Northern Territory

The Northern Territory (officially the Northern Territory of Australia)[5] (abbreviated NT) is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. It shares borders with Western Australia to the west (129th meridian east), South Australia to the south (26th parallel south), and Queensland to the east (138th meridian east). To the north, the territory looks out to the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria, including Western New Guinea and other Indonesian islands. The NT covers 1,349,129 square kilometres (520,902 sq mi), making it the third-largest Australian federal division, and the 11th-largest country subdivision in the world. It is sparsely populated, with a population of only 246,700,[1] making it the least-populous of Australia's eight states and major territories, with fewer than half as many people as Tasmania.[1]

The archaeological history of the Northern Territory begins over 40,000 years ago when Indigenous Australians settled the region. Makassan traders began trading with the indigenous people of the Northern Territory for trepang from at least the 18th century onwards. The coast of the territory was first seen by Europeans in the 17th century. The British were the first Europeans to attempt to settle the coastal regions. After three failed attempts to establish a settlement (1824–28, 1838–49, and 1864–66), success was achieved in 1869 with the establishment of a settlement at Port Darwin. Today the economy is based on tourism, especially Kakadu National Park in the Top End and the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park (Ayers Rock) in central Australia, and mining.

The capital and largest city is Darwin. The population is concentrated in coastal regions and along the Stuart Highway. The other major settlements are (in order of size) Palmerston, Alice Springs, Katherine, Nhulunbuy and Tennant Creek. Residents of the Northern Territory are often known simply as "Territorians" and fully as "Northern Territorians", or more informally as "Top Enders" and "Centralians".

Northern Territory
alt text for flag alt text for coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Slogan or nicknameThe Territory;
The Top End
Map of Australia with the Northern Territory highlighted

Other Australian states and territories
Coordinates20°S 133°E / 20°S 133°ECoordinates: 20°S 133°E / 20°S 133°E
Capital cityDarwin
DemonymNorthern Territorian, Territorian
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
 • AdministratorVicki O'Halloran
 • Chief MinisterMichael Gunner (ALP)
Australian territory 
 • Established by NSW1825
 • Transferred to South Australia1862
 • Transferred to Commonwealth1911
 • Dissolved1927
 • Reformed1931
 • Responsible
   government
1978
Area 
 • Total1,420,970 km² (3rd)
548,640 sq mi
 • Land1,349,129 km²
520,902 sq mi
 • Water71,839 km² (5.06%)
27,737 sq mi
Population
(September 2018)[1]
 
 • Population247,159 (8th)
 • Density0.18/km² (8th)
0.5 /sq mi
Elevation 
 • Highest pointMount Zeil
1,531 m (5,023 ft)
Gross territorial product
(2017–18)
 
 • Product ($m)$26,200[2] (8th)
 • Product per capita$106,191 (1st)
Time zone(s)UTC+9:30 (ACST)
Federal representation 
 • House seats2/151
 • Senate seats2/76
Abbreviations 
 • PostalNT
 • ISO 3166-2AU-NT
Emblems 
 • FloralSturt's desert rose
(Gossypium sturtianum)[3]
 • AnimalRed kangaroo
(Macropus rufus)
 • BirdWedge-tailed eagle
(Aquila audax)
 • ColoursBlack, white, and ochre[4]
Websitewww.nt.gov.au

History

Thomas Baines, Thomas Baines with Aborigines near the mouth of the Victoria River, N.T, 1857
Thomas Baines with Aborigines near the mouth of the Victoria River.

Indigenous Australians have lived in the present area of the Northern Territory for an estimated 40,000 years, and extensive seasonal trade links existed between them and the peoples of what is now Indonesia for at least five centuries.

With the coming of the British, there were four early attempts to settle the harsh environment of the northern coast, of which three failed in starvation and despair. The land now occupied by the Northern Territory was part of colonial New South Wales from 1825 to 1863, except for a brief time from February to December 1846, when it was part of the short-lived colony of North Australia. The Northern Territory was part of South Australia from 1863 to 1911. Under the administration of colonial South Australia, the overland telegraph was constructed between 1870 and 1872.

From its establishment in 1869 the Port of Darwin was the major Territory supply for many decades.

A railway was built between Palmerston and Pine Creek between 1883 and 1889. The economic pattern of cattle raising and mining was established so that by 1911 there were 513,000 cattle. Victoria River Downs was at one time the largest cattle station in the world. Gold was found at Grove Hill in 1872 and at Pine Creek, Brocks Creek, Burrundi, and copper was found at Daly River.

On 1 January 1911, a decade after federation, the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and transferred to federal control. Alfred Deakin opined at this time "To me the question has been not so much commercial as national, first, second, third and last. Either we must accomplish the peopling of the northern territory or submit to its transfer to some other nation."[6]

Letters Patent Northern Territory
Letters Patent annexing the Northern Territory to South Australia, 1863

In late 1912 there was growing sentiment that the name "Northern Territory" was unsatisfactory.[7][8] The names "Kingsland" (after King George V and to correspond with Queensland), "Centralia" and "Territoria" were proposed with Kingsland becoming the preferred choice in 1913. However, the name change never went ahead.[9][10]

For a brief time between 1927 and 1931 the Northern Territory was divided into North Australia and Central Australia at the 20th parallel of South latitude. Soon after this time, parts of the Northern Territory were considered in the Kimberley Plan as a possible site for the establishment of a Jewish Homeland, understandably considered the "Unpromised Land".

During World War II, most of the Top End was placed under military government. This is the only time since Federation that part of an Australian state or territory has been under military control. After the war, control for the entire area was handed back to the Commonwealth. The Bombing of Darwin occurred on 19 February 1942. It was the largest single attack ever mounted by a foreign power on Australia. Evidence of Darwin's World War II history is found at a variety of preserved sites in and around the city, including ammunition bunkers, airstrips, oil tunnels and museums. The port was damaged in the 1942 Japanese air raids. It was subsequently restored.

