Nosferatu

Nosferatu: A Symphony of Horror (German: Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens), or simply Nosferatu, is a 1922 German Expressionist horror film, directed by F. W. Murnau, starring Max Schreck as the vampire Count Orlok. The silent film, shot in 1921 and released in 1922, was an unauthorized adaptation of Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897); the Stoker Estate had refused permission. Various names and other details were changed from the novel: for instance, vampire became Nosferatu, and Count Dracula became Count Orlok.

Stoker's heirs sued over the adaptation, and a court ruling ordered that all copies of the film be destroyed. However, a few prints of Nosferatu survived, and the film came to be regarded as an influential masterpiece of cinema.[1][2]

The film was released in the United States on 3 June 1929, seven years after its original premiere in Germany.

Nosferatu,
eine Symphonie des Grauens
Nosferatuposter
Theatrical release poster
Directed byF. W. Murnau
Produced by
Screenplay byHenrik Galeen
Based onDracula
by Bram Stoker
Starring
Music byHans Erdmann
Cinematography
Production
company
Distributed byFilm Arts Guild
Release date
  • 4 March 1922 (Germany)
Running time
94 minutes
CountryGermany
Language
Nosferatu (complete film, English version)

Plot

In 1838, Thomas Hutter lives in the fictional German city of Wisborg.[3] His mysterious employer, estate agent Herr Knock, sends Hutter to Transylvania to visit a new client named Count Orlok who plans to buy a house in Wisborg. Hutter entrusts his loving wife Ellen to his good friend Harding and Harding's sister Annie, before embarking on his long journey. Nearing his destination in the Carpathian Mountains, Hutter stops at an inn for dinner. The locals become frightened by the mere mention of Orlok's name and discourage him from traveling to his castle at night, warning of a werewolf on the prowl.

The next morning, Hutter takes a coach to a high mountain pass, but the coachman declines to take him any further than the bridge as nightfall is approaching. A black-swathed coach appears after Hutter crosses the bridge and the coachman gestures for him to climb aboard. Hutter is welcomed at a castle by Count Orlok. When Hutter is eating dinner and accidentally cuts his thumb, Orlok tries to suck the blood out, but his repulsed guest pulls his hand away.

NosferatuShadow
An iconic scene of the shadow of Count Orlok climbing up a staircase

Hutter wakes up to a deserted castle the morning after and notices fresh punctures on his neck which, in a letter he sends by courier on horseback to be delivered to his devoted wife, he attributes to mosquitoes. That night, Orlok signs the documents to purchase the house across from Hutter's own home in Wisborg and notices a photo of Hutter's wife, remarking that she has a "lovely neck."

Reading a book about vampires that he took from the local inn, Hutter starts to suspect that Orlok is Nosferatu, the "Bird of Death." He cowers in his room as midnight approaches, but there is no way to bar the door. The door opens by itself and Orlok enters, his true nature finally revealed, and Hutter hides under the bed covers and falls unconscious. At the same time this is happening, his wife awakens from her sleep, and in a trance walks towards the balcony and onto the railing. Alarmed, Harding shouts Ellen's name and she faints while he asks for a doctor. After the doctor arrives, she shouts Hutter's name, remaining in the trance and apparently able to see Orlok in his castle threatening her unconscious husband. The doctor believes this trance-like state is due to "blood congestion".

The next day, Hutter explores the castle. In its crypt, he finds the coffin in which Orlok is resting dormant. Hutter becomes horrified and dashes back to his room. Hours later from the window, he sees Orlok piling up coffins on a coach and climbing into the last one before the coach departs. Hutter escapes the castle through the window, but is knocked unconscious by the fall and awakens in a hospital.

When he is sufficiently recovered, he hurries home. Meanwhile, the coffins are shipped down river on a raft. They are transferred to a schooner, but not before one is opened by the crew, revealing a multitude of rats. The sailors on the ship get sick one by one; soon all but the captain and first mate are dead. Suspecting the truth, the first mate goes below to destroy the coffins. However, Orlok awakens and the horrified sailor jumps into the sea. Unaware of his danger, the captain becomes Orlok's latest victim when he ties himself to the wheel. When the ship arrives in Wisborg, Orlok leaves unobserved, carrying one of his coffins, and moves into the house he purchased. The next morning, when the ship is inspected, the captain is found dead. After examining the logbook, the doctors assume they are dealing with the plague. The town is stricken with panic, and people are warned to stay inside.

