Northern pintail

The pintail or northern pintail (Anas acuta) is a duck with wide geographic distribution that breeds in the northern areas of Europe, Asia and North America. It is migratory and winters south of its breeding range to the equator. Unusually for a bird with such a large range, it has no geographical subspecies if the possibly conspecific duck Eaton's pintail is considered to be a separate species.

This is a large duck, and the male's long central tail feathers give rise to the species' English and scientific names. Both sexes have blue-grey bills and grey legs and feet. The drake is more striking, having a thin white stripe running from the back of its chocolate-coloured head down its neck to its mostly white undercarriage. The drake also has attractive grey, brown, and black patterning on its back and sides. The hen's plumage is more subtle and subdued, with drab brown feathers similar to those of other female dabbling ducks. Hens make a coarse quack and the drakes a flute-like whistle.

The northern pintail is a bird of open wetlands which nests on the ground, often some distance from water. It feeds by dabbling for plant food and adds small invertebrates to its diet during the nesting season. It is highly gregarious when not breeding, forming large mixed flocks with other species of duck. This duck's population is affected by predators, parasites and avian diseases. Human activities, such as agriculture, hunting and fishing, have also had a significant impact on numbers. Nevertheless, owing to the huge range and large population of this species, it is not threatened globally.

Northern pintail
Northern Pintails (Male & Female) I IMG 0911
Male and female (left-right)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Anseriformes
Family: Anatidae
Genus: Anas
A. acuta
Binomial name
Anas acuta
Linnaeus, 1758
AnasAcutaIUCN2019 2
Range of A. acuta      Breeding      Passage      Non-breeding      Vagrant (seasonality uncertain)

Dafila acuta


This species was first described by Linnaeus in his Systema naturae in 1758 as Anas acuta.[2] The scientific name comes from two Latin words: anas, meaning "duck", and acuta, which comes from the verb acuere, "to sharpen"; the species term, like the English name, refers to the pointed tail of the male in breeding plumage.[3] Within the large dabbling duck genus Anas,[2] the northern pintail's closest relatives are other pintails, such as the yellow-billed pintail (A. georgica) and Eaton's pintail (A. eatoni). The pintails are sometimes separated in the genus Dafila (described by Stephens, 1824), an arrangement supported by morphological, molecular and behavioural data.[4][5][6] The famous British ornithologist Sir Peter Scott gave this name to his daughter, the artist Dafila Scott.[7]

Eaton's pintail has two subspecies, A. e. eatoni (the Kerguelen pintail) of Kerguelen Islands, and A. e. drygalskyi (the Crozet pintail) of Crozet Islands, and was formerly considered conspecific with the northern hemisphere's northern pintail. Sexual dimorphism is much less marked in the southern pintails, with the male's breeding appearance being similar to the female plumage. Unusually for a species with such a large range, northern pintail has no geographical subspecies if Eaton's pintail is treated as a separate species.[8]

A claimed extinct subspecies from Manra Island, Tristram's pintail, A. a. modesta, appears to be indistinguishable from the nominate form.[9] The three syntype specimens of Dafila modesta Tristram (Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1886, p.79. pl. VII), the extinct subspecies, are held in the collections of National Museums Liverpool at World Museum, with accession numbers T11792 (male immature), T11795 (female adult) and T11797 (female adult). The specimens were collected by J. V. Arundel in Sydney Island (Manra Island), Phoenix Islands in 1885 and came to the Liverpool national collection via Canon Henry Baker Tristram’s collection which was purchased in 1896.

Northern Pintail (Female)
Northern pintail female wingspan
Northern pintail.1
Northern pintail male in flight
Northern pintail.2
Northern pintail female


Ljubljana - Anas acuta male
Male in river Ljubljanica, Slovenia

The northern pintail is a fairly large duck with a wing chord of 23.6–28.2 cm (9.3–11.1 in) and wingspan of 80–95 cm (31–37 in).[10] The male is 59–76 cm (23–30 in) in length and weighs 450–1,360 g (0.99–3.00 lb), and therefore is considerably larger than the female, which is 51–64 cm (20–25 in) long and weighs 454–1,135 g (1.001–2.502 lb).[11] The northern pintail broadly overlaps in size with the similarly-widespread mallard, but is more slender, elongated and gracile, with a relatively longer neck and (in males) a longer tail. The unmistakable breeding plumaged male has a chocolate-brown head and white breast with a white stripe extending up the side of the neck. Its upperparts and sides are grey, but elongated grey feathers with black central stripes are draped across the back from the shoulder area. The vent area is yellow, contrasting with the black underside of the tail,[8] which has the central feathers elongated to as much as 10 cm (3.9 in). The bill is bluish and the legs are blue-grey.[12]

