Nova

A nova (plural novae or novas) or classical nova (CN, plural CNe, or Q) is a transient astronomical event that causes the sudden appearance of a bright, apparently "new" star, that slowly fades over several weeks or many months.

Causes of the dramatic appearance of a nova vary, depending on the circumstances of the two progenitor stars. All observed novae involve a white dwarf in a close binary system. The main sub-classes of novae are classical novae, recurrent novae (RNe), and dwarf novae. They are all considered to be cataclysmic variable stars.

Classical nova eruptions are the most common type of nova. They are likely created in a close binary star system consisting of a white dwarf and either a main sequence, subgiant, or red giant star. When the orbital period falls in the range of several days to one day, the white dwarf is close enough to its companion star to start drawing accreted matter onto the surface of the white dwarf, which creates a dense but shallow atmosphere. This atmosphere is mostly hydrogen and is thermally heated by the hot white dwarf, which eventually reaches a critical temperature causing rapid runaway ignition by fusion.

From the dramatic and sudden energies created, the now hydrogen-burnt atmosphere is then dramatically expelled into interstellar space, and its brightened envelope is seen as the visible light created from the nova event, and previously was mistaken as a "new" star. A few novae produce short-lived nova remnants, lasting for perhaps several centuries. Recurrent nova processes are the same as the classical nova, except that the fusion ignition may be repetitive because the companion star can again feed the dense atmosphere of the white dwarf.

Novae most often occur in the sky along the path of the Milky Way, especially near the observed galactic centre in Sagittarius; however, they can appear anywhere in the sky. They occur far more frequently than galactic supernovae, averaging about ten per year. Most are found telescopically, perhaps only one every year to eighteen months reaching naked-eye visibility. Novae reaching first or second magnitude occur only several times per century. The last bright nova was V1369 Centauri reaching 3.3 magnitude on 14 December 2013.

Making a Nova
Artist's conception of a white dwarf, right, accreting hydrogen from the Roche lobe of its larger companion star

Etymology

During the sixteenth century, astronomer Tycho Brahe observed the supernova SN 1572 in the constellation Cassiopeia. He described it in his book De nova stella (Latin for "concerning the new star"), giving rise to the adoption of the name nova. In this work he argued that a nearby object should be seen to move relative to the fixed stars, and that the nova had to be very far away. Although this event was a supernova and not a nova, the terms were considered interchangeable until the 1930s.[1] After this, novae were classified as classical novae to distinguish them from supernovae, as their causes and energies were thought to be different, based solely in the observational evidence.

Ironically, despite the term "stella nova" meaning "new star", novae most often take place as a result of white dwarfs: remnants of extremely old stars.

Stellar evolution of novae

Evolution of potential novae begins with two main sequence stars in a binary system. One of the two evolves into a red giant, leaving its remnant white dwarf core in orbit with the remaining star. The second star—which may be either a main sequence star or an aging giant—begins to shed its envelope onto its white dwarf companion when it overflows its Roche lobe. As a result, the white dwarf steadily captures matter from the companion's outer atmosphere in an accretion disk, and in turn, the accreted matter falls into the atmosphere. As the white dwarf consists of degenerate matter, the accreted hydrogen does not inflate, but its temperature increases. Runaway fusion occurs when the temperature of this atmospheric layer reaches ~20 million K, initiating nuclear burning, via the CNO cycle.[2]

Hydrogen fusion may occur in a stable manner on the surface of the white dwarf for a narrow range of accretion rates, giving rise to a super soft X-ray source, but for most binary system parameters, the hydrogen burning is unstable thermally and rapidly converts a large amount of the hydrogen into other, heavier chemical elements in a runaway reaction,[1] liberating an enormous amount of energy. This blows the remaining gases away from the surface of the white dwarf surface and produces an extremely bright outburst of light.