There are many deaths in the town, which are blamed on the plague. Knock, who had been committed to a psychiatric ward in care of Professor Sievers, escapes after murdering the warden. The townspeople give chase, but he eludes them by climbing a roof, then using a scarecrow. Meanwhile, Orlok stares from his window at the sleeping Ellen. Against her husband's wishes, Ellen had read the book he found. The book claims that the way to defeat a vampire is for a woman who is pure in heart to distract the vampire with her beauty all through the night. She opens her window to invite him in, but faints. When Hutter revives her, she sends him to fetch Professor Bulwer, a physician. After he leaves, Orlok comes in. He becomes so engrossed drinking her blood that he forgets about the coming day. Knock, who has been recaptured, senses what is happening to Orlok (who is evidently his master), but is restrained from breaking out of his cell to warn him. When a rooster crows, Orlok vanishes in a puff of smoke as he tries to flee, which Knock senses as he quietly dies. Ellen lives just long enough to be embraced by her grief-stricken husband. The last scene shows Count Orlok's ruined castle in the Carpathian Mountains, symbolizing the end of his reign of terror.

Cast

Schreck
Schreck in a promotional still for the film

Production

Prana Film logo

The studio behind Nosferatu, Prana Film, was a short-lived silent-era German film studio founded in 1921 by Enrico Dieckmann and occultist-artist Albin Grau, named for the Hindu concept of prana. Although the studio's intent was to produce occult- and supernatural-themed films, Nosferatu was its only production,[4] as it declared bankruptcy in order to dodge copyright infringement suits from Bram Stoker's widow Florence Balcombe.

Grau had had the idea to shoot a vampire film, the inspiration of which had risen from a war experience: in the winter of 1916, a Serbian farmer told him that his father was a vampire and one of the undead.[5]

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-J0710-0303-004, Wismar, Heiliggeistkirche
Hutter's departure from Wisborg was filmed in Heiligen-Geist-Kirche's yard in Wismar; this photograph is from 1970.

Diekmann and Grau gave Henrik Galeen, a disciple of Hanns Heinz Ewers, the task to write a screenplay inspired by Bram Stoker's 1897 novel Dracula, despite Prana Film not having obtained the film rights. Galeen was an experienced specialist in dark romanticism; he had already worked on Der Student von Prag (The Student of Prague) in 1913, and the screenplay for Der Golem, wie er in die Welt kam (The Golem: How He Came into the World) (1920). Galeen set the story in the fictional north German harbour town of Wisborg. He changed the characters' names and added the idea of the vampire bringing the plague to Wisborg via rats on the ship, and left out the Van Helsing vampire hunter character. Galeen's Expressionist style[6] screenplay was poetically rhythmic, without being so dismembered as other books influenced by literary Expressionism, such as those by Carl Mayer. Lotte Eisner described Galeen's screenplay as "voll Poesie, voll Rhythmus" ("full of poetry, full of rhythm").[7]

Filming began in July 1921, with exterior shots in Wismar. A take from Marienkirche's tower over Wismar marketplace with the Wasserkunst Wismar served as the establishing shot for the Wisborg scene. Other locations were the Wassertor, the Heiligen-Geist-Kirche yard and the harbour. In Lübeck, the abandoned Salzspeicher served as Nosferatu's new Wisborg house, the one of the churchyard of the Aegidienkirche served as Hutter's, and down the Depenau a procession of coffin bearers bore coffins of supposed plague victims. Many scenes of Lübeck appear in the hunt for Knock, who ordered Hutter in the Yard of Füchting to meet Count Orlok. Further exterior shots followed in Lauenburg, Rostock and on Sylt. The exteriors of the film set in Transylvania were actually shot on location in northern Slovakia, including the High Tatras, Vrátna Valley, Orava Castle, the Váh River, and Starhrad.[8] The team filmed interior shots at the JOFA studio in Berlin's Johannisthal locality and further exteriors in the Tegel Forest.

Salzspeicher vor 1921
The Salzspeicher in Lübeck served as the set for Orlok's house in Wisborg.

