November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 40 days remain until the end of the year.
|November 21 in recent years
| 2018 (Wednesday)
| 2017 (Tuesday)
| 2016 (Monday)
| 2015 (Saturday)
| 2014 (Friday)
| 2013 (Thursday)
| 2012 (Wednesday)
| 2011 (Monday)
| 2010 (Sunday)
| 2009 (Saturday)
- 164 BC – Judas Maccabeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family, restores the Temple in Jerusalem. This event is commemorated each year by the festival of Hanukkah.
- 235 – Pope Anterus succeeds Pontian as the nineteenth pope. During the persecutions of emperor Maximinus Thrax he is martyred.
- 1009 – Lý Công Uẩn is enthroned as emperor of Đại Cồ Việt, founding the Lý dynasty.
- 1386 – Timur of Samarkand captures and sacks the Georgian capital of Tbilisi, taking King Bagrat V of Georgia captive.
- 1620 – Plymouth Colony settlers sign the Mayflower Compact (November 11, O.S.)
- 1676 – The Danish astronomer Ole Rømer presents the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light.
- 1783 – In Paris, Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent d'Arlandes, make the first untethered hot air balloon flight.
- 1789 – North Carolina ratifies the United States Constitution and is admitted as the 12th U.S. state.
- 1832 – Wabash College is founded in Crawfordsville, Indiana.
- 1861 – American Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis appoints Judah Benjamin Secretary of War.
- 1877 – Thomas Edison announces his invention of the phonograph, a machine that can record and play sound.
- 1894 – Port Arthur, China falls to the Japanese, a decisive victory of the First Sino-Japanese War; Japanese troops are accused of massacring the remaining inhabitants.
- 1902 – The Philadelphia Football Athletics defeated the Kanaweola Athletic Club of Elmira, New York, 39–0, in the first ever professional American football night game.
- 1905 – Albert Einstein's paper that leads to the mass–energy equivalence formula, E = mc², is published in the journal Annalen der Physik.
- 1910 – Sailors on board Brazil's warships including the Minas Geraes, São Paulo, and Bahia, violently rebel in what is now known as the Revolta da Chibata (Revolt of the Lash).
- 1916 – Mines from SM U-73 sink the HMHS Britannic, the largest ship lost in the First World War.
- 1918 – The Flag of Estonia, previously used by pro-independence activists, is formally adopted as the national flag of the Republic of Estonia.
- 1918 – The Parliament (Qualification of Women) Act 1918 is passed, allowing women to stand for Parliament in the UK.
- 1918 – A pogrom takes place in Lwów (now Lviv); over three days, at least 50 Jews and 270 Ukrainian Christians are killed by Poles.
- 1920 – Irish War of Independence: In Dublin, 31 people are killed in what became known as "Bloody Sunday".
- 1922 – Rebecca Latimer Felton of Georgia takes the oath of office, becoming the first female United States Senator.
- 1927 – Columbine Mine massacre: Striking coal miners are allegedly attacked with machine guns by a detachment of state police dressed in civilian clothes.
- 1942 – The completion of the Alaska Highway (also known as the Alcan Highway) is celebrated (however, the highway is not usable by standard road vehicles until 1943).
- 1944 – World War II: American submarine USS Sealion sinks the Japanese battleship Kongō and Japanese destroyer Urakaze in the Formosa Strait.
- 1945 – The United Auto Workers strike 92 General Motors plants in 50 cities to back up worker demands for a 30-percent raise.
- 1950 – Two Canadian National Railway trains collide in northeastern British Columbia in the Canoe River train crash; the death toll is 21, with 17 of them Canadian troops bound for Korea.
- 1953 – The Natural History Museum, London announces that the "Piltdown Man" skull, initially believed to be one of the most important fossilized hominid skulls ever found, is a hoax.
- 1959 – American disc jockey Alan Freed, who had popularized the term "rock and roll" and music of that style, is fired from WABC-AM radio over allegations he had participated in the payola scandal.
- 1961 – The "La Ronde" opens in Honolulu, first revolving restaurant in the United States.
- 1962 – The Chinese People's Liberation Army declares a unilateral ceasefire in the Sino-Indian War.
- 1964 – The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge opens to traffic. At the time it is the world's longest bridge span.
- 1964 – Second Vatican Council: The third session of the Roman Catholic Church's ecumenical council closes.
- 1967 – Vietnam War: American General William Westmoreland tells news reporters: "I am absolutely certain that whereas in 1965 the enemy was winning, today he is certainly losing."
- 1969 – U.S. President Richard Nixon and Japanese Premier Eisaku Satō agree on the return of Okinawa to Japanese control in 1972. The U.S. retains rights to bases on the island, but these are to be nuclear-free.
- 1969 – The first permanent ARPANET link is established between UCLA and SRI.
- 1970 – Vietnam War: Operation Ivory Coast: A joint United States Air Force and Army team raids the Sơn Tây prisoner-of-war camp in an attempt to free American prisoners of war thought to be held there.
- 1971 – Indian troops, partly aided by Mukti Bahini (Bengali guerrillas), defeat the Pakistan army in the Battle of Garibpur.
- 1972 – Voters in South Korea overwhelmingly approve a new constitution, giving legitimacy to Park Chung-hee and the Fourth Republic.
- 1974 – The Birmingham pub bombings kill 21 people. The Birmingham Six are sentenced to life in prison for the crime but subsequently acquitted.
- 1977 – Minister of Internal Affairs Allan Highet announces that the national anthems of New Zealand shall be the traditional anthem "God Save the Queen" and "God Defend New Zealand".
- 1979 – The United States Embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan, is attacked by a mob and set on fire, killing four.
- 1980 – A deadly fire breaks out at the MGM Grand Hotel in Paradise, Nevada (now Bally's Las Vegas). Eighty-seven people are killed and more than 650 are injured in the worst disaster in Nevada history.
- 1985 – United States Navy intelligence analyst Jonathan Pollard is arrested for spying after being caught giving Israel classified information on Arab nations. He is subsequently sentenced to life in prison.
- 1986 – National Security Council member Oliver North and his secretary start to shred documents allegedly implicating them in the Iran–Contra affair.
- 1992 – A major tornado strikes the Houston, Texas area during the afternoon. Over the next two days the largest tornado outbreak ever to occur in the US during November spawns over 100 tornadoes.
- 1995 – The Dayton Agreement is initialed at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, near Dayton, Ohio, ending three and a half years of war in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- 1996 – Humberto Vidal explosion: Thirty-three people die when a Humberto Vidal shoe shop explodes.