The rise to peak brightness may be very rapid, or gradual. This is related to the speed class of the nova; yet after the peak, the brightness declines steadily.[3] The time taken for a nova to decay by around 2 or 3 magnitudes from maximum optical brightness is used for classification, via its speed class. Fast novae typically will take fewer than 25 days to decay by 2 magnitudes, while slow novae will take more than 80 days.[4]

In spite of their violence, usually the amount of material ejected in novae is only about ​110,000 of a solar mass, quite small relative to the mass of the white dwarf. Furthermore, only five percent of the accreted mass is fused during the power outburst.[1] Nonetheless, this is enough energy to accelerate nova ejecta to velocities as high as several thousand kilometers per second—higher for fast novae than slow ones—with a concurrent rise in luminosity from a few times solar to 50,000–100,000 times solar.[1][5] In 2010 scientists using NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope discovered that a nova also can emit gamma-rays (>100 MeV).[6]

Potentially, a white dwarf can generate multiple novae over time as additional hydrogen continues to accrete onto its surface from its companion star. An example is RS Ophiuchi, which is known to have flared six times (in 1898, 1933, 1958, 1967, 1985, and 2006). Eventually, the white dwarf could explode as a Type Ia supernova if it approaches the Chandrasekhar limit.

Occasionally, novae are bright enough and close enough to Earth to be conspicuous to the unaided eye. The brightest recent example was Nova Cygni 1975. This nova appeared on 29 August 1975, in the constellation Cygnus about five degrees north of Deneb, and reached magnitude 2.0 (nearly as bright as Deneb). The most recent were V1280 Scorpii, which reached magnitude 3.7 on 17 February 2007, and Nova Delphini 2013. Nova Centauri 2013 was discovered 2 December 2013 and so far, is the brightest nova of this millennium, reaching magnitude 3.3.

Helium novae

A helium nova (undergoing a helium flash) is a proposed category of nova events that lacks hydrogen lines in its spectrum. This may be caused by the explosion of a helium shell on a white dwarf. The theory was first proposed in 1989, and the first candidate helium nova to be observed was V445 Puppis in 2000.[7] Since then, four other novae have been proposed as helium novae.[8]

Occurrence rate and astrophysical significance

Astronomers estimate that the Milky Way experiences roughly 30 to 60 novae per year, but a recent examination has found the likely improved rate of about 50±27.[9] The number of novae discovered in the Milky Way each year is much lower, about 10,[10] probably due to distant novae being obscured by gas and dust absorption.[10] Roughly 25 novae brighter than about the twentieth magnitude are discovered in the Andromeda Galaxy each year and smaller numbers are seen in other nearby galaxies.[11]

Spectroscopic observation of nova ejecta nebulae has shown that they are enriched in elements such as helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, and magnesium.[1] The contribution of novae to the interstellar medium is not great; novae supply only ​150 as much material to the Galaxy as do supernovae, and only ​1200 as much as red giant and supergiant stars.[1]

Recurrent novae such as RS Ophiuchi (those with periods on the order of decades), are rare. Astronomers theorize, however, that most, if not all, novae are recurrent, albeit on time scales ranging from 1,000 to 100,000 years.[12] The recurrence interval for a nova is less dependent on the accretion rate of the white dwarf, than on its mass; with their powerful gravity, massive white dwarfs require less accretion to fuel an outburst than lower-mass ones.[1] Consequently, the interval is shorter for high-mass white dwarfs.[1]

Subtypes

Novae are classified according to the light curve development speed, so in

  • NA: fast novae, with a rapid brightness increase, followed by a brightness decline of 3 magnitudes — to about ​116 brightness — within 100 days.[13]
  • NB: slow novae, with magnitudes of 3, decline in 150 days or more.
  • NC: very slow novae, also known as symbiotic novae, staying at maximum light for a decade or more and then fading very slowly.
  • NR/RN: recurrent novae, novae with two or more outbursts separated by 10–80 years have been observed.[14]

Remnants

GKPersei-MiniSuperNova-20150316
GK Persei: Nova of 1901

Some novae leave behind visible nebulosity, material expelled in the nova explosion or in multiple explosions. [15]

Novae as distance indicators

Novae have some promise for use as standard candle measurements of distances. For instance, the distribution of their absolute magnitude is bimodal, with a main peak at magnitude −8.8, and a lesser one at −7.5. Novae also have roughly the same absolute magnitude 15 days after their peak (−5.5). Comparisons of nova-based distance estimates to various nearby galaxies and galaxy clusters with those measured with Cepheid variable stars, have shown them to be of comparable accuracy.[16]

Bright novae since 1890

More than 53 novae have been registered since 1890.

Recurrent novae

Recurrent novae (RNe) are objects that have been seen to experience multiple nova eruptions. As of 2009, there are ten known galactic recurrent novae.[17] The recurrent nova typically brightens by about 8.6 magnitude, whereas a classic nova brightens by more than 12 magnitude.[17] The ten known recurrent novae are listed below.