For cost reasons, cameraman Fritz Arno Wagner only had one camera available, and therefore there was only one original negative.[9] The director followed Galeen's screenplay carefully, following handwritten instructions on camera positioning, lighting, and related matters.[7] Nevertheless, Murnau completely rewrote 12 pages of the script, as Galeen's text was missing from the director's working script. This concerned the last scene of the film, in which Ellen sacrifices herself and the vampire dies in the first rays of the Sun.[10][11] Murnau prepared carefully; there were sketches that were to correspond exactly to each filmed scene, and he used a metronome to control the pace of the acting.[12]

Music

The original score was composed by Hans Erdmann to be performed by an orchestra during the projection. It is also said that the original music was recorded during a screening of the film. However, most of the score has been lost, and what remains is only a reconstitution of the score as it was played in 1922. Thus, throughout the history of Nosferatu screenings, many composers and musicians have written or improvised their own soundtrack to accompany the film. For example, James Bernard, composer of the soundtracks of many Hammer horror films in the late 1950s and 1960s, has written a score for a reissue.[13] Gabriela Montero improvised a piano accompaniment in a 2014 performance of the film at the Komische Oper Berlin.[14]

Deviations from the novel

The story of Nosferatu is similar to that of Dracula and retains the core characters: Jonathan and Mina Harker, the Count, and so on. It omits many of the secondary players, however, such as Arthur and Quincey, and changes the names of those who remain. Some recent re-releases of the film alter the sub-titles to use the Dracula versions of the names. Moreover, the setting has been transferred from Britain in the 1890s to Germany in 1838.[15]

In contrast to Dracula, Orlok does not create other vampires, but kills his victims, causing the townsfolk to blame the plague which ravages the city. Orlok also must sleep by day, as sunlight would kill him, while the original Dracula is only weakened by sunlight. The ending is also substantially different from that of Dracula; the count is ultimately destroyed at sunrise when the Mina analogue sacrifices herself to him. The town called "Wisborg" in the film is in fact a mix of Wismar and Lübeck; in other versions of the film, the name of the city is changed, for unknown reasons, back to "Bremen".[16]

Release

Shortly before the premiere, an advertisement campaign was placed in issue 21 of the magazine Bühne und Film, with a summary, scene and work photographs, production reports, and essays, including a treatment on vampirism by Albin Grau.[17] Nosferatu's preview premiered on 4 March 1922 in the Marmorsaal of the Berlin Zoological Garden. This was planned as a large society evening entitled Das Fest des Nosferatu (Festival of Nosferatu), and guests were asked to arrive dressed in Biedermeier costume. The cinema premiere itself took place on 15 March 1922 at Berlin's Primus-Palast.

Zoologischer Garten Berlin - Marmorsaal im Zoo
The Marmorsaal (marble hall) in the Berlin Zoological Garden, here shown in a 1900 postcard, was where Nosferatu premiered.

In the 1930s sound version Die zwölfte Stunde – Eine Nacht des Grauens (The Twelfth Hour: A Night of Horror), which is less commonly known, was a completely unauthorized and re-edited version of the film that was released in Vienna (capital of Austria), on 16 May 1930 with sound-on-disc accompaniment and a recomposition of Hans Erdmann's original score by Georg Fiebiger (born 22 June 1901 in Breslau, died in 1950), a German production manager and composer of film music. It had an alternate ending lighter than the original and the characters were renamed again; Count Orlok's name was changed to Prince Wolkoff, Knock became Karsten, Hutter and Ellen became Kundberg and Margitta, and Lucy was changed to Maria. This version, of which Murnau was unaware, contained many scenes filmed by Murnau but not previously released. It also contained additional footage not filmed by Murnau but by a cameraman Günther Krampf under the direction of Waldemar Roger (also known as Waldemar Ronger),[18], supposedly also a film editor and lab chemist. The name of director F. W. Murnau is no longer mentioned in the preamble. This version (edited to approximately 80 minutes) was presented on 5 June 1981 at the French Cinematheque. In the 2012 restoration of the film, Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau Stiftung claimed possession of several copies of this version. The film was originally banned completely in Sweden; however, the ban was lifted after twenty years and the film has since been seen on television.[19]