- 2002 – NATO invites Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia to become members.
- 2004 – The second round of the Ukrainian presidential election is held, giving rise to massive protests and controversy over the election's integrity.
- 2004 – Dominica is hit by the most destructive earthquake in its history. The northern half of the island sustains the most damage, especially the town of Portsmouth. In neighboring Guadeloupe, one person is killed.
- 2004 – The Paris Club agrees to write off 80% (up to $100 billion) of Iraq's external debt.
- 2006 – Anti-Syrian Lebanese politician and government minister Pierre Gemayel is assassinated in suburban Beirut.
- 2009 – A mine explosion in Heilongjiang, China kills 108.
- 2012 – At least 28 are wounded after a bomb is thrown onto a bus in Tel Aviv.
- 2013 – Fifty-four people are killed when the roof of a shopping center collapses in Riga, Latvia.
- 2013 – Massive protests start in Ukraine after President Viktor Yanukovych suspended signing the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement.
- 2014 – A stampede in Kwekwe, Zimbabwe caused by the police firing tear gas kills at least eleven people and injures 40 others.
- 2015 – The government of Belgium imposed a security lockdown on Brussels, including the closure of shops, schools, public transportation, due to potential terrorist attacks.
- 2017 – Robert Mugabe formally resigns as President of Zimbabwe, after thirty-seven years in office.
- 1495 – John Bale, English bishop and historian (d. 1563)
- 1567 – Anne de Xainctonge, French saint, founded the Society of the Sisters of Saint Ursula of the Blessed Virgin (d. 1621)
- 1631 – Catharina Questiers, Dutch poet (d. 1669)
- 1692 – Carlo Innocenzo Frugoni, Italian poet and academic (d. 1768)
- 1694 – Voltaire, French historian, playwright, and philosopher (d. 1778)
- 1718 – Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg, German composer, critic, and theorist (d. 1795)
- 1729 – Josiah Bartlett, American physician and politician, 6th Governor of New Hampshire (d. 1795)
- 1760 – Joseph Plumb Martin, American sergeant (d. 1850)
- 1768 – Friedrich Schleiermacher, German theologian, philosopher, and scholar (d. 1834)
- 1785 – William Beaumont, American surgeon, "Father of Gastric Physiology" (d. 1853)
- 1787 – Samuel Cunard, Canadian businessman, founded the Cunard Line (d. 1865)
- 1811 – Zeng Guofan, Chinese general and politician, Viceroy of Liangjiang (d. 1872)
- 1818 – Lewis H. Morgan, American lawyer, anthropologist, and theorist (d. 1881)
- 1835 – Hetty Green, American businesswoman and financier (d. 1916)
- 1840 – Victoria, Princess Royal of England (d. 1901)
- 1851 – Désiré-Joseph Mercier, Belgian cardinal and theologian (d. 1926)
- 1852 – Francisco Tárrega, Spanish guitarist and composer (d. 1909)
- 1853 – Hussein Kamel of Egypt (d. 1917)
- 1854 – Pope Benedict XV (d. 1922)
- 1866 – Sigbjørn Obstfelder, Norwegian poet and author (d. 1900)
- 1866 – Konishiki Yasokichi I, Japanese sumo wrestler, the 17th Yokozuna (d. 1914)
- 1870 – Alexander Berkman, Lithuanian-American activist and author (d. 1936)
- 1870 – Joe Darling, Australian cricketer and politician (d. 1946)
- 1870 – Stanley Jackson, English cricketer and politician (d. 1947)
- 1876 – Olav Duun, Norwegian author and educator (d. 1939)
- 1877 – Sigfrid Karg-Elert, German composer and educator (d. 1933)
- 1878 – Gustav Radbruch, German lawyer and politician, German Minister of Justice (d. 1949)
- 1886 – Harold Nicolson, English author and politician (d. 1968)
- 1894 – Cecil M. Harden, American politician (d. 1984)
- 1897 – Mollie Steimer, Russian-American activist (d. 1980)
- 1898 – René Magritte, Belgian painter (d. 1967)
- 1899 – Jobyna Ralston, American actress (d. 1967)
- 1899 – Harekrushna Mahatab, Indian journalist and politician, 1st Chief Minister of Odisha (d. 1987)
- 1902 – Foster Hewitt, Canadian sportscaster (d. 1985)
- 1902 – Isaac Bashevis Singer, Polish-American novelist and short story writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1991)
- 1902 – Mikhail Suslov, Russian soldier, economist, and politician (d. 1982)
- 1904 – Coleman Hawkins, American saxophonist and clarinet player (d. 1969)
- 1907 – Buck Ram, American songwriter and music producer (d. 1991)
- 1908 – Leo Politi, Italian-American author and illustrator (d. 1996)
- 1908 – Elizabeth George Speare, American author and educator (d. 1994)
- 1912 – Eleanor Powell, American actress and dancer (d. 1982)
- 1913 – John Boulting, English director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 1985)
- 1913 – Roy Boulting, English director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2001)
- 1913 – Gunnar Kangro, Estonian mathematician, author, and academic (d. 1975)
- 1914 – Nusret Fişek, Turkish physician and politician, Turkish Minister of Health (d. 1990)
- 1914 – Henri Laborit, French physician and philosopher (d. 1995)
- 1915 – Norm Smith, Australian footballer and coach (d. 1973)
- 1916 – Sid Luckman, American football player and soldier (d. 1998)
- 1919 – Paul Bogart, American director and producer (d. 2012)
- 1920 – Ralph Meeker, American actor (d. 1988)
- 1920 – Stan Musial, American baseball player and manager (d. 2013)
- 1921 – Donald Sheldon, American pilot (d. 1975)
- 1922 – Abe Lemons, American basketball player and coach (d. 2002)
- 1924 – Joseph Campanella, American actor (d. 2018)
- 1924 – Milka Planinc, Yugoslav politician, 28th Prime Minister of Yugoslavia (d. 2010)
- 1924 – Christopher Tolkien, English author and academic
- 1925 – Veljko Kadijević, Croatian general and politician, 5th Federal Secretary of People's Defence (d. 2014)
- 1926 – William Wakefield Baum, American cardinal (d. 2015)
- 1927 – Georgia Frontiere, American businesswoman (d. 2008)
- 1929 – Marilyn French, American author and academic (d. 2009)
- 1929 – Laurier LaPierre, Canadian historian, journalist, and politician (d. 2012)
- 1930 – Marjan Rožanc, Slovenian journalist, author, and playwright (d. 1990)