In the late 1960s improved roads in adjoining States linking with the territory, port delays and rapid economic development led to uncertainty in port and regional infrastructure development. As a result of the Commission of Enquiry established by the Administrator,[11] port working arrangements were changed, berth investment deferred and a port masterplan prepared.[12] Extension of rail transport was then not considered because of low freight volumes.

Indigenous Australians had struggled for rights to fair wages and land. An important event in this struggle was the strike and walk off by the Gurindji people at Wave Hill Cattle Station in 1966. The federal government of Gough Whitlam set up the Woodward Royal Commission in February 1973, which set to enquire into how land rights might be achieved in the Northern Territory. Justice Woodward's first report in July 1973 recommended that a Central Land Council and a Northern Land Council be established to present to him the views of Aboriginal people. In response to the report of the Royal Commission a Land Rights Bill was drafted, but the Whitlam Government was dismissed before it was passed.

The Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act 1976 was eventually passed by the Fraser government on 16 December 1976 and began operation on 26 January 1977).

In 1974, from Christmas Eve to Christmas Day, Darwin was devastated by tropical Cyclone Tracy. Cyclone Tracy killed 71 people, caused A$837 million in damage (1974 dollars), or approximately A$4.45 billion (2014 dollars), and destroyed more than 70 per cent of Darwin's buildings, including 80 per cent of houses. Tracy left more than 41,000 out of the 47,000 inhabitants of the city homeless. The city was rebuilt with much-improved construction codes and is a modern, landscaped metropolis today.

In 1978 the territory was granted responsible government, with a Legislative Assembly headed by a chief minister. The territory also publishes official notices in its own Government Gazette. The administrator of the Northern Territory is an official acting as the Queen's indirect representative in the territory.

During 1995–96 the Northern Territory was briefly one of the few places in the world with legal voluntary euthanasia, until the Federal Parliament overturned the legislation.[13] Before the over-riding legislation was enacted, four people used the law supported by Dr. Philip Nitschke.

Geography

Northern Territory 0216
Northern Territory towns, settlements and road network.
ISS036-E-029323 lrg
The northern coast of Australia is on the left with Melville Island in the lower right[14]

There are many very small settlements scattered across the territory, but the larger population centres are located on the single paved road that links Darwin to southern Australia, the Stuart Highway, known to locals simply as "the track".

The Northern Territory is home to two spectacular natural rock formations, Uluru (Ayers Rock) and Kata Tjuta (The Olgas), which are sacred to the local Aboriginal peoples and which have become major tourist attractions.

In the northern part of the territory lies Kakadu National Park, which features extensive wetlands and native wildlife. To the north of that lies the Arafura Sea, and to the east lies Arnhem Land, whose regional centre is Maningrida on the Liverpool River delta. There is an extensive series of river systems in the Northern Territory. These rivers include: the Alligator Rivers, Daly River, Finke River, McArthur River, Roper River, Todd River and Victoria River.

National parks

Mount Sonder

Mount Sonder, the fourth-highest mountain in the Northern Territory after nearby Mount Zeil, in West MacDonnell National Park

Jim jim falls

Jim Jim Falls, Kakadu National Park

Uluru NT Australia

Uluru (Ayers Rock), one of the best-known images of the Northern Territory

Uluru, helicopter view, cropped

Aerial view of Uluru

Kata Tjuta pan
Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park

Climate

Northern Territory Köppen
Köppen climate types in the Northern Territory
Fires in Northern Territory, Australia
Satellite image of fire activity in central Australia
Average monthly maximum
temperature in Northern Territory
Month Darwin Alice Springs
January 31.8 °C 36.3 °C
February 31.4 °C 35.1 °C
March 31.9 °C 32.7 °C
April 32.7 °C 28.2 °C
May 32.0 °C 23.0 °C
June 30.6 °C 19.8 °C
July 30.5 °C 19.7 °C
August 31.3 °C 22.6 °C
September 32.5 °C 27.1 °C
October 33.2 °C 30.9 °C
November 33.2 °C 33.7 °C
December 32.6 °C 35.4 °C
Source: Bureau of Meteorology

The Northern Territory has two distinctive climate zones.

The northern end, including Darwin, has a tropical climate with high humidity and two seasons, the wet (October to April) and dry season (May to September). During the dry season nearly every day is warm and sunny, and afternoon humidity averages around 30%. There is very little rainfall between May and September. In the coolest months of June and July, the daily minimum temperature may dip as low as 14 °C (57 °F), but very rarely lower, and frost has never been recorded.

The wet season is associated with tropical cyclones and monsoon rains. The majority of rainfall occurs between December and March (the southern hemisphere summer), when thunderstorms are common and afternoon relative humidity averages over 70% during the wettest months. On average more than 1,570 mm (62 in) of rain falls in the north. Rainfall is highest in north-west coastal areas, where rainfall averages from 1,800 to 2,100 mm (71 to 83 in).

The central region is the desert centre of the country, which includes Alice Springs and Uluru (Ayers Rock), and is semi-arid with little rain usually falling during the hottest months from October to March. Central Australia receives less than 250 mm (9.8 in) of rain per year.

The highest temperature recorded in the territory was 48.3 °C (118.9 °F) at Finke on 1 and 2 January 1960. The lowest temperature was −7.5 °C (18.5 °F) at Alice Springs on 17 July 1976.[15]

Governance

Parliament

The Northern Territory Parliament is one of the three unicameral parliaments in the country. Based on the Westminster System, it consists of the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly which was created in 1974, replacing the Northern Territory Legislative Council. It also produces the Northern Territory of Australia Government Gazette.

The Northern Territory Legislative Council was the partly elected governing body from 1947 until its replacement by the fully elected Northern Territory Legislative Assembly in 1974. The total enrolment for the 1947 election was 4,443. The Northern Territory was split into five electorates: Darwin, Alice Springs, Tennant Creek, Batchelor, and Stuart.