Reception and legacy

Nosferatu brought Murnau into the public eye, especially when his film Der brennende Acker (The Burning Soil) was released a few days later. The press reported extensively on Nosferatu and its premiere. With the laudatory votes, there was also occasional criticism that the technical perfection and clarity of the images did not fit the horror theme. The Filmkurier of 6 March 1922 said that the vampire appeared too corporeal and brightly lit to appear genuinely scary. Hans Wollenberg described the film in photo-Stage No. 11 of 11 March 1922 as a "sensation" and praised Murnau's nature shots as "mood-creating elements."[20] In the Vossische Zeitung of 7 March 1922, Nosferatu was praised for its visual style.[21]

This was the only Prana Film; the company declared bankruptcy after Stoker's estate, acting for his widow, Florence Stoker, sued for copyright infringement and won. The court ordered all existing prints of Nosferatu burned, but one purported print of the film had already been distributed around the world. This print was duplicated over the years, kept alive by a cult following, making it an example of an early cult film.[22]

The film has received overwhelmingly positive reviews. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds a 97% Certified Fresh approval rating based on 63 reviews, with an average rating of 9.05/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "One of the silent era's most influential masterpieces, Nosferatu's eerie, gothic feel -- and a chilling performance from Max Schreck as the vampire -- set the template for the horror films that followed."[23] It was ranked twenty-first in Empire magazine's "The 100 Best Films of World Cinema" in 2010.[24]

In 1997, critic Roger Ebert added Nosferatu to his list of The Great Movies, writing:

Here is the story of Dracula before it was buried alive in clichés, jokes, TV skits, cartoons and more than 30 other films. The film is in awe of its material. It seems to really believe in vampires. ... Is Murnau's "Nosferatu" scary in the modern sense? Not for me. I admire it more for its artistry and ideas, its atmosphere and images, than for its ability to manipulate my emotions like a skillful modern horror film. It knows none of the later tricks of the trade, like sudden threats that pop in from the side of the screen. But "Nosferatu" remains effective: It doesn’t scare us, but it haunts us.[25]

In popular culture

  • The 1977 song "Nosferatu" from the album Spectres by American rock band Blue Öyster Cult is directly about the film.[26]
  • The 1979 TV miniseries adaptation of Stephen King's Salem's Lot took inspiration from "Nosferatu" for the appearance of its villain, Kurt Barlow. The film's producer Richard Kobritz stated that: "We went back to the old German Nosferatu concept where he is the essence of evil, and not anything romantic or smarmy, or, you know, the rouge-cheeked, widow-peaked Dracula."[27]
  • In 1989, French progressive rock outfit Art Zoyd released Nosferatu on Mantra Records. Thierry Zaboitzeff and Gérard Hourbette composed the pieces, to correspond with a truncated version of the film, then in circulation in the public domain.[28]
  • In 1995, Bernard J. Taylor adapted the story into the musical Nosferatu the Vampire.[29]
  • The 2000 film Shadow of the Vampire, directed by E. Elias Merhige and written by Steven A. Katz, is a fictionalized account of the making of Nosferatu. It stars Willem Dafoe and John Malkovich.[30]
  • An opera version composed by Alva Henderson in 2004, with libretto by Dana Gioia,[31] was released on CD in 2005, with Douglas Nagel as Count Orlok/Nosferatu, Susan Gundunas as Ellen Cutter (Ellen Hutter/Lucy Harker), Robert McPherson as Eric Cutter (Thomas Hutter/Jonathan Harker) and Dennis Rupp as Skuller (Knock/Renfield).
  • In 2010, the Mallarme Chamber Players of Durham, North Carolina, commissioned composer Eric J. Schwartz to compose an experimental chamber music score for live performance alongside screenings of the film, which has since been performed a number of times.[32]
  • On 28 October 2012, as part of the BBC Radio "Gothic Imagination" series, the film was reimagined on BBC Radio 3 as the radio play Midnight Cry of the Deathbird by Amanda Dalton directed by Susan Roberts, with Malcolm Raeburn playing the role of Graf Orlok (Count Dracula), Sophie Woolley as Ellen Hutter, Henry Devas as Thomas Hutter and Terence Mann as Knock.[33]

Remakes

A remake by director Werner Herzog, Nosferatu the Vampyre, starred Klaus Kinski (as Count Dracula, not Count Orlok) and was released in 1979.[34]