- 1931 – Lewis Binford, American archaeologist and academic (d. 2011)
- 1931 – Revaz Dogonadze, Georgian chemist and physicist (d. 1985)
- 1931 – Stanley Kalms, Baron Kalms, English businessman
- 1931 – Malcolm Williamson, Australian pianist and composer (d. 2003)
- 1932 – Beryl Bainbridge, English author and screenwriter (d. 2010)
- 1932 – Pelle Gudmundsen-Holmgreen, Danish composer (d. 2016)
- 1933 – Henry Hartsfield, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2014)
- 1933 – Etta Zuber Falconer, American educator and mathematician (d. 2002)
- 1933 – Jean Shepard, American country music singer-songwriter (d. 2016)
- 1934 – Laurence Luckinbill, American actor, director, and playwright
- 1934 – Peter Philpott, Australian cricketer
- 1936 – Victor Chang, Chinese-Australian surgeon (d. 1991)
- 1937 – Ingrid Pitt, Polish-English actress (d. 2010)
- 1937 – Marlo Thomas, American actress, producer, and activist
- 1939 – R. Budd Dwyer, American educator and politician, 30th Treasurer of Pennsylvania (d. 1987)
- 1940 – Freddy Beras-Goico, Dominican comedian and television host (d. 2010)
- 1940 – Dr. John, American singer-songwriter and pianist
- 1940 – Richard Marcinko, American commander and author
- 1940 – Natalia Makarova, Russian ballerina, choreographer, and actress
- 1941 – Juliet Mills, English-American actress
- 1941 – David Porter, American songwriter, musician, and producer
- 1942 – Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul, German educator and politician
- 1943 – Phil Bredesen, American businessman and politician, 48th Governor of Tennessee
- 1943 – Jacques Laffite, French race car driver and sportscaster
- 1944 – Dick Durbin, American lawyer and politician
- 1944 – Earl Monroe, American basketball player and sportscaster
- 1944 – Harold Ramis, American actor, director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2014)
- 1945 – Goldie Hawn, American actress, singer, and producer
- 1948 – Michel Suleiman, Lebanese general and politician, 16th President of Lebanon
- 1948 – George Zimmer, American businessman, founded Men's Wearhouse
- 1948 – Lonnie Jordan, American singer-songwriter War (U.S. band)
- 1948 – Alphonse Mouzon, American jazz drummer (d. 2016)
- 1950 – Gary Pihl, American guitarist Boston
- 1950 – Hisham Barakat, Egyptian lawyer and judge (d. 2015)
- 1950 – Livingston Taylor, American singer-songwriter and musician
- 1952 – Mervyn Davies, Baron Davies of Abersoch, Welsh banker and politician
- 1952 – Janne Kristiansen, Norwegian lawyer and jurist
- 1952 – Lorna Luft, American actress and singer
- 1953 – Tina Brown, English-American journalist and author
- 1954 – Fiona Pitt-Kethley, English journalist, author, and poet
- 1955 – Peter Koppes, Australian singer-songwriter and guitarist
- 1955 – Cedric Maxwell, American basketball player, coach, and sportscaster
- 1955 – Glenn Ridge, Australian radio and television host and producer
- 1956 – Cherry Jones, American actress
- 1959 – Sergei Ratnikov, Estonian footballer and manager
- 1960 – Mark Bailey, English rugby player, author, and educator
- 1960 – Brian McNamara, American actor, director, and producer
- 1960 – Brian Ritchie, American bass player and songwriter
- 1961 – João Domingos Pinto, Portuguese footballer and manager
- 1962 – Steven Curtis Chapman, American Christian music singer-songwriter, musician, record producer, actor, author, and social activist
- 1962 – Alan Smith, English football player
- 1963 – Dave Molyneux, Manx motorcycle racer
- 1963 – Nicollette Sheridan, English actress
- 1964 – Shane Douglas, American wrestler and manager
- 1964 – Liza Tarbuck, English actress, television & radio presenter
- 1964 – Charles Dunstone, English businessman, co-founded Carphone Warehouse
- 1964 – Olden Polynice, Haitian-American basketball player and coach
- 1964 – Stefan Sonnenfeld, American businessman, co-founded Company 3
- 1965 – Björk, Icelandic singer-songwriter
- 1965 – Reggie Lewis, American basketball player (d. 1993)
- 1966 – Troy Aikman, American football player and sportscaster
- 1966 – Evgeny Bareev, Russian chess player and coach
- 1966 – Thanasis Kolitsidakis, Greek footballer
- 1967 – Ken Block, American race car driver
- 1967 – Tripp Cromer, American baseball player
- 1967 – Toshihiko Koga, Japanese martial artist
- 1967 – Amanda Lepore, American model and singer
- 1968 – Andrew Caddick, New Zealand-English cricketer
- 1968 – Alex James, English singer-songwriter, bass player
- 1968 – Antonio Tarver, American boxer, sportscaster, and actor
- 1969 – Ken Griffey Jr., American baseball player and actor
- 1970 – Karen Davila, Filipino journalist
- 1970 – Justin Langer, Australian cricketer and coach
- 1971 – Michael Strahan, American football player, actor, and talk show host
- 1972 – Rich Johnston, English author and critic
- 1972 – Rain Phoenix, American actress and singer
- 1972 – Darrell Cavens, Canadian co-founder and former CEO of e-commerce company Zulily
- 1976 – Saleem Elahi, Pakistani cricketer
- 1976 – Martin Meichelbeck, German footballer
- 1976 – Daniel Whiston, English figure skater
- 1976 – Michael Wilson, Australian footballer
- 1977 – Michael Batiste, American former professional basketball player
- 1977 – Yolande James, Canadian lawyer and politician
- 1977 – Jonas Jennings, American football player
- 1978 – Daniel Bradshaw, Australian footballer
- 1978 – Lucía Jiménez, Spanish actress and singer
- 1979 – Vincenzo Iaquinta, Italian footballer
- 1979 – Stromile Swift, American basketball player
- 1979 – Alex Tanguay, Canadian ice hockey player
- 1980 – Hank Blalock, American baseball player
- 1980 – Alec Brownstein, American author and director
- 1980 – Leonardo González, Costa Rican footballer
- 1981 – Wesley Britt, American football player
- 1981 – Ainārs Kovals, Latvian javelin thrower
- 1981 – Jonny Magallón, Mexican footballer
- 1982 – Ioana Ciolacu, Romanian fashion designer
- 1982 – Georgios Kalogiannidis, Greek archer
- 1983 – Jamie Langley, English rugby player
- 1984 – Álvaro Bautista, Spanish motorcycle racer
