Northern bat

The northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii) is the most abundant species of bat in northern Eurasia. It is found from England to Hokkaidō and down to northern India.[2] It is closely related to the serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus).[3]

Northern bat
The image depicts a northern bat, crawling on a wooden surface
A northern bat, crawling on a wooden surface
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Chiroptera
Family: Vespertilionidae
Genus: Eptesicus
Species:
E. nilssonii
Binomial name
Eptesicus nilssonii
(Keyserling et Blasius, 1839)
Eptesicus nilssoni range map

Description

The northern bat is a medium-sized animal with short and rounded ears. The species range from 8 to 16 g in weight depending on the season. It is 54 to 64 mm[4] in body length and 240 to 280 mm in wing span, which is a moderate size for a bat. The nose, ears, and the tail and wing are black or blackish brown. Most of body is coated with dark brown or black with some gold touched at the tip of the hairs in the head and back region. The coat on the ventral side is yellowish brown. Like other dental structure of Eptesicus genus, there is no presence of peculiarities, but it is large compared to the size of skull.[2]

Distribution and habitat

Eptesicus nilssonii hibernating
Northern bat hibernating deep in a disused cobalt mine in Norway

It is widespread throughout Eurasia, and is the most common bat in northern part of the continent. It is found from northern Scandinavia (beyond the Arctic Circle) to northern Italy, and eastern England to northern Japan.[5] The bat mostly favours forest uplands about 200–2000 m above sea level.[6]

Behavior

It was thought that northern bat is a sedentary species, but research shows colonies have moved as far as 450 km. It does not migrate seasonally but over a period of years.[5]

Breeding season is in late autumn, and the females stores the male sperm over the winter. The hibernation begins in early winter (November and December), and until March or April.[2] Only then do the females get pregnant, pregnancy lasting for 50–60 days. In summer, males dwell alone, but females form a colony of 10-80 adults. A colony is formed in early summer and disbanded in August, when young bats are able to fly. Winter colonies are often found in houses, natural or artificial underground habitats.[2]

Hunting

Northern bats are nocturnal and fast flying, adapted to hunting airborne insects using echolocation.[5] For example, northern bats commonly hunt ghost moths while the moths are hovering above ground to attract a mate. The species hunts in open spaces with speed of 5–6 m/s. The sound pulse consists of 10-13 ms in normal foraging habitats, sometimes up to 18 ms of steeply frequency-modulated (FM) component (about 40–30 kHz). The bats send out the pulse about every 200 ms, and the steep FM are used to locate obstacles or targets, allowing them to fly indoors.[2] In high latitude areas, female northern bats fly during daytime because of the short nights, but their foraging peaks after dusk and sometime before dawn. Females select small feeding territories where their food source is abundant, and sometimes can be used by the same individual over a period of years.[2]

Genetics

Serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) are cryptic species of northern bats. They are distinguishable by appearance but research shows that there is little genetic difference between the two species (only difference of intraspecific variation).[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ Coroiu, I. (2016). "Eptesicus nilssonii". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T7910A22116204. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T7910A22116204.en. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Rydell, J. (1993). Eptesicus nilssonii. Mammalian species, (430), 1-7.
  3. ^ a b Mayer, F., & von Helversen, O. (2001). "Cryptic diversity in European bats". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences. 268 (1478): 1825-1832.
  4. ^ (PDF) http://www.minambiente.it/sites/default/files/archivio/allegati/eurobats/07_eptesicus_nilssonii_eng.pdf. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ a b c "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 2018-10-28.
  6. ^ Hanak, V. & Gaisler, J. (1971). "The status of Eptesicus ogveni bobrinskii, 1918 and remarks on some other species of this genus (Mammalia: Chiroptera)". Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Spolecnosti Zoologicke. 35: 11-24.
African yellow bat

The African yellow bat (Scotophilus dinganii) is a species of bat in the family Vespertilionidae, the vesper bats. Other common names include African yellow house bat, yellow-bellied house bat, and Dingan's Bat. It is one of fifteen species in the genus Scotophilus.

Anchieta's pipistrelle

Anchieta's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus anchietae) is a species of vesper bat.

It is found in Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Madagascar.

The species inhabits dry savanna and moist savanna habitats.

Arielulus

Arielulus is a genus of vesper bats with the following species, sometimes in Pipistrellus:

Genus Arielulus

Collared pipistrelle (A. aureocollaris)

Black-gilded pipistrelle (A. circumdatus)

Coppery pipistrelle (A. cuprosus)

Social pipistrelle (A. societatis)

Necklace pipistrelle (A. torquatus)

Barbastella

Barbastella is a small genus of vespertilionid bats. There are five described species in this genus.

Brazilian brown bat

The Brazilian brown bat (Eptesicus brasiliensis), is a bat species from South and Central America.