Full name
Discoverer
Magnitude
range
Days to drop
3 magnitude
from peak
Known outburst years Time span (years) Years since last nova
CI Aquilae K. Reinmuth 8.6–16.3 40 2000, 1941, 1917 24–59 19
V394 Coronae Australis L. E. Erro 7.2–19.7 6 1987, 1949 38 31
T Coronae Borealis J. Birmingham 2.5–10.8 6 1946, 1866 80 73
IM Normae I. E. Woods 8.5–18.5 70 2002, 1920 ≤82 17
RS Ophiuchi W. Fleming 4.8–11 14 2006, 1985, 1967, 1958, 1933, 1898 9–35 13
V2487 Ophiuchi K. Takamizawa (1998) 9.5–17.5 9 1998, 1900 98 20
T Pyxidis H. Leavitt 6.4–15.5 62 2011, 1967, 1944, 1920, 1902, 1890 12–44 8
V3890 Sagittarii H. Dinerstein 8.1–18.4 14 1990, 1962 28 29
U Scorpii N. R. Pogson 7.5–17.6 2.6 2010, 1999, 1987, 1979, 1936, 1917, 1906, 1863 8–43 9
V745 Scorpii L. Plaut 9.4–19.3 7 2014, 1989, 1937 25–52 5

Extragalactic novae

Novae are relatively common in the Andromeda galaxy (M31).[11] Approximately several dozen novae (brighter than about apparent magnitude 20) are discovered in M31 each year.[11] The Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT) tracks novae in M31, M33, and M81.[18]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Prialnik, Dina (2001). "Novae". In Paul Murdin (ed.). Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Institute of Physics Publishing/Nature Publishing Group. pp. 1846–1856. ISBN 978-1-56159-268-5.
  2. ^ M.J. Darnley; et al. (10 February 2012). "On the Progenitors of Galactic Novae". The Astrophysical Journal. 746 (61): 61. arXiv:1112.2589. Bibcode:2012ApJ...746...61D. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/746/1/61. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  3. ^ AAVSO Variable Star Of The Month: May 2001: Novae
  4. ^ Warner, Brian (1995). Cataclysmic Variable Stars. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-41231-5.
  5. ^ Zeilik, Michael (1993). Conceptual Astronomy. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-50996-7.
  6. ^ JPL/NASA (12 August 2010). "Fermi detects 'shocking' surprise from supernova's little cousin". PhysOrg. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
  7. ^ Kato, Mariko; Hachisu, Izumi (December 2003). "V445 Puppis: Helium Nova on a Massive White Dwarf". The Astrophysical Journal. 598 (2): L107–L110. arXiv:astro-ph/0310351. Bibcode:2003ApJ...598L.107K. doi:10.1086/380597.
  8. ^ Rosenbush, A. E. (17–21 September 2007). Klaus Werner; Thomas Rauch (eds.). "List of Helium Novae". Proceedings, Hydrogen-deficient Stars ASP Conference Series. Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen, Germany (published July 2008). 391: 271. Bibcode:2008ASPC..391..271R.
  9. ^ Shafter, A.W. (January 2017). "The Galactic Nova Rate Revisited". The Astrophysical Journal. 834 (2): 192–203. arXiv:1606.02358. Bibcode:2017ApJ...834..196S. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/196.
  10. ^ a b "CBAT List of Novae in the Milky Way". IAU Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.
  11. ^ a b c "M31 (Apparent) Novae Page". IAU Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Retrieved 2009-02-24.
  12. ^ Seeds, Michael A. (1998). Horizons: Exploring the Universe (5th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing Company. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-534-52434-0.
  13. ^ "Ritter Cataclysmic Binaries Catalog (7th Edition, Rev. 7.13)". High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center. 31 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-25.
  14. ^ GCVS' vartype.txt at VizieR
  15. ^ Liimets, T.; Corradi, R.L.M.; Santander-García, M.; Villaver, E.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Verro, K.; Kolka, I. (2014). "A Dynamical Study of the Nova Remnant of GK Persei / Stella Novae: Past and Future Decades". ASP Conference Series, Proceedings of a Conference Held 4–8 February 2013 at the Pavilion Clock Tower, Cape Town, South Africa. Edited by P.A. Woudt and V.A.R.M. Ribeiro, 2014. 490: 109–115. arXiv:1310.4488. Bibcode:2014ASPC..490..109L. doi:10.1086/109995.
  16. ^ Robert, Gilmozzi; Della Valle, Massimo (2003). "Novae as Distance Indicators". In Alloin, D.; Gieren, W. (eds.). Stellar Candles for the Extragalactic Distance Scale. Springer. pp. 229–241. ISBN 978-3-540-20128-1.
  17. ^ a b Schaefer, Bradley E. (2010). "Comprehensive Photometric Histories of All Known Galactic Recurrent Novae". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 187 (2): 275–373. arXiv:0912.4426. Bibcode:2010ApJS..187..275S. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/187/2/275.
  18. ^ Bishop, David. "Extragalactic Novae". International Supernovae Network. Retrieved 2010-09-11.