A planned "remix" (remake) by director David Lee Fisher has been in development after being successfully funded on Kickstarter on 3 December 2014.[35] On 13 April 2016, it was reported that Doug Jones had been cast as Count Orlok in the film and the filming had begun. The film will use green screen to insert colorized backgrounds from the original film atop live-action, a process Fisher previously used for The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari.[36]

In July 2015, another remake was announced with Robert Eggers writing and directing. The film is set to be produced by Jay Van Hoy and Lars Knudsen for Studio 8.[37] In November 2016, Eggers expressed surprise that the Nosferatu remake was going to be his second film, saying "It feels ugly and blasphemous and egomaniacal and disgusting for a filmmaker in my place to do Nosferatu next. I was really planning on waiting a while, but that's how fate shook out."[38]

See also

References

  1. ^ "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema". Retrieved 2 December 2016.
  2. ^ "What's the Big Deal?: Nosferatu (1922)". Retrieved 2 December 2016.
  3. ^ Klinowski, Jacek; Garbicz, Adam (2012). Feature Cinema in the 20th Century: Volume One: 1913–1950: a Comprehensive Guide. Planet RGB Limited. p. 1920. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
  4. ^ Elsaesser, Thomas (February 2001). "Six Degrees Of Nosferatu". Sight and Sound. ISSN 0037-4806. Archived from the original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
  5. ^ Mückenberger, Christiane (1993), "Nosferatu", in Dahlke, Günther; Karl, Günter (eds.), Deutsche Spielfilme von den Anfängen bis 1933 (in German), Berlin: Henschel Verlag, p. 71, ISBN 3-89487-009-5
  6. ^ Roger Manvell, Henrik Galeen – Films as writer:, Other films:, Film Reference, retrieved 23 April 2009
  7. ^ a b Eisner 1967 page 27
  8. ^ Votruba, Martin. "Nosferatu (1922) Slovak Locations". Slovak Studies Program. University of Pittsburgh.
  9. ^ Prinzler page 222: Luciano Berriatúa and Camille Blot in section: Zur Überlieferung der Filme. Then it was usual to use at least two cameras in parallel to maximize the number of copies for distribution. One negative would serve for local use and another for foreign distribution.
  10. ^ Eisner 1967 page 28 Since vampires dying in daylight appears neither in Stoker's work nor in Galeen's script, this concept has been solely attributed to Murnau.
  11. ^ Michael Koller (July 2000), "Nosferatu", Issue 8, July–Aug 2000, senses of cinema, archived from the original on 5 July 2009, retrieved 23 April 2009
  12. ^ Grafe page 117
  13. ^ Randall D. Larson (1996). "An Interview with James Bernard" Soundtrack Magazine. Vol 15, No 58, cited in Randall D. Larson (2008). "James Bernard's Nosferatu". Retrieved on 31 October 2015.
  14. ^ Video on YouTube, Gabriela Montero improvising
  15. ^ Brown, Lee. "Nosferatu". So The Theory Goes. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  16. ^ Ashbury, Roy (5 November 2001), Nosferatu (1st ed.), Pearson Education, p. 41
  17. ^ Eisner page 60
  18. ^ "Waldemar Ronger". www.filmportal.de. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  19. ^ "Nosferatu Versionen – Grabstein für Max Schreck". sites.google.com. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  20. ^ Prinzler, Hans Helmut, ed. (2003). Murnau – Ein Melancholiker des Films. Berlin: Stiftung Deutsche Kinemathek. Bertz. p. 129. ISBN 3-929470-25-X.
  21. ^ "Nosferatu". www.filmhistoriker.de (in German). Retrieved 9 December 2018. Murnau, sein Bildlenker, stellt die Bildchen, sorglich durchgearbeitet, in sich abgeschlossen. Das Schloß des Entsetzens, das Haus des Nosferatu sind packende Leistungen. Ein Motiv-Museum.
  22. ^ Hall, Phil. "The Bootleg Files: Nosferatu". Film Threat. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
  23. ^ "Nosferatu, a Symphony of Horror (Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens) (Nosferatu the Vampire) (1922)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  24. ^ "The 100 Best Films of World Cinema: 21 Nosferatu". Empire.
  25. ^ Ebert, Roger (28 September 1997). "Nosferatu Movie Review & Film Summary (1922)". rogerebert.com. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
  26. ^ "17 Fear-Filled Songs Inspired by Scary Movies". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
  27. ^ "Cinefantastique Magazine Vol. 9 #2".
  28. ^ Kozinn, Allan (23 July 1991). "Music in Review". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  29. ^ "Bernard J. Taylor". AllMusic. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  30. ^ Scott, A. O. (29 December 2000). "FILM REVIEW; Son of 'Nosferatu,' With a Real-Life Monster". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
  31. ^ "Alva Henderson". MagCloud.com. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
  32. ^ "Pfeiffer presents classic 'Nosferatu'". The Stanly News and Press. 24 October 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  33. ^ "Midnight Cry of the Deathbird, Drama on 3". BBC Radio 3. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
  34. ^ Erickson, Hal. "Nosferatu the Vampyre". Allrovi. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
  35. ^ "Thank you from Doug & David!". Kickstarter.com. 6 December 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  36. ^ "Doug Jones to Star in 'Nosferatu' Remake". Variety.com. 13 April 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  37. ^ Fleming Jr., Mike (28 July 2015). "Studio 8 Sets Nosferatu Remake; The Witch's Robert Eggers to Write & Direct". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  38. ^ O'Falt, Chris (11 November 2016). "Filmmaker Toolkit Podcast: Witch Director Robert Eggers' Lifelong Obsession with Nosferatu and His Plans for a Remake (Episode 13)". Indiewire. Retrieved 27 March 2019.