Eptesicus

Eptesicus is a genus of bats, commonly called house bats or serotine bats, in the family Vespertilionidae.The 25 species within this genus are:

Little black serotine (Eptesicus andinus)

Bobrinski's serotine (Eptesicus bobrinskoi)

Botta's serotine (Eptesicus bottae)

Brazilian brown bat (Eptesicus brasiliensis)

Chiriquinan serotine (Eptesicus chiriquinus)

Diminutive serotine (Eptesicus diminutus)

Surat serotine (Eptesicus dimissus)

Horn-skinned bat (Eptesicus floweri)

Argentine brown bat (Eptesicus furinalis)

Big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus)

Gobi big brown bat (Eptesicus gobiensis)

Guadeloupe big brown bat (Eptesicus guadeloupensis)

Long-tailed house bat (Eptesicus hottentotus)

Harmless serotine (Eptesicus innoxius)

Meridional serotine (Eptesicus isabellinus)

Japanese short-tailed bat (Eptesicus japonensis)

Kobayashi's bat (Eptesicus kobayashii)

Eptesicus lobatus

Jamaican serotine (Eptesicus lynni)

Sind bat (Eptesicus nasutus)

Northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii)

Thick-eared bat (Eptesicus pachyotis)

Lagos serotine (Eptesicus platyops)

Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus)

Eptesicus taddeii

Sombre bat (Eptesicus tatei)

Grey long-eared bat

The grey long-eared bat (Plecotus austriacus) is a fairly large European bat. It has distinctive ears, long and with a distinctive fold. It hunts above woodland, often by day, and mostly for moths. It is extremely similar to the more common brown long-eared bat, and was only distinguished in the 1960s, but has a paler belly.

Hypsugo

The genus Hypsugo contains many bats referred to as pipistrelles or pipistrelle bats. They belong to the family Vespertilionidae or vesper bats within the order Chiroptera.

Laephotis

Laephotis is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae. Species within this genus are:

Angolan long-eared bat (Laephotis angolensis)

Botswanan long-eared bat (Laephotis botswanae)

Namib long-eared bat (Laephotis namibensis)

De Winton's long-eared bat (Laephotis wintoni)

List of mammals of Denmark

This is a list of the mammal species recorded in Denmark. The main source is the most recent atlas survey of mammals in Denmark. The atlas records 88 mammal species in Denmark. Since the atlas was published in 2007 two new species have been recorded: the grey wolf and golden jackal.

The following tags are used to highlight each species' conservation status in the most current version of the Danish Red List. Assessments were made following recommendations of the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

List of mammals of Norway

List of mammals with non-domesticated populations in Norway.

Moloney's mimic bat

Moloney's mimic bat (Mimetillus moloneyi) is a species of vesper bat. It can be found in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia. It is found in subtropical or tropical dry or moist forests, subtropical or tropical mangrove forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, dry and moist savanna.

Neoromicia

Neoromicia is a genus of vesper bat in the family Vespertilionidae.

It contains the following species:

Dark-brown serotine (Neoromicia brunneus)

Cape serotine (Neoromicia capensis)

Yellow serotine (Neoromicia flavescens)

Neoromicia grandidieri

Tiny serotine (Neoromicia guineensis)

Heller's pipistrelle (Neoromicia helios)

Isabelline white-winged serotine (Neoromicia isabella)

Isalo serotine (Neoromicia malagasyensis)

Malagasy serotine (Neoromicia matroka)

Melck's house bat (Neoromicia melckorum)

Banana pipistrelle (Neoromicia nana)

Rendall's serotine (Neoromicia rendalli)

Rosevear's serotine (Neoromicia roseveari)

Neoromicia robertsi

Somali serotine (Neoromicia somalicus)

Neoromicia stanleyi

White-winged serotine (Neoromicia tenuipinnis)

Aloe serotine (Neoromicia zuluensis)

Nyctalus

Nyctalus is a genus of vespertilionid bats commonly known as the noctule bats. They are distributed in the temperate and subtropical areas of Europe, Asia and North Africa.

There are eight species within this genus:

Birdlike noctule, Nyctalus aviator

Azores noctule, Nyctalus azoreum

Japanese noctule, Nyctalus furvus

Greater noctule bat, Nyctalus lasiopterus

Lesser noctule, Nyctalus leisleri

Mountain noctule, Nyctalus montanus

Common noctule, Nyctalus noctula

Chinese noctule, Nyctalus plancyi

Plecotus

The genus Plecotus consists of the long-eared bats. Many species in the genus have only been described and recognized in recent years.

Scotoecus

Scotoecus is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae.

Scotophilus tandrefana

The western yellow bat (Scotophilus tandrefana) is a species of vesper bat endemic to Madagascar.

Somali serotine

The Somali serotine (Neoromicia somalica) is a species of vesper bat.

It is found in Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zimbabwe.

Its natural habitats are dry savanna and moist savanna.

Vespertilioninae

The Vespertilioninae are a subfamily of vesper bats from the family Vespertilionidae.

Species of subfamily Vespertilioninae
Aeorestes
Antrozous
Arielulus
Barbastella
Bauerus
Chalinolobus
Corynorhinus
Dasypterus
Eptesicus
Euderma
Eudiscopus
Falsistrellus
Glauconycteris
Glischropus
Hesperoptenus
Histiotus
Hypsugo
Ia
Idionycteris
Laephotis
Lasionycteris
Lasiurus
Mimetillus
Neoromicia
Niumbaha
Nyctalus
Nycticeinops
Nycticeius
Nyctophilus
Otonycteris
Parastrellus
Perimyotis
Pharotis
Philetor
Pipistrellus
Plecotus
Rhogeessa
Scoteanax
Scotoecus
Scotomanes
Scotophilus
Scotorepens
Scotozous
Tylonycteris
Vespadelus
Vespertilio

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