- 1984 – Jena Malone, American actress and singer
- 1985 – Carly Rae Jepsen, Canadian singer-songwriter and actress
- 1985 – Jesús Navas, Spanish footballer
- 1985 – Nicola Silvestri, Italian footballer
- 1986 – Colleen Ballinger, American comedian, actress, and singer
- 1986 – Ben Bishop, American ice hockey player
- 1986 – Kristof Goddaert, Belgian cyclist (d. 2014)
- 1987 – Stefan Glarner, Swiss footballer
- 1987 – Eesha Karavade, Indian chess player
- 1988 – Len Väljas, Canadian skier
- 1988 – Preston Zimmerman, American soccer player
- 1989 – Will Buckley, English footballer
- 1989 – Dárvin Chávez, Mexican footballer
- 1989 – Justin Tucker, American football player
- 1989 – Fabian Delph, English footballer
- 1990 – Dani King, English cyclist
- 1990 – Georgie Twigg, English field hockey player
- 1991 – Almaz Ayana, Ethiopian sprinter
- 1991 – Lewis Dunk, English footballer
- 1991 – Peni Terepo, New Zealand rugby league player
- 1992 – Conor Maynard, English singer-songwriter
- 1994 – Saúl Ñíguez, Spanish footballer
- 615 – Columbanus, Irish missionary and saint (b. 543)
- 933 – Al-Tahawi, Arab imam and scholar (b. 853)
- 1011 – Reizei, emperor of Japan (b. 950)
- 1136 – William de Corbeil, English archbishop (b. 1070)
- 1150 – García Ramírez of Navarre (b. 1112)
- 1325 – Yury of Moscow, Prince of Moscow and Vladimir
- 1361 – Philip I, Duke of Burgundy (b. 1346)
- 1555 – Georgius Agricola, German mineralogist, philologist, and scholar (b. 1490)
- 1566 – Annibale Caro, Italian poet and author (b. 1507)
- 1579 – Thomas Gresham, English merchant and financier (b. 1519)
- 1639 – Henry Grey, 8th Earl of Kent, English politician, Lord Lieutenant of Bedfordshire (b. 1583)
- 1652 – Jan Brożek, Polish mathematician, physician, and astronomer (b. 1585)
- 1695 – Henry Purcell, English organist and composer (b. 1659)
- 1775 – John Hill, English botanist and author (b. 1719)
- 1782 – Jacques de Vaucanson, French engineer (b. 1709)
- 1811 – Heinrich von Kleist, German poet and author (b. 1777)
- 1844 – Ivan Krylov, Russian poet and playwright (b. 1769)
- 1859 – Yoshida Shōin, Japanese academic and politician (b. 1830)
- 1861 – Jean-Baptiste Henri Lacordaire, French priest and activist (b. 1802)
- 1870 – Karel Jaromír Erben, Czech historian and poet (b. 1811)
- 1874 – Marià Fortuny, Spanish painter (b. 1838)
- 1881 – Ami Boué, German-Austrian geologist and ethnographer (b. 1794)
- 1899 – Garret Hobart, American lawyer and politician, 24th Vice President of the United States (b. 1844)
- 1907 – Harry Boyle, Australian cricketer (b. 1847)
- 1907 – Paula Modersohn-Becker, German painter (b. 1876)
- 1908 – Carl Friedrich Schmidt, German-Russian geologist and botanist (b. 1832)
- 1909 – Peder Severin Krøyer, Norwegian-Danish painter (b. 1851)
- 1916 – Franz Joseph I of Austria (b. 1830)
- 1922 – Ricardo Flores Magón, Mexican journalist and activist (b. 1874)
- 1926 – Edward Cummins, American golfer (b. 1886)
- 1928 – Heinrich XXVII, Prince Reuss Younger Line (b. 1858)
- 1934 – John Scaddan, Australian politician, 10th Premier of Western Australia (b. 1876)
- 1938 – Leopold Godowsky, Polish-American pianist and composer (b. 1870)
- 1941 – Henrietta Vinton Davis, American actress and playwright (b. 1860)
- 1942 – Count Leopold Berchtold, Austrian-Hungarian politician, Foreign Minister of Austria-Hungary (b. 1863)
- 1942 – J. B. M. Hertzog, South African general and politician, 3rd Prime Minister of South Africa (b. 1866)
- 1945 – Robert Benchley, American humorist, newspaper columnist, and actor (b. 1889)
- 1945 – Al Davis, American boxer (b. 1920)
- 1945 – Ellen Glasgow, American author (b. 1873)
- 1945 – Alexander Patch, American general (b. 1889)
- 1947 – William McCormack, Australian politician, 22nd Premier of Queensland (b. 1879)
- 1953 – Felice Bonetto, Italian race car driver (b. 1903)
- 1953 – Larry Shields, American clarinet player and composer (b. 1893)
- 1957 – Francis Burton Harrison, American general and politician, 6th Governor-General of the Philippines (b. 1873)
- 1958 – Mel Ott, American baseball player, manager, and sportscaster (b. 1909)
- 1959 – Max Baer, American boxer, referee, and actor (b. 1909)
- 1963 – Artur Lemba, Estonian composer and educator (b. 1885)
- 1963 – Robert Stroud, American ornithologist and author (b. 1890)
- 1967 – C. M. Eddy, Jr., American author (b. 1896)
- 1970 – Newsy Lalonde, Canadian lacrosse and ice hockey player (b. 1887)
- 1970 – C. V. Raman, Indian physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1888)
- 1973 – Thomas Pelly, American lawyer and politician (b. 1902)
- 1974 – John B. Gambling, American radio host (b. 1897)
- 1974 – Frank Martin, Swiss-Dutch pianist and composer (b. 1890)
- 1975 – Gunnar Gunnarsson, Icelandic author (b. 1889)
- 1980 – Sara García, Mexican actress (b. 1895)
- 1981 – Harry von Zell, American actor and comedian (b. 1906)
- 1982 – John Hargrave, English activist and author (b. 1894)
- 1984 – Ben Wilson, American basketball player (b. 1967)
- 1986 – Jerry Colonna, American singer-songwriter and actor (b. 1904)
- 1988 – Carl Hubbell, American baseball player and scout (b. 1903)
- 1989 – Harvey Hart, Canadian director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1928)
- 1989 – Margot Zemach, American author and illustrator (b. 1931)
- 1990 – Dean Hart, Canadian wrestler and referee (b. 1954)
- 1991 – Sonny Werblin, American businessman and philanthropist (b. 1907)
- 1992 – Kaysone Phomvihane, Laotian soldier and politician, 2nd President of Laos (b. 1920)
- 1992 – Ricky Williams, American singer-songwriter and drummer (b. 1956)
- 1993 – Bill Bixby, American actor (b. 1934)
- 1994 – Willem Jacob Luyten, Dutch-American astronomer and academic (b. 1899)
- 1995 – Peter Grant, English actor and manager (b. 1935)
- 1995 – Noel Jones, Indian-English diplomat, British ambassador to Kazakhstan (b. 1940)
- 1996 – Bernard Rose, English organist and composer (b 1916)
- 1996 – Abdus Salam, Pakistani-English physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1926)