Bibliography

  • Brill, Olaf, Film Nosferatu, Eine Symphonie des Grauens (GER 1922) (in German), retrieved 11 June 2009 (1921-1922 reports and reviews)
  • Eisner, Lotte H. (1967), Murnau. Der Klassiker des deutschen Films (in German), Velber/Hannover: Friedrich Verlag
  • Eisner, Lotte H. (1980), Hoffmann, Hilmar; Schobert, Walter (eds.), Die dämonische Leinwand (in German), Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, ISBN 3-596-23660-6
  • Grafe, Frieda (2003), Enno Patalas (ed.), Licht aus Berlin: Lang/Lubitsch/Murnau (in German), Berlin: Verlag Brinkmann & Bose, ISBN 978-3922660811
  • Meßlinger, Karin; Thomas, Vera (2003), "Nosferatu", in Prinzler, Hans Helmut (ed.), Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau: ein Melancholiker des Films (in German), Berlin: Bertz Verlag GbR, ISBN 3-929470-25-X

External links

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Count Orlok

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F. W. Murnau

Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau (born Friedrich Wilhelm Plumpe; December 28, 1888 – March 11, 1931) was a German film director. He was greatly influenced by Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Shakespeare and Ibsen plays he had seen at the age of 12, and became a friend of director Max Reinhardt. During World War I he served as a company commander at the eastern front and was in the German air force, surviving several crashes without any severe injuries.One of Murnau's acclaimed works is the 1922 film Nosferatu, an adaptation of Bram Stoker's Dracula. Although not a commercial success, owing to copyright issues with Stoker's novel, the film is considered a masterpiece of Expressionist film. He later directed the 1924 film The Last Laugh, as well as a 1926 interpretation of Goethe's Faust. He later emigrated to Hollywood in 1926, where he joined the Fox Studio and made three films: Sunrise (1927), 4 Devils (1928) and City Girl (1930). Sunrise is regarded by critics and film directors as among the best films ever made.In 1931, Murnau travelled to Bora Bora to make the film Tabu (1931) with documentary film pioneer Robert J. Flaherty, who left after artistic disputes with Murnau, who had to finish the movie on his own. A week prior to the opening of the film Tabu, Murnau died in a Santa Barbara hospital from injuries he had sustained in an automobile accident that occurred along the Pacific Coast Highway near Rincon Beach, southeast of Santa Barbara.

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Nosferatu (John Zorn album)

Nosferatu is an album by John Zorn released on the Tzadik label in April 2012 on the 100th Anniversary of Bram Stoker's death.

Nosferatu (band)

Nosferatu is an English second wave gothic rock band. In 2019 the members are Tim Vic (vocals and guitar), Damien DeVille (lead guitar), Thom (bass guitar) and Belle Starr (drums).

Vlad Janicek and Sapphire Aurora formed Nosferatu in 1987, from the ashes of Harrow based act The Dreaming, with a mission to create a no compromise gothic rock band.