The adult female is mainly scalloped and mottled in light brown with a more uniformly grey-brown head, and its pointed tail is shorter than the male's; it is still easily identified by its shape, long neck, and long grey bill.[8] In non-breeding (eclipse) plumage, the drake pintail looks similar to the female, but retains the male upperwing pattern and long grey shoulder feathers. Juvenile birds resemble the female, but are less neatly scalloped and have a duller brown speculum with a narrower trailing edge.[13]

The pintail walks well on land, and swims well.[8] It has a very fast flight, with its wings slightly swept-back, rather than straight out from the body like other ducks. In flight, the male shows a black speculum bordered white at the rear and pale rufous at the front, whereas the female's speculum is dark brown bordered with white, narrowly at the front edge but very prominently at the rear, being visible at a distance of 1,600 m (0.99 mi).[13]

The male's call is a soft proop-proop whistle, similar to that of the common teal, whereas the female has a mallard-like descending quack, and a low croak when flushed.[8]

Distribution and habitat

Northern Pintail (Males) near Hodal I IMG 9252
Non-breeding males wintering in India

This dabbling duck breeds across northern areas of Eurasia south to about Poland and Mongolia,[11] and in Canada, Alaska and the Midwestern United States. Mainly in winters south of its breeding range, reaches almost to the equator in Panama, northern sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South Asia. Small numbers migrate to Pacific islands, particularly Hawaii, where a few hundred birds winter on the main islands in shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural habitats.[8] Transoceanic journeys also occur: a bird that was caught and ringed in Labrador, Canada, was shot by a hunter in England nine days later,[11] and Japanese-ringed birds have been recovered from six US states east to Utah and Mississippi.[14] In parts of the range, such as Great Britain and the northwestern United States, the pintail may be present all year.[13][15]

The northern pintail's breeding habitat is open unwooded wetlands, such as wet grassland, lakesides or tundra. In winter, it will utilise a wider range of open habitats, such as sheltered estuaries, brackish marshes and coastal lagoons. It is highly gregarious outside the breeding season and forms very large mixed flocks with other ducks.[8]



Anas acuta 2005.01.10-10.18.52
Breeding pair
Anas acuta MWNH 0965
Egg, Collection Museum Wiesbaden

Both sexes reach sexual maturity at one year of age. The male mates with the female by swimming close to her with his head lowered and tail raised, continually whistling. If there is a group of males, they will chase the female in flight until only one drake is left. The female prepares for copulation, which takes place in the water, by lowering her body; the male then bobs his head up and down and mounts the female, taking the feathers on the back of her head in his mouth. After mating, he raises his head and back and whistles.[11]

Breeding takes place between April and June, with the nest being constructed on the ground and hidden amongst vegetation in a dry location, often some distance from water. It is a shallow scrape on the ground lined with plant material and down.[8] The female lays seven to nine cream-coloured eggs at the rate of one per day;[11] the eggs are 55 mm × 38 mm (2.2 in × 1.5 in) in size and weigh 45 g (1.6 oz), of which 7% is shell.[16] If predators destroy the first clutch, the female can produce a replacement clutch as late as the end of July.[11] The hen alone incubates the eggs for 22 to 24 days before they hatch. The precocial downy chicks are then led by the female to the nearest body of water, where they feed on dead insects on the water surface. The chicks fledge in 46 to 47 days after hatching, but stay with the female until she has completed moulting.[11]

Around three-quarters of chicks live long enough to fledge, but not more than half of those survive long enough to reproduce.[11] The maximum recorded age is 27 years and 5 months for a Dutch bird.[16]


Northern Pintails (Male & Female)- Up-ending I 342
Up-ending to feed (male on right)

The pintail feeds by dabbling and upending in shallow water for plant food mainly in the evening or at night, and therefore spends much of the day resting.[8] Its long neck enables it to take food items from the bottom of water bodies up to 30 cm (12 in) deep, which are beyond the reach of other dabbling ducks like the Mallard.[12]

The winter diet is mainly plant material including seeds and rhizomes of aquatic plants, but the pintail sometimes feeds on roots, grain and other seeds in fields, though less frequently than other Anas ducks.[12] During the nesting season, this bird eats mainly invertebrate animals, including aquatic insects, molluscs and crustaceans.[11]


Northern Pintail (Male)- Preening I IMG 1119
Male preening

Pintail nests and chicks are vulnerable to predation by mammals, such as foxes and badgers, and birds like gulls, crows and magpies. The adults can take flight to escape terrestrial predators, but nesting females in particular may be surprised by large carnivores such as bobcats.[11] Large birds of prey, such as northern goshawks, will take ducks from the ground, and some falcons, including the gyrfalcon, have the speed and power to catch flying birds.[17]

