Notohypsilophodon

Notohypsilophodon (meaning "southern Hypsilophodon") is a genus of euornithopod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Argentina. It was described as the only "hypsilophodont" known from South America, although this assessment is not universally supported, and Gasparinisaura is now believed to have been a basal euornithopod as well.

Notohypsilophodon
Temporal range: Cenomanian-Turonian 99.6–89.3 Ma
Notohypsilophodon
Notohypsilophodon and Xenotarsosaurus model
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Ornithischia
Genus: Notohypsilophodon
Martínez, 1998
Species:
N. comodorensis
Binomial name
Notohypsilophodon comodorensis
Martínez, 1998

History of discovery

From 1985 onwards the Laboratorio de Paleovertebrados of the Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia "San Juan Bosco" organised excavations in the late Cenomanian-early Turonian-age Bajo Barreal Formation of the San Jorge Basin, northern Chubut, Patagonia. At Buen Pasto near Comodoro Rivadavia a partial juvenile skeleton lacking the skull, was found.[1]

In 1998 this find was named and described by Rubén D. Martínez as the type species Notohypsilophodon comodorensis. The generic name combines a Greek νότος, notos, "south wind" with the name of the genus Hypsilophodon. The specific name refers to Comodoro Rivadavia.[1]

Notohypsilophodon is based on the holotype specimen UNPSJB — PV 942, a partial skeleton including four neck, seven back, five hip, and six tail vertebrae, four rib fragments, a partial left scapula (shoulder blade), partial right coracoid, a right humerus (upper arm bone), both ulnae, and most of a left leg (minus the foot), a right fibula and astragalus, and thirteen phalanges. Because the neural arches are not fused to the bodies of the vertebrae, its describer regarded the individual as not fully grown.[1]

Description

As a "hypsilophodontid" or other basal ornithopod, Notohypsilophodon would have been a bipedal herbivore. Its size was not estimated in the describing article, but as most adult hypsilophodonts were 1 to 2 meters (3.3 to 6.6 ft) long,[2] this genus would probably have been of similar size. In 2010 Gregory S. Paul gave an estimation of 1.3 metres (4.3 ft) for the length, 6 kilograms (13 lb) for the weight of the animal.[3]

Phylogeny

Martínez found no evidence that Notohypsilophodon was an iguanodont, and instead assigned it to the more basal Hypsilophodontidae, which made it at the time the only South American hypsilophodont.[1] A hypsilophodontid assignment was supported by Rodolfo Coria in a 1999 review of South American ornithopods,[4] but a more recent review of basal ornithopods found the fossil remains to be too fragmentary for classification beyond Euornithopoda, a clade within Ornithopoda including the "hypsilophodonts" and iguanodonts.[2] Moreover, the Hypsilophodontidae are today considered to be a paraphyletic group, not consisting of directly related species forming a separate branch, but representing a series of successive branches splitting off the main euornithopod tree.[2] A recent redescription of Notohypsilophodon found it to be basal in Ornithopoda, more primitive than Gasparinisaura.[5] In 2015, it was found to be part of the clade Elasmaria along with other Antarctic and Patagonian ornithopods.[6]

Cladogram based in the phylogenetic analysis of Rozadilla et al., 2015:

Hypsilophodon

Thescelosaurus

Iguanodontia
Elasmaria

Gasparinisaura

Morrosaurus

Trinisaura

Macrogryphosaurus

Notohypsilophodon

Talenkauen

Anabisetia

Parksosaurus

Kangnasaurus

Rhabdodontidae

Tenontosaurus

Dryomorpha

References

  1. ^ a b c d Martínez, Rubén D. (1998). "Notohypsilophodon comodorensis, gen. et sp. nov., un Hypsilophodontidae (Ornithischia: Ornithopoda) del Cretacico Superior de Chubut, Patagonia central, Argentina". Acta Geologica Leopoldensia (in Spanish and English). 21 (46/47): 119–135.
  2. ^ a b c Norman, David B.; Sues, Hans-Dieter; Witmer, Larry M.; Coria, Rodolfo A. (2004). "Basal Ornithopoda". In Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; Osmólska, Halszka (eds.). The Dinosauria (2nd ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 393–412. ISBN 978-0-520-24209-8.
  3. ^ Paul, G.S., 2010, The Princeton Field Guide to Dinosaurs, Princeton University Press p. 277
  4. ^ Coria, Rodolfo A. (1999). "Ornithopod dinosaurs from the Neuquén Group, Patagonia, Argentina: phylogeny and biostratigraphy". In Tomida, Yukimitsu; Rich, Thomas H.; Vickers-Rich, Patricia (eds.). Proceedings of the Second Gondwanan Dinosaur Symposium. National Science Museum Monographs, 15. Tokyo: National Science Museum. pp. 47–60. ISSN 1342-9574.
  5. ^ Ibiricu, Lucio M.; Martínez, Rubén D.; Luna, Marcelo; Casal, Gabriel A. (2014). "A reappraisal of Notohypsilophodon comodorensis (Ornithischia: Ornithopoda) from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia, Argentina" (PDF). Zootaxa. 3786 (4): 401–422. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3786.4.1. PMID 24869543.
  6. ^ Rozadilla, Sebastián (2016). "A new ornithopod (Dinosauria, Ornithischia) from the Upper Cretaceous of Antarctica and its palaeobiogeographical implications". Cretaceous Research. 57: 311–324. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2015.09.009.
Anabisetia

Anabisetia ( AH-nə-bee-SET-ee-ə) is a genus of iguanodont dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Period of Patagonia, South America. It was a small bipedal herbivore, around 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) long.

Aralosaurini

Aralosaurini is a tribe of basal lambeosaurine hadrosaurs endemic to Eurasia. It currently contains Aralosaurus (from the Aral sea of Kazakhstan) and Canardia (from Toulouse, Southern France).

Canardia

Canardia is an extinct genus of aralosaurin lambeosaurine dinosaur known from the Late Cretaceous Marnes d’Auzas Formation (late Maastrichtian stage) of Toulouse, Haute-Garonne Department, southern France. The type species Canardia garonnensis was first described and named by Albert Prieto-Márquez, Fabio M. Dalla Vecchia, Rodrigo Gaete and Àngel Galobart in 2013.

Cenomanian

The Cenomanian is, in the ICS' geological timescale the oldest or earliest age of the Late Cretaceous epoch or the lowest stage of the Upper Cretaceous series. An age is a unit of geochronology: it is a unit of time; the stage is a unit in the stratigraphic column deposited during the corresponding age. Both age and stage bear the same name.

As a unit of geologic time measure, the Cenomanian age spans the time between 100.5 ± 0.9 Ma and 93.9 ± 0.8 Ma (million years ago). In the geologic timescale it is preceded by the Albian and is followed by the Turonian. The Upper Cenomanian starts approximately at 95 M.a.

The Cenomanian is coeval with the Woodbinian of the regional timescale of the Gulf of Mexico and the early part of the Eaglefordian of the regional timescale of the East Coast of the United States.

At the end of the Cenomanian an anoxic event took place, called the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event or the "Bonarelli Event", that is associated with a minor extinction event for marine species.

Elasmaria

Elasmaria is a clade of iguanodont ornithopods known from Cretaceous deposits in South America, Antarctica, and Australia.

Galleonosaurus

Galleonosaurus (meaning "galleon lizard" as the upper jaw bone resembles an upturned galleon) is a genus of basal ornithopod dinosaur from the Wonthaggi Formation of the Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia. The type and only species is G. dorisae, described by Herne et al. in 2019.

Gasparinisaura

Gasparinisaura (meaning "Gasparini's lizard") is a genus of herbivorous ornithopod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous.

The first fossils of Gasparinisaura were in 1992 found in Argentina, near Cinco Saltos in Río Negro Province. The type species, Gasparinisaura cincosaltensis, was named and described in 1996 by Rodolfo Coria and Leonardo Salgado. The generic name honours Argentine palaeontologist Zulma Brandoni de Gasparini. The specific name refers to Cinco Saltos.

Jaxartosaurus

Jaxartosaurus is a genus of hadrosaurid dinosaur similar to Corythosaurus which lived during the Late Cretaceous. Its fossils were found in Kazakhstan.

Koshisaurus

Koshisaurus is a monospecific genus of basal hadrosauroid from the Kitadani Formation in Japan. The discovery of the genus suggests that hadrosauroids had higher diversity along the eastern margin of Asia in the Early Cretaceous. "Koshi" means an old Japanese regional name including Fukui prefecture where fossils of the genus were discovered.

Laiyangosaurus

Laiyangosaurus ("Laiyang lizard") is a genus of saurolophine hadrosaurid from the Late Cretaceous of China. It is known from one species, L.youngi, found in the Laiyang Basin within the province of Shandong.