Steve Cachman joined as the first guitarist to complete the first lineup and the band wrote and recorded a 3 track demo and played a handful of shows in and around London before leaving for Rubella Ballet. Damien DeVille (Lead Guitar), then joined in 1988.

Sapphire Aurora provided vocals until April 1990, Gary Clarke of The Cureheads sang with the band from April-October of 1990. From 1991 to April 1993 lyrics and vocals were provided by Louis DeWray. Niall Murphy joined Nosferatu as vocalist in August 1993 and sang with them until November 1994.

A confrontation on the tour to promote The Prophecy in 1994 led to the dissolution of the band. Despite legal proceedings Damien Deville went on to form a new version of the band without authorisation.

Dominic LaVey provided vocals from March 1995 to February 2002 and left the band after their "Best of Nosferatu - The Hades Years" was released in 2002. In August 2003, DeVille persuaded Louis DeWray to return as vocalist. DeWray having performed in the meantime with Fashionable Living Death and his own band Ditzy Micro. DeWray then recorded the "Wonderland" album and 2 singles "Somebody Put Something In My Drink" and "Black Hole" at his Earth Terminal Residential Studio. "Black Hole" reached number 12 in the national midweek charts in April 2010 and this currently stand as Nosferatu's highest position in the UK chart yet. DeWray left Nosferatu in December 2014, Gonzo (Love Like Blood vocalist) took over as Nosferatu vocalist and sang at Wave Gothic Treffen in 2015 along with new Nosferatu vocalist Tim Vic.

The band has performed over 320 concerts in 14 countries (Austria, Belgium, England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holland, Luxembourg, Poland,Spain, Republic of Ireland, Scotland, Wales) since 1988, including Amphi Fest in Cologne, Germany in 2016, the Wave Gothic Treffen Festival in Leipzig, Germany in 2015, 2011, 2009, 2006, 1999 & 1994; the NCN Festival in Deutzen, Germany in 2012; the Mera Luna Festival in Hildesheim, Germany in 2007 & 2002; the Castle Party Festival in Poland in 2011; the DV8 Festival in York in 2011 & 2010, England; the Judgement Day Festival Dornbirn in 2006, Austria; the Existence Festival in Valencia, Spain in 2006; the Vampiricon Festival in Duisburg, Germany in 2003; Sacrosanct Festival London in 1995 and Reading in 2014; the Waregem Gothic Festival in Waregem, Belgium in 2010, the Lumous Festival in Tampere, Finland in 2011 plus numerous concerts at prestigious venues such as Nottingham Rock City, The 100 Club, The Marquee, The Fulham Greyhound etc.

The current day sees two versions of this band, a second band featuring Louis DeWray and Vlad Janicek has been formed called The Nosferatu to avoid confusion and seeks to return the band to its former glory.

Nosferatu (word)

The name "Nosferatu" has been presented as possibly an archaic Romanian word, synonymous with "vampire". However, it was largely popularized in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Western fiction such as Dracula, and the film Nosferatu. One of the many suggested etymologies of the term is that it is derived from the Romanian Nesuferit ("offensive" or "troublesome").

Nosferatu (wrestler)

Nosferatu (born September 17, 1979) is a Mexican luchador enmascarado, or masked professional wrestler, working for the Mexican professional wrestling promotion Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre (CMLL) portraying a rudo ("bad guy") character. Nosferatu's real name is not a matter of public record; although he previously worked without a mask, using the ring name Chamaco Valaguez, Jr., it has not been verified that is his real name. Mexican wrestlers often try to keep their private lives secret from the wrestling fans.

Nosferatu the Vampyre

Nosferatu the Vampyre is a 1979 West German horror film written and directed by Werner Herzog. Its original German title is Nosferatu: Phantom der Nacht (Nosferatu: Phantom of the Night). The film is set primarily in 19th century Wismar, Germany and Transylvania, and was conceived as a stylistic remake of F. W. Murnau's 1922 German Dracula adaptation Nosferatu. The picture stars Klaus Kinski as Count Dracula, Isabelle Adjani as Lucy Harker, Bruno Ganz as Jonathan Harker, and French artist-writer Roland Topor as Renfield. There are two different versions of the film, one in which the actors speak English, and one in which they speak German.