- 1999 – Quentin Crisp, English actor, author, and illustrator (b. 1908)
- 2000 – Ernest Lluch, Spanish economist and politician (b. 1937)
- 2002 – Hadda Brooks, American singer-songwriter and pianist (b. 1916)
- 2005 – Alfred Anderson, Scottish soldier (b. 1896)
- 2005 – Hugh Sidey, American journalist and academic (b. 1927)
- 2006 – Hassan Gouled Aptidon, Somalian-Djiboutian politician, 1st President of Djibouti (b. 1916)
- 2006 – Pierre Amine Gemayel, Lebanese lawyer and politician (b. 1972)
- 2007 – Fernando Fernán Gómez, Spanish actor, director, and screenwriter (b. 1921)
- 2007 – Tom Johnson, Canadian-American ice hockey player and coach (b. 1928)
- 2007 – Noel McGregor, New Zealand cricketer (b. 1931)
- 2009 – Konstantin Feoktistov, Russian engineer and astronaut (b. 1926)
- 2010 – Norris Church Mailer, American author (b. 1949)
- 2010 – David Nolan, American activist and politician (b. 1943)
- 2010 – Margaret Taylor-Burroughs, American painter and author, co-founded the DuSable Museum of African American History (b. 1917)
- 2011 – Anne McCaffrey, American science fiction and fantasy author (b. 1926)
- 2012 – Emily Squires, American director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1941)
- 2012 – Austin Peralta, American pianist (b. 1990)
- 2013 – John Egerton, American journalist and author (b. 1935)
- 2013 – Fred Kavli, Norwegian-American businessman and philanthropist, founded The Kavli Foundation (b. 1927)
- 2013 – Dimitri Mihalas, American astronomer and author (b. 1939)
- 2013 – Vern Mikkelsen, American basketball player and coach (b. 1928)
- 2013 – Bernard Parmegiani, French composer (b. 1927)
- 2013 – Tôn Thất Đính, Vietnamese general (b. 1926)
- 2013 – Maurice Vachon, Canadian-American wrestler (b. 1929)
- 2014 – J. C. Gilbert, American soldier, farmer, and politician (b. 1922)
- 2014 – John H. Land, American soldier and politician (b. 1920)
- 2014 – Robert Richardson, English general (b. 1929)
- 2015 – Gil Cardinal, Canadian director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1950)
- 2015 – Ameen Faheem, Indian-Pakistani poet and politician (b. 1939)
- 2015 – Bob Foster, American boxer and police officer (b. 1938)
- 2015 – Anthony Read, English screenwriter and producer (b. 1935)
- 2015 – Joseph Silverstein, American violinist and conductor (b. 1932)
- 2016 – Hassan Sadpara, Pakistani mountaineer and adventurer (b. 1963)
- 2017 – David Cassidy, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1950)
Holidays and observances
External links 2002
was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2002nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 2nd year of the 3rd millennium, the 2nd year of the 21st century, and the 3rd year of the 2000s decade.
2002 was designated as:
International Year of Ecotourism
International Year of Mountains 2018–19 NHL season
The 2018–19 NHL season is the 102nd season of operation (101st season of play) of the National Hockey League. 31 teams competed in an 82-game regular season. The regular season began on October 3, 2018, and ended on April 6, 2019. The 2019 Stanley Cup playoffs began on April 10, 2019, with the Stanley Cup Finals held in late May to early June. A.J. Styles
Allen Neal Jones (born June 2, 1977) is an American professional wrestler currently signed to WWE, where he performs on the Raw brand under the ring name AJ Styles (also stylized as A.J. Styles).Long regarded as one of the world's best professional wrestlers, Styles has headlined numerous pay-per-view events internationally. Styles debuted in 1998 and competed for various independent promotions, before gaining his first mainstream exposure in World Championship Wrestling (WCW) in 2001. From 2002 to 2014, he became widely known for his tenure in Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA), who described him as "the cornerstone of the company since the inception in 2002". Within that organization, Styles held the NWA World Heavyweight Championship three times and the TNA World Heavyweight Championship twice and was the inaugural titleholder of the X Division Championship, which he won six times. Styles is the first professional wrestler to complete the TNA Triple Crown (five times) and the TNA Grand Slam (two times).
In 2010, Styles became the first TNA-contracted wrestler to be ranked number one on the annual Pro Wrestling Illustrated (PWI) PWI 500 list. He simultaneously appeared in Ring of Honor (ROH) from 2002–2006, where he became the inaugural ROH Pure Champion. In 2014, Styles signed with New Japan Pro-Wrestling (NJPW) and won his first of two IWGP Heavyweight Championships in his debut match, later becoming the third leader of the Bullet Club. Styles has also won various titles on international independent circuits, including the PWG World Championship.
Styles first appeared in WWE (then the World Wrestling Federation, or the WWF) in 2002, but turned down a developmental contract he was offered with the company. He signed a multi-year contract with WWE fourteen years later in January 2016, making his re-debut that month and going on to win the WWE Championship in September. Both PWI and the Wrestling Observer Newsletter (WON) voted him Wrestler of the Year for 2016 and in 2017 he was inducted into the WON Hall of Fame. With his second WWE Championship victory in Manchester, England in November 2017, Styles was recognized by WWE as the first wrestler to win the title outside of North America. At 371 days, this reign is the longest in SmackDown history under the brand extension, shattering the previous record of 280 days held by John Bradshaw Layfield from 2004–2005. The reign is also recognized as the eighth-longest overall (tied with Randy Savage's 1988–1989 reign). Alberto Yarini
Alberto Yarini y Ponce de León (1882-1910) was a Cuban racketeer and pimp during the period of the Cuban War of Independence against Spain. Yarini was well known in his time, is Cuba's most famous pimp, and came to symbolize the concept of Cubanidad, the Cuban national identity, to many Cubans, long after his death.