It is susceptible to a range of parasites including Cryptosporidium, Giardia, tapeworms, blood parasites and external feather lice,[18][19][20][21] and is also affected by other avian diseases. It is often the dominant species in major mortality events from avian botulism and avian cholera,[22] and can also contract avian influenza, the H5N1 strain of which is highly pathogenic and occasionally infects humans.[23]

The northern pintail is a popular species for game shooting because of its speed, agility, and excellent eating qualities, and is hunted across its range.[24][25] Although one of the world's most numerous ducks,[16] the combination of hunting with other factors has led to population declines, and local restrictions on hunting have been introduced at times to help conserve numbers.[26]

This species' preferred habitat of shallow water is naturally susceptible to problems such as drought or the encroachment of vegetation, but this duck's habitat might be increasingly threatened by climate change.[16] Populations are also affected by the conversion of wetlands and grassland to arable crops, depriving the duck of feeding and nesting areas. Spring planting means that many nests of this early breeding duck are destroyed by farming activities,[27] and a Canadian study showed that more than half of the surveyed nests were destroyed by agricultural work such as ploughing and harrowing.[28]

Northern Pintail (Female)- Feeding I IMG 0910

Hunting with lead shot, along with the use of lead sinkers in angling, has been identified as a major cause of lead poisoning in waterfowl, which often feed off the bottom of lakes and wetlands where the shot collects.[29] A Spanish study showed that northern pintail and common pochard were the species with the highest levels of lead shot ingestion, higher than in northern countries of the western Palearctic flyway, where lead shot has been banned.[30] In the United States, Canada, and many western European countries, all shot used for waterfowl must now be non-toxic, and therefore may not contain any lead.[31][32][33]


The northern pintail has a large range, estimated at 28,400,000 km2 (11,000,000 sq mi), and a population estimated at 5.3–5.4 million individuals.[34] It is therefore not believed to meet the IUCN Red List threshold criterion of a population decline of more than 30% in ten years or three generations, and is evaluated as of Least Concern.

In the Palaearctic, breeding populations are declining in much of the range, including its stronghold in Russia. In other regions, populations are stable or fluctuating.[35]

Pintails in North America at least have been badly affected by avian diseases, with the breeding population falling from more than 10 million in 1957 to 3.5 million by 1964. Although the species has recovered from that low point, the breeding population in 1999 was 30% below the long-term average, despite years of major efforts focused on restoring the species. In 1997, an estimated 1.5 million water birds, the majority being northern pintails, died from avian botulism during two outbreaks in Canada and Utah.[22]

The northern pintail is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies,[36] but it has no special status under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), which regulates international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants.[11]