Herzog's production of Nosferatu was very well received by critics and enjoyed a comfortable degree of commercial success. The film also marks the second of five collaborations between director Herzog and actor Kinski, immediately followed by 1979's Woyzeck. The film had 1,000,000 admissions in West Germany and grossed ITL 53,870,000 in Italy. The film was also a modest success in Adjani's home country, taking in 933,533 admissions in France.A novelization of the screenplay was written by Paul Monette and published by both Avon Publishing (ISBN 978-0380441075) and Picador (ISBN 978-0330259293) in 1979.

The 1988 Italian horror film Nosferatu in Venice is an "in-name-only" sequel, again featuring Kinski in the title role.

Robert Eggers

Robert Eggers (born July 7, 1983) is an American film director, screenwriter and production designer, best known for his horror films The Witch (2015) and The Lighthouse (2019). Eggers began his career as a designer and director of theatre productions in New York before transitioning to working in film.

Shadow of the Vampire

Shadow of the Vampire is a 2000 metafiction horror film directed by E. Elias Merhige, written by Steven Katz, and starring John Malkovich and Willem Dafoe. The film is a documentary account of the making of the classic vampire film Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens, directed by F. W. Murnau, during which the film crew began to have disturbing suspicions about their lead actor.

The film borrows the techniques of silent films, including the use of intertitles to explain elided action, and iris lenses. The film was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Makeup and Hairstyling. For his performance, Dafoe was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor.

Vampire in Venice

Vampire in Venice (Italian: Nosferatu a Venezia) is a 1988 Italian horror film directed by Augusto Caminito and an uncredited Klaus Kinski.. The film is about Professor Paris Catalano who travels to Venice to find the last known appearance of Nosferatu (Kinski) was last seen at a Carnival in 1786. Catalano believes the vampire is seeking eternal death, and finds that after Nosferatu from a séance, that he must put an end to the vampire once and for all.

After securing Kinski for the lead of Nosferatu, producer August Caminito planned a sequel to Werner Herzog's Nosferatu the Vampyre. Caminito originally secured Maurizio Lucidi as the director but later felt that film would be better with a more well known director and a higher budget, leading Lucidi to be dropped as the director in favor of Pasquale Squitieri. Squiteri made several changes to the script which did not appeal to Caminito, which led to him paying Squiteri and terminating his contract. This led to further budget cuts in the film and hiring Mario Caiano on as the director. After clashing with Kinski on set, Caiano left the film leading Caminito to direct the film himself. During filming, Kinski would not follow rehearsal and demanded change in actors and often had lighting to be changed dramatically on set. According to second unit director Luigi Cozzi, Kinski's behaviour on set became so erratic that the entire crew left the set and did not return until Kinski apologized for his behaviour.

After six weeks of filming, Caminito found that he did not have the entire film complete but could not continue with the project. This led to entire sections of the re-written screenplay by Caminito not being shot and Caminito making due with what he had. The film premiered at the Venice Film Festival on 9 September 1988 and was later released theatrically in Italy.

Werner Herzog

Werner Herzog (German: [ˈvɛɐ̯nɐ ˈhɛɐ̯tsoːk]; born 5 September 1942) is a German film director, screenwriter, author, actor, and opera director. Herzog is a figure of the New German Cinema. His films often feature ambitious protagonists with impossible dreams, people with unique talents in obscure fields, or individuals who are in conflict with nature.Werner Herzog made his first film in 1961 at the age of 19. Since then he has produced, written, and directed more than sixty feature- and documentary films, such as Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972), Nosferatu the Vampyre (1978), Fitzcarraldo (1982), Lessons of Darkness (1992), Little Dieter Needs to Fly (1997), My Best Fiend (1999), Invincible (2000), Grizzly Man (2005), Encounters at the End of the World (2007), Bad Lieutenant: Port of Call New Orleans (2009), and Cave of Forgotten Dreams (2010). He has published more than a dozen books of prose, and directed as many operas.

French filmmaker François Truffaut once called Herzog "the most important film director alive." American film critic Roger Ebert said that Herzog "has never created a single film that is compromised, shameful, made for pragmatic reasons, or uninteresting. Even his failures are spectacular."

He was named one of the world's 100 most influential people by Time magazine in 2009.

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