Further reading

  • Payne-Gaposchkin, C. (1957). The Galactic Novae. North Holland Publishing Co.
  • Hernanz, M.; Josè, J. (2002). Classical Nova Explosions. American Institute of Physics.
  • Bode, M.F.; Evans, E. (2008). Classical Novae. Cambridge University Press.

External links

Acadians

The Acadians (French: Acadiens, IPA: [akadjɛ̃]) are the descendants of French colonists who settled in Acadia during the 17th and 18th centuries, some of whom are also descended from the Indigenous peoples of the region. The colony was located in what is now Eastern Canada's Maritime provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island), as well as part of Quebec, and present-day Maine to the Kennebec River. Acadia was a distinctly separate colony of New France. It was geographically and administratively separate from the French colony of Canada (modern-day Quebec). As a result, the Acadians and Québécois developed two distinct histories and cultures. They also developed a slightly different French language. France has one official language and to accomplish this they have an administration in charge of the language. Since the Acadians were separated from this council, their French language evolved independently, and Acadians retain several elements of 17th-century French that have disappeared in France. The settlers whose descendants became Acadians came from many areas in France, but especially regions such as Île-de-France, Normandy, Brittany, Poitou and Aquitaine. Acadian family names have come from many areas in France. For example, the Maillets are from Paris; the LeBlancs of Normandy; the surname Melançon is from Brittany, and those with the surnames Bastarache and Basque came from Aquitaine.

During the French and Indian War (the North American theater of the Seven Years' War), British colonial officers suspected Acadians were aligned with France after finding some Acadians fighting alongside French troops at Fort Beausejour. Though most Acadians remained neutral during the French and Indian War, the British, together with New England legislators and militia, carried out the Great Expulsion (Le Grand Dérangement) of the Acadians during the 1755–1764 period. They deported approximately 11,500 Acadians from the maritime region. Approximately one-third perished from disease and drowning. The result was what one historian described as an ethnic cleansing of the Acadians from Maritime Canada. Other historians indicate that this deportation was similar to other deportations of the time period.

Most Acadians were deported to various American colonies, where many were forced into servitude or marginal lifestyles. Some Acadians were deported to England, to the Caribbean, and some were deported to France. After being expelled to France, many Acadians were eventually recruited by the Spanish government to migrate to present day Louisiana state (known then as Spanish colonial Luisiana), where they developed what became known as Cajun culture. In time, some Acadians returned to the Maritime provinces of Canada, mainly to New Brunswick because they were barred by the British from resettling their lands and villages in what became Nova Scotia. Before the US Revolutionary War, the Crown settled New England Planters in former Acadian communities and farmland as well as Loyalists after the war (including nearly 3,000 Black Loyalists, who were freed slaves). British policy was to assimilate Acadians with the local populations where they resettled.Acadians speak a variety of French called Acadian French. Many of those in the Moncton area speak Chiac and English. The Louisiana Cajun descendants speak a variety of American English called Cajun English, with many also speaking Cajun French, a close relative of Acadian French from Canada, but influenced by Spanish and West African languages.

Antônio Carlos Jobim

Antônio Carlos Brasileiro de Almeida Jobim (January 25, 1927 – December 8, 1994), also known as Tom Jobim (Portuguese pronunciation: [tõ ʒoˈbĩ]), was a Brazilian composer, pianist, songwriter, arranger and singer. Widely considered as one of the great exponents of Brazilian music, Jobim internationalized bossa nova and, with the help of important American artists, merged it with jazz in the 1960s to create a new sound with remarkable popular success.

He was a primary force behind the creation of the bossa nova style, and his songs have been performed by many singers and instrumentalists within Brazil and internationally.