  1. ^ BirdLife International (2013). "Anas acuta". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ a b Linnaeus, Carolus (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata (in Latin). Holmiae [Stockholm]: Laurentii Salvii. p. 126. A. cauda acuminata elongata subtus nigra, occipite utrinque linea alba
  3. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 31, 46. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  4. ^ Johnson, Kevin P.; Sorenson, Michael D. (1999). "Phylogeny and biogeography of dabbling ducks (genus Anas): a comparison of molecular and morphological evidence" (PDF). The Auk. 116 (3): 792–805. doi:10.2307/4089339. JSTOR 4089339.
  5. ^ Johnson, Kevin P.; McKinney, Frank; Wilson, Robert; Sorenson, Michael D. (2000). "The evolution of postcopulatory displays in dabbling ducks (Anatini): a phylogenetic perspective" (PDF). Animal Behaviour. 59 (5): 953–963. doi:10.1006/anbe.1999.1399. PMID 10860522. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 January 2006.
  6. ^ Livezey, B.C. (1991). "A phylogenetic analysis and classification of recent dabbling ducks (Tribe Anatini) based on comparative morphology" (PDF). The Auk. 108 (3): 471–507. doi:10.2307/4088089. JSTOR 4088089.
  7. ^ "Dafila Scott". Society of Wildlife Artists. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2008.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Madge, Steve; Burn, Hilary (1988). Wildfowl: An Identification Guide to the Ducks, Geese and Swans of the World (Helm Identification Guides). Christopher Helm. pp. 222–224. ISBN 978-0-7470-2201-5.
  9. ^ Hume, Julian P.; Walters, Michael (2012). Extinct Birds. London: Poyser. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-4081-5725-1.
  10. ^ del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J., eds. (1992). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Robinson, Jerry (2002). Johansson, Carl (ed.). "Anas acuta". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
  12. ^ a b c Gooders, John; Boyer, Trevor (1997). Ducks of Britain and the Northern Hemisphere. Collins & Brown. pp. 58–61. ISBN 978-1-85585-570-0.
  13. ^ a b c Mullarney, Killian; Svensson, Lars; Zetterstrom, Dan; Grant, Peter (2001). Birds of Europe. Princeton University Press. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-0-691-05054-6.
  14. ^ Towell, Larry (23 January 2008). "From Tokyo to Tupelo". ESPN Outdoors News. ESPN Outdoors. Archived from the original on 1 September 2009. Retrieved 23 January 2008.
  15. ^ "Northern Pintail". All About Birds. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved 14 January 2008.
  16. ^ a b c d Robinson, R.A. (2005). "Pintail Anas acuta [Linnaeus, 1758]". BirdFacts: profiles of birds occurring in Britain & Ireland (BTO Research Report 407). British Trust for Ornithology. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
  17. ^ Forsman, Dick (2008). The Raptors of Europe & the Middle East: A Handbook of Field Identification. Princeton University Press. pp. 21–25. ISBN 978-0-85661-098-1.
  18. ^ Kuhn, Ryan C.; Rock, Channah M.; Oshima, Kevin H. (January 2002). "Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Wild Ducks along the Rio Grande River Valley in Southern New Mexico". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 68 (1): 161–165. doi:10.1128/AEM.68.1.161-165.2002. PMC 126547. PMID 11772622.
  19. ^ "Cotugnia fastigata". Parasite species summary page. Retrieved 14 January 2008.
  20. ^ Williams, N.A.; Calverley, B.K.; Mahrt, J.L. (1977). "Blood parasites of mallard and pintail ducks from central Alberta and the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories". Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 13 (3): 226–229. doi:10.7589/0090-3558-13.3.226. PMID 410954.
  21. ^ "Feather Lice Infection in Waterfowl". Wildpro - the electronic encyclopaedia and library for wildlife. Retrieved 14 January 2008.
  22. ^ a b Friend, Milton; McLean, Robert G.; Dein, F. Joshua (April 2001). "Disease emergence in birds: Challenges for the twenty-first century". The Auk. 118 (2): 290–303. doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2001)118[0290:DEIBCF]2.0.CO;2.
  23. ^ "Avian influenza tests complete on wild northern pintail ducks in Montana". News release No. 0402.06. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 14 January 2008.
  24. ^ Marrone, Teresa (2000). Dressing & Cooking Wild Game (Complete Hunter). Creative Publishing International. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-86573-108-0.
  25. ^ Cocker, Mark; Mabey, Richard (2005). Birds Britannica. London: Chatto & Windus. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-7011-6907-7.
  26. ^ "U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Proposes Duck Hunting Regulations, Limited Canvasback Season Re-Opened". News Release 1 August 2003. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Archived from the original on 20 August 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2008.
  27. ^ "Losing ground: The top 10 common birds in decline" (PDF). Common birds in decline; a state of the birds report, summer 2007. Audubon. Retrieved 15 January 2008.
  28. ^ "Index of Species Information". Wildlife species: Anas acuta. USDA Forest Service. Retrieved 15 January 2008.
  29. ^ Scheuhammer, A.M.; Norris, S.L. (1996). "The ecotoxicology of lead shot and lead fishing weights". Ecotoxicology. 5 (5): 279–295. doi:10.1007/BF00119051. PMID 24193869.
  30. ^ Mateo, Rafael; Martínez-Vilalta, Albert; Guitart, Raimon (1997). "Lead shot pellets in the Ebro delta, Spain: Densities in sediments and prevalence of exposure in waterfowl". Environmental Pollution. 96 (3): 335–341. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(97)00046-8. PMID 15093399.
  31. ^ "Service continues to expand non-toxic shot options". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 25 October 2000. Retrieved 15 January 2008.
  32. ^ "Crunch time for lead shot ban". New Scientist. 5 April 1997. Retrieved 15 January 2008.
  33. ^ "Lead & Non-Lead Shot". British Association for Shooting and Conservation. Archived from the original on 25 May 2006. Retrieved 15 January 2008.
  34. ^ "Northern Pintail Anas acuta". BirdLife International. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  35. ^ Snow, David; Perrins, Christopher M., eds. (1998). The Birds of the Western Palearctic concise edition (2 volumes). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 222–225. ISBN 978-0-19-854099-1.
  36. ^ "Anas acuta". Agreement on the conservation of African-Eurasian migratory Waterbirds (AEWA). AEWA. Retrieved 12 February 2015.

External links


Anas is a genus of dabbling ducks. It includes the pintails, most teals, and the mallard and its close relatives. It formerly included additional species but following the publication of a molecular phylogenetic study in 2009 the genus was split into four separate genera. The genus now contains 31 living species. The name Anas is the Latin for "duck".

