue of the Americas in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but is incorporated in Delaware.

In 1984, the Justice Department of the United States mandated AT&T Corporation to break up the Bell System and split into seven companies, called "Baby Bells". One of the baby bells, Bell Atlantic, came into existence in 1984 consisting of the separate operating companies New Jersey Bell, Bell of Pennsylvania, Diamond State Telephone, and C&P Telephone, with a footprint from New Jersey to Virginia. This company would later become Verizon.

As part of a rebranding of the Baby Bells in the mid-1990s, all of Bell Atlantic's operating companies assumed the holding company's name. In 1997, Bell Atlantic expanded into New York and the New England states by merging with fellow Baby Bell NYNEX. Although Bell Atlantic was the surviving company name, the merged company moved its headquarters from Philadelphia to NYNEX's old headquarters in New York City. In 2000, Bell Atlantic acquired GTE, which operated telecommunications companies across most of the rest of the country that was not already in Bell Atlantic's footprint. Bell Atlantic, the surviving entity, changed its name to "Verizon", a portmanteau of veritas (Latin for "truth") and horizon.In 2015, Verizon expanded its business into content ownership by acquiring AOL, and two years later it acquired Yahoo!. AOL and Yahoo were amalgamated into a new division named Oath Inc. (currently known as Verizon Media Group).

As of 2016, Verizon is one of three remaining companies that had their roots in the former Baby Bells. The other two, like Verizon, exist as a result of mergers among fellow former Baby Bell members. SBC Communications, bought out the Bells' former parent AT&T Corporation, and assumed the AT&T name. CenturyLink was formed initially in 2011 by the acquisition of Qwest (formerly named US West).

Verizon's subsidiary Verizon Wireless is the largest U.S. wireless communications service provider as of September 2014, with 147 million mobile customers. And as of 2017, Verizon is the only publicly-traded telecommunications company to have two stock listings in its home country, both the NYSE (principal) and NASDAQ (secondary). As of 2017, it is also the second largest telecommunications company by revenue after AT&T.

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