In 1965 his album Getz/Gilberto was the first jazz album to win the Grammy Award for Album of the Year. It also won for Best Jazz Instrumental Album – Individual or Group and for Best Engineered Album, Non-Classical. The album's single "Garota de Ipanema" ("The Girl from Ipanema"), one of the most recorded songs of all time, won the Record of the Year. Jobim has left a large number of songs that are now included in jazz and pop standard repertoires. The song "Garota de Ipanema" has been recorded over 240 times by other artists. His 1967 album with Frank Sinatra, Francis Albert Sinatra & Antônio Carlos Jobim, was nominated for Album of the Year in 1968.

Bay of Fundy

The Bay of Fundy (or Fundy Bay; French: Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine. It has an extremely high tidal range. The bay lies in the Fundy Basin, a rift valley. The name is likely a corruption of the French word Fendu, meaning "split".

Bossa nova

Bossa nova is a style of Brazilian music, which was developed and popularized in the 1950s and 1960s and is today one of the best-known Brazilian music styles abroad. The phrase bossa nova means literally "new trend" or "new wave" (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈbɔsɐ ˈnɔvɐ] (listen)). A lyrical fusion of samba and jazz, bossa nova acquired a large following in the 1960s, initially among young musicians and college students.

Cape Breton Island

Cape Breton Island (French: île du Cap-Breton—formerly Île Royale; Scottish Gaelic: Ceap Breatainn or Eilean Cheap Breatainn; Mi'kmaq: Unamaꞌkik; or simply Cape Breton) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada.The 10,311 km2 (3,981 sq mi) island accounts for 18.7% of Nova Scotia's total area. Although the island is physically separated from the Nova Scotia peninsula by the Strait of Canso, the 1,385 m (4,544 ft) long rock-fill Canso Causeway connects it to mainland Nova Scotia. The island is east-northeast of the mainland with its northern and western coasts fronting on the Gulf of Saint Lawrence; its western coast also forms the eastern limits of the Northumberland Strait. The eastern and southern coasts front the Atlantic Ocean; its eastern coast also forms the western limits of the Cabot Strait. Its landmass slopes upward from south to north, culminating in the highlands of its northern cape. One of the world's larger salt water lakes, Bras d'Or ("Arm of Gold" in French), dominates the island's centre.

The island is divided into four of Nova Scotia's eighteen counties: Cape Breton, Inverness, Richmond, and Victoria. Their total population at the 2016 census numbered 132,010 "Cape Bretoners"; this is approximately 15% of the provincial population. Cape Breton Island has experienced a decline in population of approximately 2.9% since the 2011 census. Approximately 75% of the island's population is in the Cape Breton Regional Municipality (CBRM) which includes all of Cape Breton County and is often referred to as Industrial Cape Breton, given the history of coal mining and steel manufacturing in this area, which was Nova Scotia's industrial heartland throughout the 20th century.

The island has five reserves of the Mi'kmaq Nation: Eskasoni, Membertou, Wagmatcook, Waycobah, and Potlotek/Chapel Island. Eskasoni is the largest in both population and land area.

Chevrolet Chevy II / Nova

The Chevrolet Chevy II/Nova was a small automobile manufactured by Chevrolet, and produced in five generations for the 1962 through 1979, and 1985 through 1988 model years. Nova was the top model in the Chevy II lineup through 1968. The Chevy II nameplate was dropped, Nova becoming the nameplate for the 1969 through 1979 models. Built on the X-body platform, the Nova was replaced by the 1980 Chevrolet Citation introduced in the spring of 1979. The Nova nameplate returned in 1985, produced through 1988 as a S-car based, NUMMI manufactured, subcompact based on the front wheel drive, Japan home-based Toyota Sprinter.

Dalhousie University

Dalhousie University (commonly known as Dal) is a public research university in Nova Scotia, Canada, with three campuses in Halifax, a fourth in Bible Hill, and medical teaching facilities in Saint John, New Brunswick. Dalhousie offers more than 4,000 courses, and 180 degree programs in twelve undergraduate, graduate, and professional faculties. The university is a member of the U15, a group of research-intensive universities in Canada.

Dalhousie was established as a nonsectarian college in 1818 by the eponymous Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, George Ramsay, 9th Earl of Dalhousie. The college did not hold its first class until 1838, until then operating sporadically due to financial difficulties. It reopened for a third time in 1863 following a reorganization that brought a change of name to "The Governors of Dalhousie College and University". The university formally changed its name to "Dalhousie University" in 1997 through the same provincial legislation that merged the institution with the Technical University of Nova Scotia.

