Northwest China

Northwest China (Chinese: 西北; pinyin: Xīběi) includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang and Ningxia and the provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai.

Northwest China
Population96.6 million
Northwest China
Northwestern China

Administrative divisions

GB[2] ISO №[3] Province Chinese Name Capital Population Density Area Abbreviation/Symbol
SN 61 Shaanxi Province 陕西省
Shǎnxī Shěng
Xi'an 37,327,378 181.55 205,600 陕(秦)
Shǎn (Qín)
GS 62 Gansu Province 甘肃省
Gānsù Shěng
Lanzhou 25,575,254 56.29 454,300 甘(陇)
Gān (Lǒng)
QH 63 Qinghai Province 青海省
Qīnghǎi Shěng
Xining 5,626,722 7.80 721,200
NX 64 Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region 宁夏回族自治区
Níngxià Huízú Zìzhìqū
Yinchuan 6,301,350 94.89 66,400
XJ 65 Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region 新疆维吾尔自治区
Xīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr Zìzhìqū
Ürümqi 21,813,334 13.13 1,660,400

Cities with urban area over one million in population

# City Urban area[4] District area[4] City proper[4] Prov. Census date
1 Xi'an 5,206,253 6,501,190 8,467,838 SN 2010-11-01
2 Ürümqi 2,853,398 3,029,372 3,112,559 XJ 2010-11-01
3 Lanzhou 2,438,595 2,628,426 3,616,163 GS 2010-11-01
4 Yinchuan 1,159,457 1,290,170 1,993,088 NX 2010-11-01
5 Xining 1,153,417 1,198,304 2,208,708 QH 2010-11-01

Outer Northwest China

Outer Northwest China (Chinese: 外西北; pinyin: Wài Xīběi) refers to small portions of territories of the Qing dynasty that were later annexed by the Russian Empire through the Convention of Peking, Treaty of Tarbagatai, Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1881) and other unequal treaties referred by Chinese interpretation. The territories formed parts of far-western Xinjiang, northwestern Outer Mongolia, and the entirety of Tannu Uriankhai. Prior to Qing rule, Outer Northwest China was part of the Dzungar Khanate but the region was annexed into the Qing Empire in the aftermath of the Dzungar–Qing Wars.

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the region is now divided among two successor states of the Soviet Union: Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

See also


  1. ^ "List of regions of the People's Republic of China - Wikipedia". Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  2. ^ CHGIS. "Database Design". Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  3. ^ ISO 3166-2:CN (ISO 3166-2 codes for the provinces of China)
  4. ^ a b c 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Beijing: 中国统计出版社 [China Statistics Press]. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.

Coordinates: 36°48′00″N 95°48′00″E / 36.8000°N 95.8000°E

Anning District

Anning District (simplified Chinese: 安宁区; traditional Chinese: 安寧區; pinyin: Ānníng Qū) is one of 5 districts of the prefecture-level city of Lanzhou, the capital of Gansu Province, Northwest China. The Northwest Normal University is located in the district.

Fan Chou

Fan Chou (died 195) was a general serving under the warlord Dong Zhuo during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.

Gaoling District

Gaoling District (simplified Chinese: 高陵区; traditional Chinese: 高陵區; pinyin: Gāolíng Qū) is one of 11 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Xi'an, the capital of Shaanxi Province, Northwest China. The most densely populated of the ten districts of Xi'an, the district borders the prefecture-level city of Xianyang to the northwest, Lintong District to the east, Baqiao District to the south, and Weiyang District to the southwest.

Gongbei (Islamic architecture)

Gongbei (Chinese: 拱北; pinyin: Gǒngběi; from Arabic: قُبّة‎ (qubba), Persian: گنبد‎ gonbad, meaning "dome", "cupola"), is a term used by the Hui people in Northwest China for an Islamic shrine complex centered on a grave of a Sufi master, typically the founder of a menhuan (a Chinese Sufi sect, or a "saintly lineage"). The grave itself usually is topped with a dome.A similar facility is known as dargah in a number of Islamic countries.

Between 1958 and 1966, many Sufi tombs in Ningxia and throughout northwestern China in general, were destroyed, viewed by the authorities as relics of the old "feudal" order and symbols of the criticized religion, as well as for practical reasons ("wasting valuable farmland"). Once the freedom of religion became recognized once again in the 1980s, and much of the land reverted to the control of individual farmers, destroyed gongbeis were often rebuilt once again.