Yarini was born into an elite family, once owners of Matanzas sugar plantations, with his father a dentist, and his uncle a medical surgeon, in Havana. He was educated in the United States, spoke fluent English as well as Spanish, and was politically well connected. He became known for importing prostitutes from France, and worked out of San Isidro, a barrio and red light district in Old Havana. He was killed on November 21, 1910, by gunfire from rival French pimp Louis Lotot and his confederates, who had been waiting for him. Lotot was himself killed in return gunfire from Yarini's bodyguard. Amy Klobuchar
Amy Jean Klobuchar (; born May 25, 1960) is an American lawyer and politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Minnesota. A member of the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party, Minnesota's affiliate of the Democratic Party, she previously served as the Hennepin County Attorney.
Born in Plymouth, Minnesota, Klobuchar is a graduate of Yale University and the University of Chicago Law School. She was a partner at two Minneapolis law firms before being elected county attorney for Hennepin County in 1998, making her responsible for all criminal prosecution in Minnesota's most populous county. Klobuchar was first elected to the Senate in 2006, becoming Minnesota's first elected female United States Senator, and reelected in 2012 and 2018. In 2009 and 2010, she was described as a "rising star" in the Democratic Party. She is running for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in the 2020 election. Cal Ripken Jr.
Calvin Edwin Ripken Jr. (born August 24, 1960), nicknamed "The Iron Man", is an American former baseball shortstop and third baseman who played 21 seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Baltimore Orioles (1981–2001). One of his position's most offensively productive players, Ripken compiled 3,184 hits, 431 home runs, and 1,695 runs batted in during his career, and he won two Gold Glove Awards for his defense. He was a 19-time All-Star and was twice named American League (AL) Most Valuable Player (MVP). Ripken holds the record for consecutive games played, 2,632, surpassing Lou Gehrig's streak of 2,130 that had stood for 56 years and that many deemed unbreakable. In 2007, he was elected into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility, and currently has the fifth highest voting percentage of all time (98.53%).
Born in Maryland, Ripken grew up traveling around the United States as his father, Cal Sr., was a player and coach in the Orioles' organization. After playing at Aberdeen High School, Ripken Jr. was drafted by the Orioles in the second round of the 1978 MLB draft. He reached the major leagues in 1981 as a third baseman, but the following year, he was shifted to shortstop, his long-time position for Baltimore. That year, Ripken also won the AL Rookie of the Year Award and began his consecutive games played streak. In 1983, he won a World Series championship and his first AL MVP Award. One of Ripken's best years came in 1991, when he was named an All-Star, won the Home Run Derby, and was recipient of his first All-Star Game MVP Award, his second AL MVP Award, and first Gold Glove Award. He broke the consecutive games played record on September 6, 1995, in his 2,131st consecutive game, which fans voted as the league's "most memorable moment" in the history of the game in an MLB.com poll; Ripken voluntarily ended his 17-year streak at 2,632 games, in 1998. He switched back to third base for the final five years of his career. In 2001, his final season, Ripken was named the All-Star Game MVP and was honored with the Commissioner's Historic Achievement Award.
Ripken is considered one of the best shortstops and third basemen in baseball history. At 6 ft 4 in (1.93 m), 225 lb (102 kg), he pioneered the way for the success of taller, larger shortstops. He holds the record for most home runs hit as a shortstop (345) breaking the record previously held by Ernie Banks and was selected as the starting shortstop for the Major League Baseball All-Century Team. Ripken is a best-selling author and the President and CEO of Ripken Baseball, Inc., whose goal is to grow the love of baseball from a grassroots level. Since his retirement, he has purchased three minor league baseball teams. He has been active in charity work throughout his career and is still considered an ambassador of the game. He lives in Annapolis, Maryland and is married to Laura Ripken, nee Kaufman, a circuit court judge in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Charlie Rose
Charles Peete Rose Jr. (born January 5, 1942) is an American television journalist and former talk show host. From 1991 to 2017, he was the host and executive producer of the talk show Charlie Rose on PBS and Bloomberg LP.
Rose also co-anchored CBS This Morning from 2012 to 2017. Rose formerly substituted for the anchor of the CBS Evening News. Rose, along with Lara Logan, hosted the revived CBS classic Person to Person, a news program during which celebrities are interviewed in their homes, originally hosted from 1953 to 1961 by Edward R. Murrow.In November 2017, Rose's employment at CBS was terminated, and his eponymous show Charlie Rose on PBS was cancelled the day after The Washington Post published in-house allegations of sexual harassment. Danny Masterson
Daniel Peter "Danny" Masterson (born March 13, 1976) is an American actor and disc jockey. Masterson played the roles of Steven Hyde in That '70s Show (1998–2006) and Jameson "Rooster" Bennett in The Ranch (2016–2018). Dave Meltzer
David Allen Meltzer (born October 24, 1959) is an American tabloid writer known for covering professional wrestling and mixed martial arts.
Since 1983, he has been the publisher and editor of the Wrestling Observer Newsletter (WON). He has also written for the Oakland Tribune, the Los Angeles Times, Yahoo! Sports, and The National Sports Daily. He has extensively covered mixed martial arts since UFC 1 in 1993 and currently covers the sport for SB Nation. He has been called "the most accomplished reporter in sports journalism" by Frank Deford of Sports Illustrated.He is also a frequent lecturer on many aspects of the business of MMA, professional wrestling, and boxing at the Graduate School of Business, Stanford University. Hamilton (musical)
Hamilton: An American Musical is a sung-and-rapped through musical about the life of American Founding Father Alexander Hamilton, with music, lyrics and book by Lin-Manuel Miranda, inspired by the 2004 biography Alexander Hamilton by historian Ron Chernow. Incorporating hip hop, R&B, pop, soul, traditional-style show tunes, and color-conscious casting of non-white actors as the Founding Fathers and other historical figures, the musical achieved both critical acclaim and box office success.