There are currently two student unions that represent student interests at the university: the Dalhousie Student Union and the Dalhousie Association for Graduate Students. Dalhousie's varsity teams, the Tigers, compete in the Atlantic University Sport conference of Canadian Interuniversity Sport. Dalhousie's Faculty of Agriculture varsity teams are called the Dalhousie Rams, and compete in the ACAA and CCAA. Dalhousie is a coeducational university with more than 18,000 students and 130,000 alumni around the world. The university's notable alumni include a Nobel Prize winner, 91 Rhodes Scholars, and a range of other top government officials, academics, and business leaders.

Halifax, Nova Scotia

Halifax, formally known as the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM), is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It had a population of 403,131 in 2016, with 316,701 in the urban area centred on Halifax Harbour. The regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996: Halifax, Dartmouth, Bedford, and Halifax County.

Halifax is a major economic centre in Atlantic Canada with a large concentration of government services and private sector companies. Major employers and economic generators include the Department of National Defence, Dalhousie University, Saint Mary's University, the Halifax Shipyard, various levels of government, and the Port of Halifax. Agriculture, fishing, mining, forestry and natural gas extraction are major resource industries found in the rural areas of the municipality.

Halifax Stanfield International Airport

Halifax Stanfield International Airport (IATA: YHZ, ICAO: CYHZ) is a Canadian airport in Goffs, a rural area of Halifax, Nova Scotia. It serves Halifax, mainland Nova Scotia and adjacent areas in the neighbouring Maritime provinces. The airport is named in honour of Robert Stanfield, the 17th Premier of Nova Scotia and leader of the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada.

The airport, owned by Transport Canada since it was constructed, has been operated since 2000 by the Halifax International Airport Authority (HIAA). It forms part of the National Airports System.

Halifax Stanfield is the 8th busiest airport in Canada by passenger traffic. It handled a total of 4,316,079 passengers in 2018 and 84,045 aircraft movements in 2017. It is a hub for Air Canada Express, Cougar Helicopters, Maritime Air Charter, PAL Airlines and SkyLink Express.

New Jersey

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. It is a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean; on the west by the Delaware River and Pennsylvania; and on the southwest by the Delaware Bay and Delaware. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, making it the most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states with its biggest city being Newark. New Jersey lies completely within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U.S. state by median household income as of 2017.New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state. The English later seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands, Jersey, and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton. New Jersey was the site of several important battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century.

In the 19th century, factories in the cities Camden, Paterson, Newark, Trenton, Jersey City, and Elizabeth (known as the "Big Six"), helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, and Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C., to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. According to 2017 FBI data, 30 of America's 100 safest municipalities were in New Jersey, the most of any U.S. state, followed by Connecticut, with 14 towns.

Nova (Richard Rider)

Nova (Richard Rider) is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character appeared historically as the star of his own series, and at other times, as a supporting character in team books such as The New Warriors. He is a member of the intergalactic police force known as the Nova Corps, for which he gained superhuman abilities including enhanced strength, flight and resistance to injury.

In May 2011, Nova placed 98th on IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes of All Time, and 19th in their list of "The Top 50 Avengers" in 2012.

Nova (TV series)

Nova (stylized NOVΛ) is an American popular science television series produced by WGBH Boston. It is broadcast on PBS in the U.S., and in more than 100 other countries. The series has won many major television awards.Nova often includes interviews with scientists doing research in the subject areas covered and occasionally includes footage of a particular discovery. Some episodes have focused on the history of science. Examples of topics covered include the following:

Colditz Castle,

Drake equation,

elementary particles,

1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens,

Fermat's Last Theorem,

AIDS epidemic,

global warming,

moissanite,

Project Jennifer,

storm chasing,

Unterseeboot 869,

Vinland, and the

Tarim mummies.

The Nova programs have been praised for their good pacing, clear writing, and crisp editing. Websites accompany the segments and have also won awards.

Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia (; Latin for "New Scotland"; French: Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three Maritime Provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada. Its provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the second-smallest of Canada's ten provinces, with an area of 55,284 square kilometres (21,300 sq mi), including Cape Breton and another 3,800 coastal islands. As of 2016, the population was 923,598. Nova Scotia is Canada's second-most-densely populated province, after Prince Edward Island, with 17.4 inhabitants per square kilometre (45/sq mi).