While this assembly exercises powers similar to those of the parliaments of the states of Australia, it does so by legislated devolution of powers from the Commonwealth Government, rather than by any constitutional right. As such, the Commonwealth Government retains the right to legislate for the territory, including the power to override legislation passed by the Legislative Assembly. The Monarch is represented by the Administrator of the Northern Territory, who performs a role similar to that of a state governor.

Twenty-five members of the Legislative Assembly are elected to four-year terms from single-member electorates.

For some years there has been agitation for full statehood. A referendum of voters in the Northern Territory was held on the issue in 1998, which resulted in a 'no' vote. This was a shock to both the Northern Territory and Commonwealth governments, as opinion polls showed most Territorians supported statehood. But under the Australian Constitution, the federal government may set the terms of entry to full statehood. The Northern Territory was offered three senators, rather than the 12 guaranteed to original states. (Because of the difference in populations, equal numbers of Senate seats would mean a Territorian's vote for a senator would have been worth more than 30 votes in New South Wales or Victoria.) Alongside what was cited as an arrogant approach adopted by then chief minister Shane Stone, it is believed that most Territorians, regardless of their general views on statehood, were reluctant to adopt the particular offer that was made.[16]

Chief minister and cabinet

The chief minister is the head of government of a self-governing territory (the head of a state government is a premier). The chief minister is appointed by the administrator, who in normal circumstances appoints the leader of whichever party holds the majority of seats in the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly. The current chief minister is Michael Gunner of the Australian Labor Party. He replaced Adam Giles on 31 August 2016.

Administrator

The Northern Territory became self-governing on 1 July 1978 under its own administrator appointed by the Governor-General of Australia. The federal government, not the NT government, advises the governor-general on the appointment of the administrator, but by convention consults first with the Territory government. The current administrator is Vicki O'Halloran.

Federal government

Children wave Australian flags during an Anzac Day parade in Palmerston, Australia, April 25, 2013, as U.S. Marines with the 1st Platoon, Lima Company, 3rd Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment, Marine Rotational 130425-M-AL626-014
Children wave Australian flags during an Anzac Day parade in Palmerston

The Northern Territory is represented in the federal parliament by two members in the House of Representatives and two members in the Senate. As of September 2016, resulting from the 2016 federal election, Warren Snowdon from the Australian Labor Party (ALP) and Luke Gosling from the Australian Labor Party (ALP) serve in the House of Representatives, and Malarndirri McCarthy from the ALP and Nigel Scullion from the CLP serve in the Senate.

Local government

The Northern Territory is divided into 17 local government areas, including 11 shires and five municipalities. Shire, city and town councils are responsible for functions delegated by the Northern Territory parliament, such as road infrastructure and waste management. Council revenue comes mostly from property taxes and government grants.

Aboriginal land councils

Australia Aboriginal Culture 011
Aboriginal Australians own about 49% of the Northern Territory's land

Aboriginal land councils in the Northern Territory are groups of Aboriginal landowners, set up under the Aboriginal Land Rights Act.

Political parties

The two dominant political parties in the Northern Territory are the conservative Country Liberal Party, and the social-democratic Australian Labor Party. Minor parties that are also active in the NT are the Northern Territory Greens, Palmer United Party and Australia's First Nations Political Party. In the 2016 Northern Territory general election only two CLP representatives were elected (MLAs Higgins and Finocchiaro) plus five independents. This makes the parliamentary status of the CLP as a major party a matter of conjecture.

Demographics

ABS-3101.0-AustralianDemographicStatistics-EstimatedResidentPopulationStatesTerritories-EstimatedResidentPopulation-Persons-NorthernTerritory-A2060849W
Estimated resident population since 1981
Population estimates
for the Northern Territory
1901 4,765
1956 19,556
1961 44,481
1974 102,924
1976 97,090
1981 122,616
1991 165,493
1996 181,843
2002 200,019
2006 192,900
2011 211,945
2016 228,833
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics
(Est Resident Pop)

The population of the Northern Territory at the 2011 Australian census was 211,945,[17] a 10 per cent increase from the 2006 census. The Australian Bureau of Statistics estimated a June 2015 resident population of 244,300, taking into account residents overseas or interstate. The territory's population represents 1% of the total population of Australia.[18][19][20]

Yulara from helicopter (August 2004)
Aerial view of Yulara

The Northern Territory's population is the youngest in Australia and has the largest proportion (23.2%) under 15 years of age and the smallest proportion (5.7%) aged 65 and over. The median age of residents of the Northern Territory is 31 years, six years younger than the national median age.[17]

More than 100 nationalities are represented in the Northern Territory's population, including more than 50 organisations representing different ethnic groups.[21]

The 2011 Census revealed that the most common ancestries in Northern Territory were Australian 23.9%, English 19.4%, Australian Aboriginal 14.7%, Irish 6.2% and Scottish 5.1%.[22]

In terms of birthplace, according to the 2011 census 25.4% of the population were born overseas.[17] 2.5% of Territorians were born in the United Kingdom, 1.9% in New Zealand, 1.7% in Philippines, 0.9% in India and 0.5% in the United States.

Glen Namundja
Glen Namundja, an Australian Aboriginal artist from Arnhem Land, at work

Indigenous Australians own some 49% of the land. The life expectancy of Aboriginal Australians is well below that of non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory, a fact that is mirrored elsewhere in Australia. ABS statistics suggest that Indigenous Australians die about 11 years earlier than the average non-Indigenous Australian. There are Aboriginal communities in many parts of the territory, the largest ones being the Pitjantjatjara near Uluru, the Arrernte near Alice Springs, the Luritja between those two, the Warlpiri further north, and the Yolngu in eastern Arnhem Land.

More than 54% of Territorians live in Darwin, located in the territory's north (Top End). Less than half of the territory's population live in the rural Northern Territory. Despite this, the Northern Territory is the least urbanised federal division in the Commonwealth (followed by Tasmania).