The musical made its Off-Broadway debut at The Public Theater in February 2015, where its engagement was sold out. The show transferred to Broadway in August 2015 at the Richard Rodgers Theatre. On Broadway, it received enthusiastic critical reception and unprecedented advance box office sales. In 2016, Hamilton received a record-setting 16 Tony nominations, winning 11, including Best Musical, and was also the recipient of the 2016 Grammy Award for Best Musical Theater Album and the 2016 Pulitzer Prize for Drama. The prior Off-Broadway production of Hamilton won the 2015 Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Musical as well as seven other Drama Desk Awards out of 14 total nominated categories.
The Chicago production of Hamilton began preview performances at the CIBC Theatre in September 2016 and officially opened the following month. The West End production of Hamilton opened at the Victoria Palace Theatre in London in December 2017, winning seven Olivier Awards in 2018, including Best New Musical. The first U.S. national tour of the show began performances in March 2017. A second U.S. tour opened in February 2018. Hamilton's third U.S. tour began January 11, 2019, with a 3-week engagement in Puerto Rico featuring Miranda in the lead role. Hey Ya!
"Hey Ya!" is a song by André 3000. Along with "The Way You Move", recorded by OutKast's other member Big Boi, "Hey Ya!" was released by LaFace Records as one of the two lead singles from the duo's fifth album, Speakerboxxx/The Love Below. The track became a commercial success, reaching the top five on most of the charts it entered, and reaching number one in Australia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, and the United States. In 2009, Billboard named it as the 20th most successful song of the 2000s in the United States.
The song popularized the phrase "shake it like a Polaroid picture" and the Polaroid Corporation used the song to revitalize the public's perception of its products. Hitting for the cycle
In baseball, hitting for the cycle is the accomplishment of one batter hitting a single, a double, a triple, and a home run in the same game. Collecting the hits in that order is known as a "natural cycle". Cycles are semi-rare in Major League Baseball (MLB), having occurred only 325 times, starting with Curry Foley in 1882. The most recent example was accomplished by Jorge Polanco of the Minnesota Twins on April 5, 2019, against the Philadelphia Phillies. The Miami Marlins are the only current MLB franchise who have never had a player hit for the natural cycle. An Ohio high school player accomplished a natural cycle in 2019. Jena Malone
Jena Laine Malone (; born November 21, 1984) is an American actress, musician and photographer.
Malone made her acting debut in the television film Bastard Out of Carolina (1996); subsequently, she starred in a number of mainstream and independent films including Ellen Foster (1997), Contact (1997), Stepmom (1998), Donnie Darko (2001), Life as a House (2001), Hitler: The Rise of Evil (2003), Saved! (2004), Pride & Prejudice (2005), Into the Wild (2007), The Ruins (2008), Sucker Punch (2011) and The Neon Demon (2016). She played Johanna Mason in The Hunger Games film series.
Malone is also an indie pop musician in two bands, Jena Malone and Her Bloodstains and The Shoe. Just Dance (song)
"Just Dance" is the debut single by American singer Lady Gaga. She co-wrote the song with Akon and its producer RedOne. It also features vocals from Colby O'Donis and was released on April 8, 2008 as the lead single from Gaga's debut studio album, The Fame. The song was written by Gaga in 10 minutes as "a happy record". "Just Dance" also has influences of R&B and lyrically speaks about being intoxicated at a club.
The song received positive reviews from music critics, who complimented its club, anthem-like nature and the synth-pop associated with it. The song reached number one in the United States, Australia, Canada, Ireland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, as well as the top five in the Czech Republic, Hungary, New Zealand, Norway, Scotland, Spain, and Sweden. In the United States, "Just Dance" was a sleeper hit, spending almost five months on the Billboard Hot 100 before finally reaching the chart's summit in January 2009. The single is among the best-selling singles of all time, having sold over 10 million copies.
The music video of the song portrayed Lady Gaga appearing in a party where she plays the song, prompting party-goers to start dancing in enjoyment. Gaga compared her experience of shooting the video with being on a Martin Scorsese movie set. "Just Dance" was performed by Gaga in a number of live appearances, such as Jimmy Kimmel Live! and The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, all of her concert tours, and the Super Bowl LI halftime show. She usually plays on a keytar while performing the song. In 2009, the song received a Grammy nomination in the Best Dance Recording category but lost to electronic duo Daft Punk for their song "Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger (Alive 2007)". Justin Trudeau
Justin Pierre James Trudeau (; French: [ʒystɛ̃ tʁydo]; born December 25, 1971) is a Canadian politician serving as the 23rd prime minister of Canada since 2015 and Leader of the Liberal Party since 2013. Trudeau is the second-youngest Canadian Prime Minister after Joe Clark; he is also the first to be related to a previous holder of the post, as the eldest son of Pierre Trudeau.Born in Ottawa, Trudeau attended Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf and graduated from McGill University in 1994 and the University of British Columbia in 1998. He gained a high public profile in 2000, when he delivered a eulogy at his father's state funeral. After graduating, he worked as a teacher in Vancouver, British Columbia. He completed one year of an engineering program at Montreal's École Polytechnique, from 2002 to 2003, and one year of a master's program in environmental geography at McGill University, from 2004 to 2005. He advocated for various causes, and portrayed a cousin in the 2007 TV miniseries The Great War.In the 2008 federal election, he was elected to represent the riding of Papineau in the House of Commons. In 2009, he was appointed the Liberal Party's critic for youth and multiculturalism, and the following year, became critic for citizenship and immigration. In 2011, he was appointed as critic for secondary education and youth and amateur sport. Trudeau won the leadership of the Liberal Party in April 2013 and went on to lead his party to victory in the 2015 federal election, moving the third-placed Liberals from 36 seats to 184 seats, the largest-ever numerical increase by a party in a Canadian general election. Kendall Jenner
Kendall Nicole Jenner (born November 3, 1995) is an American model and television personality.