Bourget, Ontario

Bourget is a village in Eastern Ontario, Canada, near the Cobbs Lake Creek, in the city of Clarence-Rockland in the United Counties of Prescott and Russell.

It was named after Ignace Bourget, who was bishop of Montreal from 1841 to 1876.During the 1920s, logging of the white pine forests in this area had left a barren sandy area then known as the "Bourget Desert". Since that time, millions of trees were planted and this area is now known as the Larose Forest (45°23′47″N 75°8′15″W). Is named after Ferdinand Larose an agronomist who instigated and planned the planting of the trees to the lands not good for agriculture. East of Bourget during spring, Cobbs Lake Creek floods into the neighbouring fields and briefly hosts tens of thousands of migrating Greater Snow Geese and smaller numbers of migrants such as Northern Pintail ducks and Canada geese.

Two major roads pass through Bourget: one of them, the Russell Road (County Road 2), is used by commuters in the morning heading into Ottawa from the Eastern Ontario region; Champlain Street (County Road 8), which connects Rockland (north) to Casselman (south). After the 417 overpass southward of the County Road 8, it becomes the Provincial Highway 138 connecting to Cornwall, Ontario which is the second road passing through Bourget. This route is one of the few connecting the north to the south. The Prescott and Russell Recreational Trail, which uses a former Canadian Pacific railway right-of-way, also passes through the village.

Bourget is slowly expanding. Many housing projects are being developed in the northern part of town, and the small business sector is growing in the heart of Bourget with the opening of a small strip mall.


City Of Clarence-Rockland: 20,790 people (2006 Census)

Eaton's pintail

The Eaton's pintail (Anas eatoni) is a dabbling duck of the genus Anas. It is also known as the southern pintail. The species is restricted to the island groups of Kerguelen and Crozet in the southern Indian Ocean. It resembles a small female northern pintail. It was named after the English explorer and naturalist Alfred Edmund Eaton. It is threatened by introduced species, particularly feral cats, which prey on it.

There are two subspecies: A. eatoni eatoni (Kerguelen pintail) and A. eatoni drygalskii (Crozet pintail).

Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga

The Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga ecoregion, in the Taiga and Boreal forests Biome, of far northern North America.

Karikili Bird Sanctuary

Karikili Bird Sanctuary is a 61.21-hectare (151.3-acre) protected area located in the Kancheepuram District of the state of Tamil Nadu, India. The sanctuary is about 75 kilometres (47 mi) from Chennai, south of Chengalpattu. About 100 species were recorded from this sanctuaryKarikili is situated about 10 km from Vedanthangal, and there are two tanks combined established as the bird sanctuary in 1988. This region is surrounded by open areas, paddy fields and scrub forest. Several migratory birds such as Northern Pintail, Garganey, Common Sandpiper were recorded from Karikili.

Karikili Bird Sanctuary along with Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary has been identified as one of the Important Bird Areas of Tamil Nadu (IBA Site Code-29, A1, IBA criteria - A4iii). Several waterbirds use Vedanthangal as a nesting site and Karikili as a foraging site.

Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge

Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge is located in the U.S. state of South Dakota and includes 5,638 acres (22.81 km2). The refuge is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is part of the Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge Complex. Only 938 acres (3.79 km2) is under U.S. Government ownership with the rest being an easement to ensure greater habitat protection.

Lake Andes is a natural lake that is fed by underground springs and about every 20 years, the lake dries up. Two dikes separate the lake into three sections, allowing better water retention during the dry summers. Over one hundred species of birds nest here including Bald eagles, Ring-necked pheasant, Northern pintail and numerous species of ducks and geese.

Various mammal species inhabit the refuge, including White-tailed deer, coyote, and badger, muskrat which are all relatively common.

Lake Andes Wetland Management District

Lake Andes Wetland Management District is located in the U.S. state of South Dakota and includes 82,731 acres (334 km2). The refuge is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Of the land area in the district, the U.S. Government owns only 19,177 acres (77.6 km2), while the remaining area is managed as an easement to help protect Waterfowl Production Areas from future development. The district oversees numerous wetland zones in an effort to ensure species protection. During Spring and Fall migration periods, tens of thousands of migratory birds can be found here, representing over 100 different species. The district is a part of the Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge Complex. Bald eagles, northern pintail, mallards, snow geese, great grey owl, American kestrel, red-tailed hawk and prairie chicken are some of the more impressive bird species that can be found in the district.

Various mammal species inhabit the region, including white-tailed deer, coyote, and badger, muskrat which are all relatively common in the district.