Cities and towns

Not all communities are incorporated cities, or towns. They are referred to as "Statistical Local Areas."

Rank Statistical Local Areas 2011 Population[23]
1 Darwin 78,925
2 Palmerston-East Arm 30,098
3 Alice Springs 28,449
4 Litchfield 20,039
5 Katherine 10,355
6 Nhulunbuy 4,383
7 Tennant Creek 3,515
8 Wadeye/Victoria-Daly 2,682
9 Jabiru 1,271
10 Yulara 991

Religion

Tjuki tells a dreaming story about Manpi (pigeon)
Tjuki tells a dreaming story about Manpi. Storytelling and oral traditions are an integral part of Aboriginal mythology which is practised by Indigenous Australians throughout the Northern Territory.

In the 2016 census Roman Catholics form the single largest religious group in the territory with 19.9% of the Northern Territory's population, followed by Anglican (8.4%), Uniting Church (5.7%) and Lutheran (2.6%). Buddhism is the territory's largest non-Christian religion (2.0%), followed by Hinduism (1.6%), which is the fastest growing religion population percentage wise in the state. Australian Aboriginal religion and mythology (1.4%) is also practiced. Around 30% of Territorians do not profess any religion.[24]

Many Aborigines practise their traditional religion, their belief in the Dreamtime.

Languages

Warumungu native
A Warumungu man

There are more than 100 Aboriginal languages and dialects spoken in the Northern Territory,[25] in addition to English which is most common in cities such as Darwin or Alice Springs. Major indigenous languages spoken in the Northern Territory include Murrinh-patha and Ngangikurrungurr in the northwest around Wadeye, Warlpiri and Warumungu in the centre around Tennant Creek, Arrernte around Alice Springs, Pintupi-Luritja to the south east, Pitjantjatjara in the south near Uluru, Yolngu Matha to the far north in Arnhem Land (where the dialect Djambarrpuyngu of Dhuwal is considered a lingua franca), and Burarra, Maung, Iwaidja and Gunwinggu in the centre north and on Croker Island and the Goulburn Islands. Tiwi is spoken on Melville Island and Bathurst Island.[26] Literature in many of these languages is available in the Living Archive of Aboriginal Languages.

Education

CDU library, Casuarina
A campus building of Charles Darwin University

Primary and secondary

A Northern Territory school education consists of six years of primary schooling, including one transition year, three years of middle schooling, and three years of secondary schooling. In the beginning of 2007, the Northern Territory introduced Middle School for Years 7–9 and High School for Years 10–12. Northern Territory children generally begin school at age five. On completing secondary school, students earn the Northern Territory Certificate of Education (NTCE). Students who successfully complete their secondary education also receive a tertiary entrance ranking, or ENTER score, to determine university admittance. An International Baccalaureate is offered at one school in the territory—Kormilda College.

Northern Territory schools are either publicly or privately funded. Public schools, also known as state or government schools, are funded and run directly by the Department of Education.[27] Private fee-paying schools include schools run by the Catholic Church and independent schools, some elite ones similar to English public schools. Some Northern Territory Independent schools are affiliated with Protestant, Lutheran, Anglican, Greek Orthodox or Seventh-day Adventist Churches, but include non-church schools and an Indigenous school.

As of 2009, the Northern Territory had 151 public schools, 15 Catholic schools and 21 independent schools. 39,492 students were enrolled in schools around the territory with 29,175 in public schools, and 9,882 in independent schools. The Northern Territory has about 4,000 full-time teachers.

Tertiary

The Northern Territory has one university which opened in 1989 under the name of the Northern Territory University.[28] Now renamed as the Charles Darwin University, it had about 19,000 students enrolled: about 5,500 higher education students and about 13,500 students on vocational education and training (VET) courses. The first tertiary institution in the territory was the Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education which was established in the mid-1960s.

Libraries

The Northern Territory Library is the territory's research and reference library. It is responsible for collecting and preserving the Northern Territory documentary heritage and making it available through a range of programs and services. Material in the collection includes books, newspapers, magazines, journals, manuscripts, maps, pictures, objects, sound and video recordings and databases.

Economy

The Northern Territory's economy is largely driven by mining, which is concentrated on energy producing minerals, petroleum and energy and contributes around $2.5 billion to the gross state product and employs over 4,600 people. Mining accounts for 14.9% of the gross state product in 2014–15 compared to just 7% nationally.[29]

In recent years, largely due to the effect of major infrastructure projects and mine expansions, construction has overtaken mining as the largest single industry in the territory. Construction, mining and manufacturing, and government and community services, combine to account for about half of the territory's gross state product (GSP), compared to about a third of national gross domestic product (GDP).[30]

The economy has grown considerably over the past decade, from a value of $15 billion in 2004–05 to over $22 billion in 2014–15. In 2012–13 the territory economy expanded by 5.6%, over twice the level of national growth, and in 2014–15 it grew by 10.5%, four times the national growth rate.[31]

Between 2003 and 2006 the gross state product had risen from $8.67 billion to $11.476 billion and increase of 32.4%. During the three years to 2006–2007 the Northern Territory gross state product grew by an average annual rate of 5.5%. Gross state product per capita in the Northern Territory ($72,496) is higher than any Australian state or territory and is also higher than the gross domestic product per capita for Australia ($54,606).