Jenner first appeared in the E! reality television show Keeping Up with the Kardashians, and is now also a model in a movement dubbed "the Instagirl era" or "Social Media Modeling", where models are chosen for their online presence and social media following.After working in commercial print ad campaigns and photoshoots, Jenner had breakout seasons in 2014 and 2015, walking the runways for high fashion designers during the New York, Milan, and Paris Fashion Weeks. Jenner has done multiple editorials and cover shoots for LOVE and various international Vogue editions, walked for Victoria's Secret, and acts as brand ambassador for Estée Lauder's multimedia ad campaigns. Jenner made her debut at No. 16 on Forbes magazine's 2015 list of top earning models, with an estimated annual income of US$4 million.In 2017, Jenner became the World's Highest-Paid Model on the Forbes top-earning models list. Rihanna
Robyn Rihanna Fenty (; born February 20, 1988) is a Barbadian singer, businesswoman and actress. Born in Saint Michael and raised in Bridgetown, Rihanna was discovered by American record producer Evan Rogers in her home country in 2003. Throughout 2004, she recorded demo tapes under the direction of Rogers; this led to her securing a recording contract with Def Jam Recordings after she auditioned for its then-president, Jay-Z. Rihanna rose to fame with the release of her debut studio album Music of the Sun (2005) and its follow-up A Girl like Me (2006). Both albums peaked within the top 10 of the U.S. Billboard 200 and respectively produced the successful singles "Pon de Replay", "SOS", and "Unfaithful".
With the release of her third studio album Good Girl Gone Bad (2007), Rihanna developed a public image as a sex symbol and incorporated more elements of dance-pop into her music. It became a major breakthrough in her career and earned Rihanna her first Grammy Award at the 2008 ceremony. Recorded after her assault at the hands of her then-boyfriend Chris Brown, her fourth studio album, Rated R (2009), is distinguished for its dark themes and lyrical content. Her pop-influenced fifth studio album, Loud (2010) achieved widespread success, producing three Billboard Hot 100 number one singles: "Only Girl (In the World)", "What's My Name?", and "S&M". She followed this success with her dance-oriented sixth studio album, Talk That Talk (2011) and her R&B-focused seventh album Unapologetic (2012), which won a Grammy Award. Her critically acclaimed dancehall and hip-hop soul-inspired eighth studio album, Anti (2016), became her second Billboard 200 number-one album and was one of the most streamed albums of the year.Recognized as a pop icon, Rihanna is one of the world's best-selling music artists, with over 250 million records sold worldwide. Many of her songs rank among the world's best-selling singles of all time, including the singles "Umbrella", "We Found Love", "Stay" and "Work", as well as her collaboration "Love the Way You Lie" with Eminem. Rihanna is the youngest solo artist to earn 14 number-one singles and has a total of 31 top 10 singles on the Billboard Hot 100. She also has over 30 top 10 songs in the United Kingdom and Australia, making her the only artist in the 21st century to achieve this feat. She was named the Top Digital Songs Artist and Top Hot 100 Artist of this century, as well as the all-time Top Pop Songs artist by Billboard. Additionally, she is Spotify and Apple Music's most streamed female artist of all time.Among numerous awards and accolades, Rihanna has won nine Grammy Awards, 13 American Music Awards, and 12 Billboard Music Awards. She currently holds six Guinness World Records. Furthermore, she was awarded with the inaugural American Music Award for Icon in 2013 and the Michael Jackson Video Vanguard Award in 2016. Rihanna received the Fashion Icon lifetime achievement award from the Council of Fashion Designers of America in 2014. In 2012, Forbes ranked her the fourth most powerful celebrity, while Time included her on the annual list of the most influential people in the world in 2012 and 2018. Rihanna was named Harvard University's "Humanitarian of the Year" by the Harvard Foundation in early 2017. She was appointed as an Ambassador on behalf of the government of Barbados in 2018, with her duties involving the promotion of education, tourism and investment. Troy Aikman
Troy Kenneth Aikman (born November 21, 1966) is a former American football quarterback who played for the Dallas Cowboys in the National Football League (NFL). The number one overall draft pick in 1989, Aikman played twelve consecutive seasons as the starting quarterback with the Cowboys, the greatest number of seasons by any Cowboy quarterback. During his career he was a six-time Pro Bowl selection, led the team to three Super Bowl victories, and was the MVP of Super Bowl XXVII. Aikman was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2006 and to the College Football Hall of Fame on December 9, 2008 in New York City.Currently he works as a television sportscaster for the Fox network. He is also a former joint owner of the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series racing team Hall of Fame Racing along with fellow former Cowboys quarterback Roger Staubach, and was a part-owner of the San Diego Padres. Weezer
Weezer is an American rock band formed in Los Angeles, California in 1992. Since 2001, the band has consisted of Rivers Cuomo (lead vocals, lead guitar, keyboards), Patrick Wilson (drums), Brian Bell (guitar, backing vocals, keyboards), and Scott Shriner (bass, backing vocals).
After signing to Geffen Records in 1993, Weezer released their debut self-titled album, also known as the "Blue Album", in 1994. Backed by successful music videos for the singles "Buddy Holly", "Undone – The Sweater Song", and "Say It Ain't So", the Blue Album became a 3x platinum success. Their second album, Pinkerton (1996), featuring a darker, more abrasive sound, was a commercial failure and initially received mixed reviews, but went on to achieve cult status and critical acclaim years later. Both the Blue Album and Pinkerton are now frequently cited among the best albums of the 1990s. Following the tour for Pinkerton, bassist Matt Sharp left the band and Weezer went on hiatus.
In 2001, Weezer returned with another self-titled album, known as the "Green Album", with new bassist Mikey Welsh. With a more pop sound, and promoted by singles "Hash Pipe" and "Island in the Sun", the album was a commercial success and received mostly positive reviews. After the Green Album tour, Welsh left the band and was replaced by current bassist Scott Shriner. Weezer's fourth album, Maladroit (2002), achieved mostly positive reviews, but weaker sales. Make Believe (2005) received mixed reviews, but its single "Beverly Hills" became Weezer's first single to top the US Modern Rock Tracks chart and the first to reach the top ten on the Billboard Hot 100.
In 2008, Weezer released a third self-titled album, known as the "Red Album", featuring "TR-808s, synths, Southern rap, and baroque counterpoint". Its lead single, "Pork and Beans", became the band's third song to top the Modern Rock Tracks chart, backed by a successful Grammy-winning YouTube music video. Raditude (2009) and Hurley (2010) featured more "modern pop production" and songs co-written with other artists, achieved further mixed reviews and moderate sales. The band's ninth and tenth albums, Everything Will Be Alright in the End (2014) and the band's fourth self-titled album, known as the "White Album" (2016), returned to a rock style and achieved more positive reviews. Their eleventh album, Pacific Daydream (2017), featured a more mainstream pop sound.The band released a surprise fifth self-titled album, known as the "Teal Album", on January 24, 2019, which features only cover songs. Their sixth self-titled album, known as the "Black Album", was released on March 1, 2019. Weezer has sold 10.2 million albums in the US and over 35 million worldwide.
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