Lake Mattamuskeet

Lake Mattamuskeet is the largest natural lake in North Carolina. It is a shallow coastal lake, averaging 2–3 ft (0.61–0.91 m) feet in depth, and stretches 18 miles (29 km) long and 7 miles (11 km) wide. Lake Mattamuskeet lies on the Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsula.

Lake Mattamuskeet is the location of Mattamuskeet National Wildlife Refuge. This refuge as well as surrounding public and private lands in eastern North Carolina are a major wintering site for waterfowl including ducks like northern pintail and green-wing teal, geese like Canada geese and tundra swans.

Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge

The Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge of the United States on the border between California and Oregon. It is operated by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. The refuge was designated a National Historic Landmark on October 16, 1965.Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge, established by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1908, was the first waterfowl refuge in the United States. It is located in the Klamath Basin near Klamath Falls, Oregon. It has a total area of 50,912.68 acres (206.04 km2), of which 44,294.55 acres (179.25 km2) are in California and 6,618.13 acres (26.78 km2) are in Oregon. The refuge includes shallow freshwater marshes, open water, grassy uplands, and croplands that are intensively managed to provide foraging and breeding habitat for waterfowl and other animals. The market hunting of migratory birds in the late 19th century created the need for preservation and creation of a wildlife refuge.Refuge objectives include the protection of habitat for flora and fauna, including migrating waterfowl, and preserving the biodiversity of the Klamath Basin. It works to integrate wetlands and sustainable agriculture and promote integrated pest management. The refuge provides wildlife-related public services, including education, hunting, and viewing and photography opportunities.

Avian species on the refuge include the bald eagle, golden eagle, American white pelican, white-faced ibis, snow goose, Ross's goose, greater white-fronted goose, Canada goose, peregrine falcon, northern pintail, mallard, gadwall, canvasback, western grebe, eared grebe, black tern, and tricolored blackbird.

Conservation and management activities include the maintenance of a local water infrastructure and the monitoring of the interaction between agriculture and habitat. Issues in focus include the loss of wetland habitat, the degradation of water quality, drought, and water rights.


Mangalajodi is an olden village under Tangi, Odisha block in Khordha district of Odisha at the northern edge of Chilika Lake. Scenic beauty of this village and its vast wetland attracts the visitors. In 2017 this village is declared and functioning as a separate Grama Panchayat (Mangalajodi Grama Panchayat)

Pakistan Crane Center, Lakki Marwat

Crane Conservation Center and Wildlife Park, Lakki Marwat is a conservation center for the captive breeding of various types of wild birds and animal species. It is located west of Kurram River in Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, 250 kilometres (155 mi) south of Peshawar. It was established in 2007. The center is equipped with a total of 15 circular aviaries and 20 cages as well as an education block for visitors. The center is now maintained and operated by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Wildlife Department through the Bannu Wildlife Division, Bannu while its establishment was funded by WWF - Pakistan, GEF, UNDP and Darwin Initiative. A "Range Officer" of the wildlife department manages and co-ordinates the activities of the park. A wildlife vet, Dr. Adnan Khan , frequently visits the center in order to maintain healthy stock.

Lakki marwat is a seasonal migratory route for the cranes. Many residents in nearby towns and villages keep a number of cranes in captivity. These cranes are captured from the wild using stone-weighted ropes tossed up into flocks attracted to live decoys. The programme also aims to teach the advanced breeding methods to these breeders as part of conservation of endangered species of common crane. The total area of the park is 150 kanals.

The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Wildlife Department has established a Crane Conservation Centre and Wildlife park in Bannu Wildlife division. The site fulfills the following major objectives:

To rehabilitate endangered species under semi natural conditions.

To protect indigenous plants, birds and animals species.

To develop a gene pool of endangered wildlife species.

To raise the socio economic condition of the local people by promoting eco-tourism and providing job opportunities.

To create awareness amongst the local community especially the school students and general public.The following species of birds and animals are present in the park.


Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera)

Golden PheasantPeacocks

White spp

Cameo spp

Blue spp

Indian Blue spp

Black Shoulder spp

Pied spp

Purple neck sppCranes

Common crane

Demoiselle crane

Black crowned crane

Grey crowned craneDucks and geese

Ruddy shelduck

Bar-headed goose


Mallard duck


Northern shoveler

Northern pintailFlamigoes (Phoenicopterus)




Urial (Ovis vignei)

Hog deer

Patna Bird Sanctuary

Patna Bird Sanctuary is a protected area in Uttar Pradesh's Etah district encompassing a lentic lake that is an important wintering ground for migrating birds. It was founded in 1991 and covers an area of 1.09 km2 (0.42 sq mi). With a lake area of only 1 km2 (0.39 sq mi), it is the smallest bird sanctuary in Uttar Pradesh.