The Northern Territory's exports were up 12.9% or $681 million in 2012–13. The largest contributor to the territory's exports was: mineral fuels (largely LNG), crude materials (mainly mineral ores) and food and live animals (primarily live cattle). The main international markets for territory exports are Japan, China, Indonesia, the United States and Korea.[32]

Imports to the Northern Territory totalled $2,887.8 million which consisted of mainly machinery and equipment manufacturing (58.4%) and petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (17.0%).[33]

The principal mining operations are bauxite at Gove Peninsula where the production is estimated to increase 52.1% to $254 million in 2007–08, manganese at Groote Eylandt, production is estimated to increase 10.5% to $1.1 billion which will be helped by the newly developed mines include Bootu Creek and Frances Creek, gold which is estimated to increase 21.7 per cent to $672 million at the Union Reefs plant and uranium at Ranger Uranium Mine.[34]

Tourism is an important economic driver for the territory and a significant industry in regional areas.[35] Iconic destinations such as Uluru and Kakadu make the Northern Territory a popular destination for domestic and international travellers. Diverse landscapes, waterfalls, wide open spaces, aboriginal culture and wild and untamed wildlife provides the opportunity for visitors to immerse themselves in the natural wonder that the Northern Territory offers. In 2015, the territory received a total of about 1.6 million domestic and international visitors contributing an estimated $2.0 billion to the local economy. Holiday visitors made up the majority of total visitation (about 792,000 visitors).

Tourism has strong links to other sectors in the economy including accommodation and food services, retail trade, recreation and culture, and transport.[35]

The territory's current marketing campaign is 'Do the NT'.

Transport

LasseterHighway
The Lasseter Highway connects Uluru (Ayers Rock) to the Stuart Highway

The Northern Territory is the most sparsely populated state or territory in Australia.

The NT has a connected network of sealed roads, including two National Highways, linking with adjoining States and connecting the major Territory population centres, and other important centres such as Uluru (Ayers Rock), Kakadu and Litchfield National Parks. The Stuart Highway, once known as "The Track", runs north to south, connecting Darwin and Alice Springs to Adelaide. Some of the sealed roads are single lane bitumen. Many unsealed (dirt) roads connect the more remote settlements.

The Adelaide–Darwin railway, a new standard gauge railway, connects Adelaide via Alice Springs with Darwin, replacing earlier narrow gauge railways which had a gap between Alice Springs and Birdum. The Ghan passenger train runs from Darwin to Adelaide, stopping at Katherine, Tennant Creek, Alice Springs and Kulgera in the NT.

The Northern Territory was one of the few remaining places in the world with no speed restrictions on select public roads, until 21 November 2016. On 1 January 2007 a default speed limit of 110 km/h was introduced on roads outside of urban areas (Inside urban areas of 40, 50 or 60 km/h). Speeds of up to 130 km/h are permitted on some major highways, such as the Stuart Highway.[36] On 1 February 2014, the speed limit was removed on a 204 km portion of the Stuart Highway for a one-year trial period.[37] The maximum speed limit was changed to 130 km/h on 21 November 2016.[38] Darwin International Airport is the major domestic and international airport for the territory. Several smaller airports are also scattered throughout the territory and are served by smaller airlines; including Alice Springs Airport, Ayers Rock Airport, Katherine Airport and Tennant Creek Airport.

Media

Print

The Northern Territory has only one daily tabloid newspaper, News Corporation's Northern Territory News, or NT News. The Sunday Territorian is the sister paper to the NT News and is the only dedicated Sunday tabloid newspaper in the Northern Territory.

The Centralian Advocate is circulated around the Alice Springs region twice a week. There are also five weekly community newspapers. The territory receives the national daily, The Australian, while The Sydney Morning Herald, The Age and the Guardian Weekly are also available in Darwin. Katherine's paper is the Katherine Times.

There is an LGBT community publication, QNews Magazine,[39] which is published in Darwin and Alice Springs.

Television

Metropolitan Darwin has had five broadcast television stations:

Darwin also has a single open-narrowcast station:

  • ITV64

Regional Northern Territory has a similar availability of stations:

Remote areas are generally required to receive television via the Viewer Access Satellite Television service, which carries the same channels as the regional areas, as well as some extra open-narrowcast services, including Indigenous Community Television and Westlink.

Radio

Darwin has radio stations on both AM and FM frequencies. ABC stations include ABC NewsRadio (102.5FM), 105.7 ABC Darwin (8DDD 105.7FM), ABC Radio National (657AM), ABC Classic FM (107.3FM) and Triple J (103.3FM). The two commercial stations are Mix 104.9 (8MIX) and Hot 100 FM (8HOT).

The leading community stations are 104.1 Territory FM, and Radio Larrakia (8KNB).

The radio stations in Alice Springs are also broadcast on the AM and FM frequencies. ABC stations include Triple J (94.9FM), ABC Classic FM (97.9FM), 783 ABC Alice Springs (783AM) and ABC Radio National (99.7FM). There are two community stations in the town—CAAMA (100.5FM) and 8CCC (102.1FM). The commercial stations, which are both owned by the same company are Sun 96.9 (96.9FM) and 8HA (900AM). Two additional stations, Territory FM (98.7FM) and Radio TAB (95.9FM) are syndicated from Darwin and Brisbane, respectively.