Nova Scotia House of Assembly

The Nova Scotia House of Assembly (French: Chambre d'assemblée de la Nouvelle-Écosse), or Legislative Assembly, is the deliberative assembly of the General Assembly of Nova Scotia of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The assembly is the oldest in Canada, having first sat in 1758, and in 1848 was the site of the first responsible government in the British Empire. Bills passed by the House of Assembly are given royal assent by the Queen of Canada in Right of Nova Scotia represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia.Originally (in 1758), the Legislature consisted of the Crown represented by a governor (later a lieutenant governor), the appointed Nova Scotia Council holding both executive and legislative duties and an elected House of Assembly (lower chamber). In 1838, the council was replaced by an executive council with the executive function and a legislative council with the legislative functions based on the House of Lords. In 1928, the Legislative Council was abolished and the members pensioned off.

There are 51 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) representing 51 electoral districts. Members nearly always represent one of the three main political parties of the province: the Nova Scotia Liberal Party, Progressive Conservative Party of Nova Scotia, and Nova Scotia New Democratic Party.

The assembly meets in Province House. Located in Halifax Province House is a National Historic Site and Canada's oldest and smallest legislative building. It opened on February 11, 1819. The building was also the original home to the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia, and the location of the "Freedom of the Press" trial of Joseph Howe. Its main entrance is found on Hollis Street in Halifax.

Nova Southeastern University

Nova Southeastern University (NSU or, informally, "Nova") is a private university with its main campus in Davie, Florida. The university consists of 18 colleges and schools offering over 150 programs of study. The university offers professional degrees in the social sciences, law, business, osteopathic medicine, allopathic medicine, allied health, pharmacy, dentistry, optometry, physical therapy, education, occupational therapy, and nursing. Nova Southeastern enrolled 20,793 students as of 2019, and has produced 185,000 alumni.The university was founded as the Nova University of Advanced Technology on a former Naval Outlying Landing Field built during World War II, and first offered graduate degrees in the physical and social sciences. In 1994, the university merged with the Southeastern University of the Health Sciences and assumed its current name.NSU is classified as a high research and community engaged university by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The university is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools and also has numerous additional specialized accreditation for its colleges and programs.The NSU Sharks compete in Division II of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) as members of the Sunshine State Conference.

Rocky Johnson

Rocky Johnson (born Wayde Douglas Bowles; August 24, 1944) is a Canadian retired professional wrestler. During his wrestling career, he became a National Wrestling Alliance (NWA) Georgia Champion and a NWA Southern Heavyweight Memphis Champion, as well as winning many other championships. Along with his partner Tony Atlas, Johnson was a part of the first black tag team to win the World Tag Team championship in the World Wrestling Federation (WWF).He is the father of American actor and semi-retired professional wrestler Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson.

Scotiabank

The Bank of Nova Scotia (French: La Banque de Nouvelle-Écosse), operating as Scotiabank (French: Banque Scotia), is a Canadian multinational bank. It is the third largest bank in Canada by deposits and market capitalization. It serves more than 25 million customers around the world and offers a range of products and services including personal and commercial banking, wealth management, corporate and investment banking. With more than 88,000 employees and assets of $998 billion (as of October 31, 2018), Scotiabank trades on the Toronto (TSX: BNS) and New York Exchanges (NYSE: BNS).

Founded in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1832, Scotiabank moved its executive offices to Toronto, Ontario, in 1900. Scotiabank has billed itself as "Canada's most international bank" due to its acquisitions primarily in Latin America and the Caribbean, and also in Europe and parts of Asia. Through its subsidiary ScotiaMocatta, it is a member of the London Bullion Market Association and one of five banks that participates in the London gold fixing.Scotiabank's Institution Number (or bank number) is 002. The company ranked at number 41 on the SNL Financial World's 100 biggest banks listing, September 2013 and is led by President and CEO Brian J. Porter.

Terra Nova (TV series)

Terra Nova (English: New Earth) is an American science fiction drama television series. It aired one season from September 26 to December 19, 2011. The series documents the Shannon family's experiences as they establish themselves as members of a colony, set up 85 million years in the Earth's past, fleeing the dystopian overpopulated and hyperpolluted present of the mid-22nd century. The series is based on an idea by British writer Kelly Marcel and was executive produced by Steven Spielberg. On March 5, 2012, Fox announced that the show was canceled.

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