Lapampasaurus

Lapampasaurus is an extinct genus of hadrosaurid known from the Late Cretaceous Allen Formation (late Campanian or early Maastrichtian stage) of La Pampa Province, Argentina. It contains a single species, Lapampasaurus cholinoi.The generic name refers to the Argentine province of La Pampa. The specific name honours the late collector José Cholino. The material includes cervical, dorsal, sacral and caudal vertebrae, the forelimb girdle, and the partial hindlimb.

Morrosaurus

Morrosaurus is an extinct genus of herbivorous ornithischian dinosaur member of the Euornithopoda, that lived in the late Cretaceous in the Antarctica. The only known species is the type Morrosaurus antarcticus.

Penelopognathus

Penelopognathus ("wild duck jaw") is a genus of dinosaur which lived during the Early Cretaceous. It was an iguanodont ancestral to hadrosaurids. Fossils have been found in the Bayin-Gobi Formation in what is now China. The type species, Penelopognathus weishampeli, was described by Godefroit, Li, and Shang in 2005, based on fragmentary jaw fossils.

Plesiohadros

Plesiohadros is an extinct genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur. It is known from a partial skeleton including the skull collected at Alag Teg locality, from the Campanian Djadochta Formation of southern Mongolia. The type species is Plesiohadros djadokhtaensis.

Rhabdodontomorpha

Rhabdodontomorpha is a clade of basal iguanodont dinosaurs. This group was named in 2016 in the context of the description, based on Spanish findings, of an early member of the Rhabdodontidae. A cladistic analysis was conducted in which it was found that Muttaburrasaurus was the sister species of the Rhabdodontidae sensu Weishampel. Therefore, Paul-Emile Dieudonné, Thierry Tortosa, Fidel Torcida Fernández-Baldor, José Ignacio Canudo and Ignacio Díaz-Martínez defined Rhabdodontomorpha as a nodal clade: the group consisting of the last common ancestor of Rhabdodon priscus Matheron, 1869 and Muttaburrasaurus langdoni Bartholomai and Molnar, 1981; and all its descendants. Within the clade are included also Zalmoxes and Mochlodon.The group consists of small to large plant eaters from Europe and Gondwana. It must have split from other iguanodont groups during the Middle Jurassic.

Talenkauen

Talenkauen (meaning "small skull" in Aonikenk, referring to the proportionally small skull) is a genus of basal iguanodont dinosaur from the Cenomanian-age Late Cretaceous Cerro Fortaleza Formation, formerly known as the Pari Aike Formation of Patagonian Lake Viedma in the Austral Basin of Santa Cruz, Argentina. It is based on MPM-10001, a partial articulated skeleton missing the rear part of the skull, the tail, and the hands. Its most unusual feature is the presence of several thin mineralized plates along the sides of the ribs.

Trinisaura

Trinisaura is an extinct genus of ornithopod dinosaur known from the lower levels of the Late Cretaceous Snow Hill Island Formation (lower Campanian stage) of James Ross Island, Antarctica. It contains a single species, Trinisaura santamartaensis.The species was in 2013 named by Rodolfo Aníbal Coria e.a. The generic name honours the geologist Trinidad Diaz. The specific name refers to the Santa Marta Cove site where the specimen was in 2008 found by Coria and Juan José Moly. That same year, the find was reported in the scientific literature.The holotype, MLP-III-1-1, consists of a partial skeleton lacking the skull, of a subadult individual about 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) in length.

Turonian

The Turonian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the second age in the Late Cretaceous epoch, or a stage in the Upper Cretaceous series. It spans the time between 93.9 ± 0.8 Ma and 89.8 ± 1 Ma (million years ago). The Turonian is preceded by the Cenomanian stage and underlies the Coniacian stage.At the beginning of the Turonian an anoxic event took place which is called the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event or the "Bonarelli Event".

Xuwulong

Xuwulong is a genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous period. It lived during the early Cretaceous period (Aptian-Albian age) in what is now Yujingzi Basin in the Jiuquan area, Gansu Province of northwestern China. It is known from the holotype – GSGM F00001, an articulated specimen including a complete cranium, almost complete axial skeleton, and complete left pelvic girdle from Xinminpu Group. Xuwulong was named by You Hailu, Li Daqing and Liu Weichang in 2011 and the type species is Xuwulong yueluni.

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