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b c "Australian Demographic Statistics, Sep 2018". 21 March 2019. Retrieved 19 April 2019. Estimated Resident Population 30 Sep 2018
  2. ^ "5220.0 Australian National Accounts: State Accounts, 2017–18". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 16 November 2018. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  3. ^ "Floral Emblem of the Northern Territory". Anbg.gov.auhi. Retrieved 26 March 2008.
  4. ^ "Northern Territory". Parliament.curriculum.edu.au. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
  5. ^ "Image : Birth certificate" (JPG). Usi.gov.au. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  6. ^ Walker, David (1999). Anxious Nation: Australia and the Rise of Asia, 1850–1939. University of Queensland Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-0702231315.
  7. ^ "The Territory: Federal Policy Criticised". The Advertiser. 14 November 1912.
  8. ^ "House of Representatives". Sydney Morning Herald. 14 November 1912.
  9. ^ "Territoria or Kingsland!". The Register. 16 April 1914.
  10. ^ "Kingsland: New name for the Northern Territory". The Advertiser. 22 April 1913.
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ Australia, ed. (30 April 1977). "Darwin and Northern Territory freight transport study". Australian Government Publishing Service. Retrieved 30 April 2019 – via National Library of Australia (new catalog).
  13. ^ "Select Committee on Euthanasia". Legislative Assembly of the Northern Territory. 13 September 2007. Archived from the original on 2 March 2011.
  14. ^ "Fires around Darwin, Australia August 21, 2013". Earthobservatory.nasa.gov. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  15. ^ "Rainfall and Temperature Records: National" (PDF). Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
  16. ^ ABC Lateline Discussion (Current Affairs). Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 19 May 2006. Retrieved 10 February 2007.
  17. ^ a b c 2011 Census QuickStats: Northern Territory, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 9 August 2011.
  18. ^ "3101.0 – Australian Demographic Statistics, Mar 2016". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 22 September 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
  19. ^ "3218.0 - Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2014-15, Northern Territory". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 29 March 2016. Archived from the original on 10 March 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  20. ^ "3101.0 – Australian Demographic Statistics, Dec 2011". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 25 June 2012. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012.
  21. ^ "Our Different Cultures". Northern Territory Government. 14 June 2007. Archived from the original on 30 August 2007.
  22. ^ "2011 Census QuickStats - Northern Territory". Censusdata.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  23. ^ "3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2011". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  24. ^ "Profile .id, Community Profile - Regional NT". Profile.id.com.au. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  25. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 January 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  26. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 January 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  27. ^ "About us". 11 February 2015.
  28. ^ "Celebrating 25 Years of University Education in the Northern Territory". Retrieved 24 March 2015.
  29. ^ "About Minerals and Energy Department of Regional Development, Primary Industry, Fisheries and Resources". Nt.gov.au. 16 September 2011. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  30. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  31. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  32. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 March 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2019.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ "Northern Territory Economics". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 31 October 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2008.
  34. ^ "Northern Territory Budget Mining and energy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  35. ^ a b "Australian Economy Profiles - by REMPLAN". Economyprofile.com.au. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  36. ^ "Northern Territory Introduces Speed Limits". CarAdvice.com.au. 4 November 2006.
  37. ^ "Open Speed Trial – drive to conditions". Northern Territory Department of Transport. 19 June 2014. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  38. ^ "Subscribe to the NT News". Ntnews.com.au. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  39. ^ "About Us". Qnews.com.au. Retrieved 30 April 2019.

Sources

  • Hill, Ernestine. 1951. The Territory: The classic saga of Australia's far north. Angus & Robertson. Reprint: 1995. ISBN 0-207-18821-1
  • Govan, A. (2007) Broadband debate key to NT's future. N.T. Business Review, vol. N/A, no. N/A, p. 7
  • Morrison, P. (2000) a pilot implementation of internet access for remote aboriginal communities in the "Top end" Of Australia. Urban Studies, Vol. 37, No.10, pp. 1781–1792.
  • Toyne, P. (2002) Northern Territory Government's Response to the House of Representatives Communications, Information Technology & the Arts Committee inquiry into Wireless Broadband Communications. In N.T. GOVERNMENT (Ed.) (pp. 3). Darwin: Northern Territory Government.
  • Toyne, P. (2003) Remote Areas Telecommunications Strategy 2003–2008. In N. T. GOVERNMENT (Ed.) (pp. 1– 32). Darwin N.T. viewed 6 February 2008, <[2]>

External links

Administrator of the Northern Territory

The Administrator of the Northern Territory is an official appointed by the Governor-General of Australia to represent the government of the Commonwealth in the Northern Territory. He or she performs functions similar to those of a state governor.

Strictly speaking, the appointment of an Administrator is made by the Governor-General-in-Council, that is, the Governor-General acting on the advice of the Commonwealth Government, rather than the advice of the Government of the Northern Territory. The Northern Territory received self-government on 1 July 1978, in accordance with the provisions of the Northern Territory (Self-Government) Act 1978 (Cth). Since then, the practice has arisen that in making an appointment the Governor-General-in-Council will act on the recommendation of the Northern Territory Government.

Unlike an Australian State Governor, the Administrator is not the direct representative of the Queen in the Territory but is instead appointed by the Queen's representative in the Commonwealth, the Governor-General, to administer the Territory in accordance with the Act. In practice, however, the Administrator performs a similar constitutional role to that of a state governor and can be considered the Queen's indirect representative in the Territory.

The Administrator formally appoints the Chief Minister of the Northern Territory and the members of the Cabinet after every election. In all but a few cases, he or she is required by convention to act on the Cabinet's advice. The Administrator gives royal assent to all bills passed by the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly. Although the Governor-General (in practice, the Commonwealth Government) has the power to veto any territorial bill, in practice this right is almost never exercised.

The office of the Deputy of the Administrator was created in 1997.

In 2014, the Governor-General granted current, future and living former Administrators the title of 'The Honourable' for life, following the lead of Governors-General and Governors of New South Wales in granting the title.The present Administrator is Vicki O'Halloran, AM.

Arnhem Land

Arnhem Land is one of the five regions of the Northern Territory of Australia. It is located in the north-eastern corner of the territory and is around 500 km (310 mi) from the territory capital Darwin. The region has an area of 97,000 km2 (37,000 sq mi), which also covers the area of Kakadu National Park, and a population of 16,230. In 1623, Dutch East India Company captain William van Colster sailed into the Gulf of Carpentaria and Cape Arnhem is named after his ship, the Arnhem, which itself was named after the city of Arnhem in the Netherlands.

The area covers about 97,000 km2 and has an estimated population of 16,000, of whom 12,000 are Yolngu, the traditional owners. The region's service hub is Nhulunbuy, 600 km east of Darwin, set up in the early 1970s as a mining town (bauxite). Other major population centres are Yirrkala (just outside Nhulunbuy), Gunbalanya (formerly Oenpelli), Ramingining, and Maningrida.