The Hanafi (Arabic: حنفي‎ Ḥanafī) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh). It is named after the scholar Abū Ḥanīfa an-Nu‘man ibn Thābit (d. 767), a tabi‘i whose legal views were preserved primarily by his two most important disciples, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad al-Shaybani. The other major schools of Sharia in Sunni Islam are Maliki, Shafi`i and Hanbali.The Hanafi school is the maddhab with the largest number of followers among Sunni Muslims. It is predominant in the countries that were once part of the historic Ottoman Empire, Mughal Empire and Sultanates of Turkic rulers in the South Asia, northwest China and Central Asia. In the modern era, Hanafi is prevalent in the following regions: Turkey, the Balkans, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Egypt, parts of Iraq, parts of Iran, parts of Russia, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of India and China, and Bangladesh.

Honggu District

Honggu District (simplified Chinese: 红古区; traditional Chinese: 紅古區; pinyin: Hónggǔ Qū) is one of 5 districts of the prefecture-level city of Lanzhou, the capital of Gansu Province, Northwest China.

National Key Buddhist Temples in Han Chinese Area

National Key Buddhist Temples in Han Chinese Area are national key ("important") Buddhist temples in areas traditionally associated with the Han Chinese in the People's Republic of China (excluding Inner Mongolia, Tibet, and Xinjiang). The list was originally released on 9 April 1983 by the State Council, and included 142 Buddhist temples.

Northern Shaanxi

Shaanbei (simplified Chinese: 陕北; traditional Chinese: 陝北; pinyin: Shǎnběi) is the northern portion of Shaanxi province in Northwest China, and is a natural as well as cultural area, forming part of the Loess Plateau. As it includes Yan'an, it is known as the birthplace of the Chinese Communist revolution.

Qifu Guoren

Qifu Guoren (Chinese: 乞伏國仁; died 388), formally Prince Xuanlie of Wanchuan (苑川宣烈王), was the founding ruler of the Xianbei state Western Qin.

Qifu Guoren's father Qifu Sifan (乞伏司繁) was a Xianbei tribal chief in the modern southern/southwestern Gansu region who, after being defeated by the Former Qin general Wang Tong (王統), surrendered in 371 and was allowed to keep his tribe together as a Former Qin vassal. In 376, Qifu Sifan died, and Qifu Guoren succeeded him. When the Former Qin emperor Fu Jiān sought to conquer Jin Dynasty (265-420) to unite China in 383, Qifu Guoren was initially going to serve as a general in his advance troops, but at that time, Qifu Guoren's uncle Qifu Butui (乞伏步頹) rebelled, and Fu Jiān sent Qifu Guoren to put down his uncle's rebellion. Instead, Qifu Guoren and Qifu Butui joined forces, and Qifu Guoren declared that Former Qin had worn out its people and that he was establishing an independent state—although at that time he did not take any regal title or declare a new era name.

In 385, after hearing about Fu Jiān's death at the hands of another rebel general, Yao Chang (the founder of Later Qin), Qifu Guoren did declare himself chanyu and changed the era name, thus effectively declaring a break from Former Qin, and thus this date was typically considered the founding date of Western Qin. He divided his domain into 12 commanderies, and he established his capital at Yongshicheng (勇士城, in modern Lanzhou, Gansu). Over the next two years, he gradually drew the Xianbei and other ethnicities into his state.

In 387, however, contrary to his prior stance against Former Qin, Qifu Guoren accepted the title of Prince of Wanchuan bestowed on him by the Former Qin emperor Fu Deng and nominally became a Former Qin vassal again, although he did not use the Former Qin era name.

In summer 388, Qifu Guoren died. His son Qifu Gongfu (乞伏公府) was still young, and his subordinates supported his brother Qifu Gangui to succeed him.

Santa language

The Santa language, also known as Dongxiang (Chinese: 东乡语; pinyin: Dōngxiāng yǔ), is a Mongolic language spoken by the Dongxiang people in Northwest China.


Shaanxi (Chinese: 陝西; pinyin: Shǎnxī; Mandarin pronunciation: [ʂàn.ɕí] (listen); alternately Shensi) is a landlocked province in Northwest China. It lies in central China, bordering the provinces of Shanxi (NE, E), Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW), and Inner Mongolia (N).

Shaanxi covers an area of over 205,000 km2 (79,151 sq mi) with about 37 million people, the 16th highest in China. Xi'an – which includes the sites of the former Chinese capitals Fenghao and Chang'an – is the capital and largest city in the province. Xianyang, which served as the Qin dynasty capital, is located nearby. The other prefecture-level cities into which the province is divided are Ankang, Baoji, Hanzhong, Shangluo, Tongchuan, Weinan, Yan'an and Yulin.