The water quality of the lake supports a wide range of avifauna during winter season. The entire lake area gets covered by profuse growth of macrophytic vegetation of water hyacinth and Potamogeton species during summers.

About 200,000 birds of 300 different bird species frequent the sanctuary. More than 106 species of migratory and resident birds are known to have their resting habitats around the lake. The important aquatic birds inhabiting lake are:

Lesser whistling-duck

Graylag goose

Comb duck

Ruddy shelduck


Eurasian wigeon

Indian spot-billed duck

Northern shoveler

Northern pintail

Green-winged teal

Common pochard

Ferruginous duck

Baer's pochard

Tufted duck

Indian peafowl

Common quail

Black francolin

Gray francolin

Little grebe

Asian openbill

Woolly-necked stork

Black-necked stork

Little cormorant

Great cormorant

Purple heron

Cattle egret

Indian pond-heron

Black-headed ibis

Red-naped ibis

Eurasian spoonbill

Black-shouldered kite

Egyptian vulture

Booted eagle

Bonelli's eagle


Black kite

Eurasian coot

Sarus crane

Black-winged stilt

Black-tailed godwit

Laughing dove

Greater coucal

Rose-ringed parakeet

Plum-headed parakeet

Long-tailed shrike

Black drongo

Rufous treepie

Ashy-crowned sparrow-lark

Bengal bushlark

Red-vented bulbul

Plain leaf warbler

Ashy prinia

Plain prinia

Common babbler

Oriental magpie-robin

Brahminy starling

Common myna

Bank myna

Purple sunbird

Indian silverbill

Scaly-breasted munia


Pintail may refer to:

A group of dabbling ducks containing:

Northern pintail (Anas acuta), sometimes called the pintail, the most common pintail species

White-cheeked pintail (Anas bahamensis), from the Caribbean, South America and the Galápagos

Yellow-billed pintail (Anas georgica), found from southern Colombia to South Georgia

South Georgia pintail, (Anas georgica georgica), the nominate race of the yellow-billed pintail

Eaton's pintail (Anas eatoni), from the islands of Kerguelen and CrozetIn other animals:

Pin-tailed snipe (Gallinago stenura), a small stocky wader

Acisoma, a genus of dragonfliesIn sports:

Pin-tailed longboardsIn other uses:

Fairey Pintail, a British single-engined floatplane fighter

Haynes Pintail canard-configuration ultralight aircraft

Pintail Island, Nunavut, Canada

USS Pintail (AMc-17), a U.S. Navy minesweeper

Pintail Duck, a Disney character who is an ancestor of Donald Duck

Pintail Landing, Edmonton

Pintail Landing is a future neighbourhood in northwest Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It was named for northern pintail ducks that are native to nearby Big Lake.Pintail Landing is located within the Big Lake area and is identified as Neighbourhood 5 within the Big Lake Area Structure Plan (ASP). It was officially named Pintail Landing on May 27, 2014.It is bounded on the west by 215 Street NW (Winterburn Road), north by the Trumpeter neighbourhood, on the east by Anthony Henday Drive (Highway 216), and on the south by Yellowhead Trail (Highway 16).

Prairie Pothole Region

The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is an area of the northern Great Plains and midgrass and tallgrass prairies that contains thousands of shallow wetlands known as potholes. These potholes are the result of glacier activity in the Wisconsin glaciation, which ended about 10,000 years ago. The decaying ice sheet left behind depressions formed by the uneven deposition of till in ground moraines. These depressions are called potholes, glacial potholes, kettles, or kettle lakes. They fill with water in the spring, creating wetlands which range in duration from temporary to semipermanent.The region covers an area of about 715,000 km2 (276,000 sq mi), including parts of three Canadian provinces (Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Alberta) and five U.S. states (Minnesota, Iowa, North and South Dakota, and Montana).Few natural surface water drainage systems occur in the region; pothole wetlands are not connected by surface streams. They receive most of their water from spring snowmelt. Some pothole wetlands also receive groundwater inflow, so they typically last longer each year than those that only receive water from precipitation. Shorter-duration wetlands fed only by precipitation typically are sources of groundwater recharge.More than half of the potholes have been drained and converted to agriculture. Pothole loss is 90% or more in places. Those potholes that remain are important habitats for migratory waterfowl and other wildlife, supporting more than 50% of North America's migratory waterfowl. The Prairie Pothole Region is one of North America's most important areas for duck reproduction. Although the region contains only about one-tenth of the continent's habitat area for breeding of waterfowl, roughly half the primary species of game ducks on the continent breed there. The region accounts for more than 60% of the breeding populations of mallard, gadwall, blue-winged teal, northern shoveler, northern pintail, redhead, and canvasback ducks.