A substantial proportion of the population, which is mostly Aboriginal, lives on small outstations. This outstation movement started in the early 1980s. Many Aboriginal groups moved to usually very small settlements on their traditional lands, often to escape the problems (alcohol, petrol-sniffing, idleness) on the larger townships.

These population groups have very little Western influence culturally speaking, and Arnhem Land is arguably one of the last areas in Australia that could be seen as a completely separate country. Many of the region's leaders have called and continue to call for a treaty that would allow the Yolngu to operate under their own traditional laws.

In 2013–14, the entire region contributed around $1.3 billion or 7% to the Northern Territory's gross state product, mainly through bauxite mining.

Central Australia

Central Australia, also known as the Alice Springs Region, is one of the five regions in the Northern Territory of Australia. The term Central Australia is used to describe an area centred on Alice Springs. It is sometimes referred to as Centralia; likewise the people of the area are sometimes called Centralians. The region is located in the southern part of the Northern Territory spanning from the west on the Western Australian Border to the east on the Queensland border.

Chief Minister of the Northern Territory

The Chief Minister of the Northern Territory is the head of government of the Northern Territory. The office is the equivalent of a State Premier.

When the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly was created in 1974, the head of government was officially known as Majority Leader. This title was used in the first parliament (1974–1977) and the first eighteen months of the second. When self-government was granted the Northern Territory in 1978, the title of the head of government became Chief Minister.

The Chief Minister is formally appointed by the Administrator, who in normal circumstances will appoint the head of whichever party holds the majority of seats in the unicameral Legislative Assembly. In times of constitutional crisis, the Administrator can appoint someone else as Chief Minister, however, this has never occurred.

Since 31 August, following the 2016 election, the Chief Minister is Michael Gunner of the Labor Party. He is the first Chief Minister to have been born in the Northern Territory.

Country Liberal Party

The Country Liberal Party (CLP), officially the Country Liberals (Northern Territory), is a liberal conservative political party in Australia founded in 1974, which operates solely in the Northern Territory.The CLP first fielded candidates at the 1975 federal election, winning one seat in the Senate and the non-voting seat in the House of Representatives. Since 1979, the CLP has been formally affiliated with both the federal Liberal Party of Australia and the National Party of Australia (previously the Country Party and National Country Party). The Liberal Party, National Party, Liberal National Party of Queensland, and CLP form the Coalition of Australian centre-right parties, with the CLP alone contesting seats for the Coalition in the Northern Territory. The CLP has full voting rights within the National Party, and observer status with the Liberal Party. Currently, the CLP has one representative in federal parliament, Senator Nigel Scullion, who also serves as the Senate leader of the National Party.

The CLP dominated the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly from its establishment in 1974 until the 2001 general election, when the CLP lost government winning only 10 of the 25 seats, and was reduced further to four parliamentary members at the 2005 election. At the 2008 election it increased its numbers, winning 11 seats.

The CLP returned to office following the 2012 election, winning 16 of 25 seats, and leader Terry Mills became Chief Minister of the Northern Territory. Less than a year later, Mills was replaced as Chief Minister and CLP leader by Adam Giles at the 2013 CLP leadership ballot on 13 March. Giles was the first indigenous Australian to lead a state or territory government in Australia. Giles was defeated at the 2015 CLP leadership ballot but managed to survive in the aftermath. Multiple defections saw the CLP reduced to minority government a few months later. At the 27 August 2016 Territory election, the CLP was resoundingly defeated, winning just two of 25 seats. Gary Higgins became CLP leader and opposition leader on 2 September, with Lia Finocchiaro as his deputy.

Crocodile Dundee

Crocodile Dundee (stylised as "Crocodile" Dundee in the U.S.) is a 1986 Australian-American action comedy film set in the Australian Outback and in New York City. It stars Paul Hogan as the weathered Mick Dundee. Hogan's future wife Linda Kozlowski portrayed Sue Charlton. Inspired by the true-life exploits of Rod Ansell, the film was made on a budget of under $10 million as a deliberate attempt to make a commercial Australian film that would appeal to a mainstream American audience, but proved to be a worldwide phenomenon.

Released on 30 April 1986 in Australia, and on 26 September 1986 in the United States, it was the highest-grossing film of all-time in Australia, second-highest-grossing film in the United States in that year and went on to become the second-highest-grossing film worldwide at the box office as well, with an estimated 46 million tickets sold in the US. There are two versions of the film: the Australian version, and an international version, which had much of the Australian slang replaced with more commonly understood terms, and was slightly shorter. As the first film in the Crocodile Dundee film series, it was followed by two sequels: Crocodile Dundee II (1988) and Crocodile Dundee in Los Angeles (2001), although both films failed to match the critical success of the predecessor.

Darwin, Northern Territory

Darwin ( (listen) DAR-win) is the capital city of the Northern Territory of Australia, situated on the Timor Sea. It is the largest city in the sparsely populated Northern Territory, with a population of 145,916. It is the smallest, wettest and most northerly of the Australian capital cities, and acts as the Top End's regional centre.

Darwin's proximity to South East Asia makes it a link between Australia and countries such as Indonesia and East Timor. The Stuart Highway begins in Darwin, extends southerly across central Australia through Tennant Creek and Alice Springs, concluding in Port Augusta, South Australia. The city is built upon a low bluff overlooking the harbour. Its suburbs begin at Lee Point in the north and stretch to Berrimah in the east. Past Berrimah, the Stuart Highway goes on to Darwin's satellite city Palmerston and its suburbs.

The Darwin region, like much of the Top End, experiences a tropical climate with a wet and dry season. A period known locally as "the build up" leading up to Darwin's wet season sees temperature and humidity increase. Darwin's wet season typically arrives in late November to early December and brings with it heavy monsoonal downpours, spectacular lightning displays, and increased cyclone activity. During the dry season, the city has clear skies and mild sea breezes from the harbour.