Shaanxi comprises the Wei Valley and much of the surrounding fertile Loess Plateau, stretching from the Qin Mountains and Shannan in the south to the Ordos Desert in the north. Along with areas of adjacent Shanxi and Henan provinces, it formed the cradle of Chinese civilization, with its Guanzhong region sheltering the capitals of the Zhou, Han, Jin, Sui, and Tang dynasties in addition to the Qin. It does not include the full territory of the Yellow River's Ordos Loop, with the Great Wall of China separating it from the grasslands and deserts of Inner Mongolia.

The vast majority of the population of Shaanxi is Han Chinese. Mandarin is mainly spoken in Shaanxi, including Zhongyuan Mandarin and Southwestern Mandarin; another variety of Chinese, Jin, is also spoken.

Shaanxi is China's 15th largest economy, ranking within the middle among China's administrative divisions. The fossil fuel and high technology sectors compose the two largest industries in Shaanxi province. The high technology sector includes aircraft and aerospace industries, and Shaanxi produces more than 50% of the R&D and manufacturing equipment for the country's domestic commercial air industry.Xi'an, the capital of Shaanxi is one of the oldest cities in China, and the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals. Since the 1990s, as part of the economic revival of inland China especially for the central and northwest regions, the city of Xi'an has re-emerged as an important cultural, industrial and educational centre of Shaanxi and the central-northwest region. It is the most populous city in Northwest China.


Sinostega is an extinct genus of early "tetrapod" from the Late Devonian of China.

The fossil was discovered in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, northwest China, and consist of a fragmentary lower jawbone measuring 7 cm in length. It is the first Devonian tetrapod to be found in Asia.

Tufa Wugu

Tufa Wugu (Chinese: 禿髮烏孤; died 399), formally Prince Wu of Wuwei (武威武王), was the founding prince of the Xianbei state Southern Liang. He was initially a vassal of Later Liang's emperor Lü Guang, but seeing how Lü Guang was misruling his people, declared independence in 397. He ruled for only two years before he died from injuries suffered in a horse-riding accident.

Xi'an North railway station

Xi'an North railway station (Chinese: 西安北站; pinyin: Xī'ānběi Zhàn) is a railway station on the Zhengxi Passenger Railway, Xibao Passenger Railway and Daxi Passenger Railway. The station is located in Weiyang District of Xi'an, the capital of Shaanxi province. It is some 10 km (6.2 mi) north of the city centre and the Xi'an railway station.

The station has 34 platforms. It is the largest railway station in Northwest China.The station is connected to downtown Xi'an by Line 2 of Xi'an Metro at Bei Kezhan station and by Line 4 of Xi'an Metro at Bei Kezhan (Bei Guangchang) station.

Xi'an Xianyang International Airport

Xi'an Xianyang International Airport (IATA: XIY, ICAO: ZLXY) is the main airport serving Xi'an, the capital of China's Shaanxi Province, as well as the whole Guanzhong area. Covering an area of 5 square kilometres (1.9 sq mi), it is the largest airport in Northwest China, and the second largest airport in Northern China. The airport was the hub for China Northwest Airlines until the company was merged into China Eastern Airlines in 2002. Xi'an Airport is also the hub for Joy Air and Hainan Airlines. Xi'an Xianyang International Airport is a Skytrax 4-star airport.In 2018, the airport handled 44,650,000 passengers, making it the busiest airport in northwest China and the 7th busiest nationwide. Xi'an Xianyang International Airport was also the nation's 14th busiest airport in terms of cargo traffic and the 7th busiest airport by traffic movements.

Xigu District

Xigu District (Chinese: 西固区; pinyin: Xīgù Qū) is one of 5 districts of the prefecture-level city of Lanzhou, the capital of Gansu Province, Northwest China.

Xinshi District, Ürümqi

Xinshi District (Chinese: 新市区; pinyin: Xīnshì Qū; Uyghur: يېڭىشەھەر رايونى, Йеңишәхәр Райони‎, ULY: Yéngisheher Rayoni, UYY: Yengixəhər Rayoni?) is one of 7 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Wulumuqi, the capital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China. It contains an area of 142 km2 (55 sq mi). According to the 2002 census, it has a population of 360,000. Diwopu Airport is in the township.When it existed, China Xinjiang Airlines had its headquarters on the airport property.

Yinchuan–Xi'an high-speed railway

Yinchuan–Xi'an high-speed railway, is a dual-track, electrified, high-speed rail line under construction in Northwest China between Yinchuan and Xi'an. The line will be the first railway to connect Qingyang to the Chinese railway network, and also the first railway to connect Ningxia and Yinchuan to the high-speed railway network.

Ürümqi County

Ürümqi County is a county of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Ürümqi, the capital of Xinjiang. It contains an area of 4,601 km² and according to the 2002 census has a population of 80,000.



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