Speculum feathers

The speculum is a patch, often distinctly coloured, on the secondary wing feathers, or remiges, of some birds.

Examples of the colour(s) of the speculum in a number of ducks are:

Common teal and green-winged teal: Iridescent green edged with buff.

Blue-winged teal: Iridescent green. The species' common name comes from the sky-blue wing coverts.

Crested duck and bronze-winged duck: Iridescent purple-bronze, edged white.

Pacific black duck: Iridescent green, edged light buff.

Mallard: Iridescent purple-blue with white edges.

American black duck: Iridescent violet bordered in black and may have a thin white trailing edge.

Northern pintail: Iridescent green in male and brown in female, both are white on trailing edge.

Gadwall: Both sexes have white inner secondaries.

Yellow-billed duck: Iridescent green or blue, bordered white.Bright wing speculums are also known from a number of other birds; among them are several parrots from the genus Amazona with red or orange speculums, though in this case the colors are pigmentary and non-iridiscent.

The Floating Feather

The Floating Feather is the commonly used name for an oil-on-canvas painting by Dutch artist Melchior d'Hondecoeter, properly titled A Pelican and Other Birds Near a Pool. The fine detail of the feather floating on the pond led to the "official" title being quickly supplanted.

The picture was painted around 1680, probably for either the hunting lodge of the Stadholder William III of Orange, which is now the royal palace at Soestdijk, or Het Loo Palace in Apeldoorn.

The painting shows a number of birds, both common and exotic, gathered around a pool. Hondecoeter was known for his bird studies and in particular for the realistic portrayal of the subjects. Although he experimented with different styles early in his career, after 1660 he favoured compositions similar to that seen in The Floating Feather: carefully observed subjects set in farmyards, courtyards or country parks with architectural or landscape features enhancing the backgrounds. His paintings were admired by the regents and merchants of Amsterdam, and by William III, who had works at three of his palaces. Hondecoeter's murals and large paintings were well-suited to both the large country houses and the tastes of the time.

Hondecoeter kept his own poultry yard at his house, but visited the country houses of his patrons where he could study more exotic species. It was said that he had trained a rooster to stand still on command, so that he could paint it without interruption. In this picture, alongside the great white pelican are species of wild fowl and domesticated duck, among them a Eurasian teal, common merganser, red-breasted goose, Eurasian wigeon, common shelduck, muscovy duck, brant goose, smew, Egyptian goose, and northern pintail. On the far side of the pool are also large birds from different continents: a southern cassowary, black crowned crane, and American flamingo. A sarus crane and a second flamingo are visible in the background. Flying above the pool there is a golden oriole depicted.

Hondecoeter produced a strikingly similar picture, A Pelican and other exotic birds in a park, in which some elements of the composition are identical: the birds on the water, the group of exotic birds, the pelican, and the floating feather. Other features are similar, such as the landscape and the muscovy duck which is seen in full, while some are entirely different; in this picture a Moluccan cockatoo perches in a tree above the pool and different birds are introduced on the far side of the pool to the right. The exact date of this painting is not known, but it is estimated to be between 1655 and 1660.


Tyzzeria is a genus of parasitic alveolates that with one exception (Tyzzeria boae) infect the cells of the small intestine.

WWT London Wetland Centre

WWT London Wetland Centre is a wetland reserve managed by the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust in the Barnes area of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, southwest London, England, by Barn Elms. The site is formed of four disused Victorian reservoirs tucked into a loop in the Thames.

The centre first opened in 2000, and in 2002 an area of 29.9 hectares was designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest as the Barn Elms Wetland Centre.The centre occupies more than 100 acres (40 hectares) of land which was formerly occupied by several small reservoirs. These were converted into a wide range of wetland features and habitats before the centre opened in May 2000. It was the first urban project of its kind in the United Kingdom.

Many wild birds which have now made their home in the Centre cannot be found anywhere else in London, and there are nationally significant numbers of gadwall and northern shoveler. Other wild birds include Eurasian bittern, northern pintail, northern lapwing, water rail, ring-necked parakeet, Eurasian sparrowhawk, sand martin, common kingfisher, little grebe and great crested grebe. The centre also holds a collection of captive wildfowl.

It is host to regular lectures and events concerned with preserving Britain's wetland animals and was featured on the BBC television programme Seven Natural Wonders in 2005 as one of the wonders of the London area, with a focus on the region's parakeets, in an episode presented by Bill Oddie. The site contains a large visitors' building which is occasionally used as a wedding venue.

In 2012 London Wetland Centre was voted Britain's Favourite Nature Reserve in the BBC Countryfile Magazine Awards.

Game animals and shooting in North America
Game birds
Big game
Other quarry
See also


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