The greater Darwin area is the ancestral home of the Larrakia people. On 9 September 1839, HMS Beagle sailed into Darwin harbour during its survey of the area. John Clements Wickham named the region "Port Darwin" in honour of their former shipmate Charles Darwin, who had sailed with them on the ship's previous voyage which ended in October 1836. The settlement there became the town of Palmerston in 1869, but it was renamed Darwin in 1911. The city has been almost entirely rebuilt four times, following devastation caused by the 1897 cyclone, the 1937 cyclone, Japanese air raids during World War II, and Cyclone Tracy in 1974.

Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives

In Australia, electoral districts for the Australian House of Representatives are called divisions or more commonly referred to as electorates or seats. There are currently 151 single-member electorates for the Australian House of Representatives.

Electorates of the Australian states and territories

A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts (except the Australian Capital Territory and Tasmania, which have multi-member electorates using a proportional voting method) send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting. The area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia.

State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one (New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia). In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, and in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together.

Government of Australia

The Government of Australia is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. It is also commonly referred to as the Australian Government, the Commonwealth Government, Her Majesty's Government, or the Federal Government.

The Commonwealth of Australia was formed in 1901 as a result of an agreement among six self-governing British colonies, which became the six states. The terms of this contract are embodied in the Australian Constitution, which was drawn up at a Constitutional Convention and ratified by the people of the colonies at referendums. The Australian head of state is the Queen of Australia who is represented by the Governor-General of Australia, with executive powers delegated by constitutional convention to the Australian head of government, the Prime Minister of Australia.

The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia is divided into three branches: the executive branch, composed of the Federal Executive Council, presided by the Governor-General, which delegates powers to the Cabinet of Australia, led by the Prime Minister; the legislative branch, composed of the Parliament of Australia's House of Representatives and Senate; and the judicial branch, composed of the High Court of Australia and the federal courts. Separation of powers is implied by the structure of the Constitution, the three branches of government being set out in separate chapters (chapters I to III). The Australian system of government combines elements of the Westminster and Washington systems with unique Australian characteristics, and has been characterised as a "Washminster mutation".

Government of the Northern Territory

The Government of the Northern Territory of Australia, also referred to as the Northern Territory Government, is the Australian territorial democratic administrative authority of the Northern Territory. The Government of Northern Territory was formed in 1978 with the granting of self-government to the Territory. The Northern Territory is a territory of the Commonwealth of Australia, and the Constitution of Australia and Commonwealth law regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth.

Under the Australian Constitution, the Commonwealth has full legislative power, if it chooses to exercise it, over the Northern Territory, and has devolved self-government to the Territory. The Northern Territory legislature does not have the legislative independence of the Australian states but has power in all matters not in conflict with the Constitution and applicable Commonwealth laws, but subject to a Commonwealth veto.

Since 31 August 2016, the head of government has been Chief Minister Michael Gunner of the Labor Party.

List of Indigenous Australian group names

Below is a list of names and collective designations which have been applied, either currently or in the past, to groups of Aboriginal Australians.

Typically, Aboriginal Australian Mobs are differentiated by language groups. There are few groups that clearly correspond to such a term. Most indigenous Australians could name a number of groups of which they are members, each group being defined in terms of different criteria and often with much overlap. Many of the names listed below are properly understood as language or dialect names, some are simply the word meaning man or person in the associated language, some are autonyms (i.e. the name as used by the people themselves) and some exonyms (i.e., names used by one group for another, and not by that group itself), while others are terms for people from specific geographical areas.

List of rivers of Australia

This is a list of rivers of Australia. Rivers are ordered alphabetically, by state. The same river may be found in more than one state as many rivers cross state borders.

Local government areas of the Northern Territory

The Northern Territory is a federal Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. It is the third largest Australian federal division with an area of 1,349,129 square kilometres (520,902 sq mi) but the least populous with 228,833 inhabitants as at the 2016 Census. The Northern Territory is divided administratively into 17 Local government areas (LGAs) generally known as Councils who are responsible for providing local government services.

Northern Territory Legislative Assembly

The Legislative Assembly of the Northern Territory is the only house of the Parliament of the Northern Territory, Australia. The Legislative Assembly has 25 members, each elected for single-member electorates. The voting method changed in February 2016 from full-preferential voting to optional preferential voting. The term of the Legislative Assembly is four years, and elections are on the fourth Saturday in August of the fourth year after the previous election, but can be earlier in the event of a no confidence vote in the Government. The last election for the Legislative Assembly was the 2016 election held on 27 August 2016. The next election is scheduled for 22 August 2020.

Persons who are qualified under the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918 to vote for a member for the Northern Territory in the House of Representatives are qualified to vote at an election for the Legislative Assembly. Voting is compulsory for all those over 18 years of age. Since 2004, elections have been conducted by the Northern Territory Electoral Commission, which also organises regular electoral redistributions.

Qantas

Qantas Airways Limited () is the flag carrier of Australia and its largest airline by fleet size, international flights and international destinations. It is the third oldest airline in the world, after KLM and Avianca having been founded in November 1920; it began international passenger flights in May 1935. The Qantas name comes from "QANTAS", an acronym for its original name, "Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services", and it is nicknamed "The Flying Kangaroo". Qantas is a founding member of the Oneworld airline alliance.

The airline is based in the Sydney suburb of Mascot with its main hub at Sydney Airport. As of March 2014, Qantas had a 65% share of the Australian domestic market and carried 14.9% of all passengers travelling in and out of Australia. Various subsidiary airlines operate to regional centres and on some trunk routes within Australia under the QantasLink banner. Qantas also owns Jetstar Airways, a low-cost airline that operates both international services from Australia and domestic services within Australia and New Zealand; and holds stakes in a number of other Jetstar-branded airlines.

Sorghum

Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae. Seventeen of the 25 species are native to Australia, with the range of some extending to Africa, Asia, Mesoamerica, and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. One species is grown for grain, while many others are used as fodder plants, either cultivated in warm climates worldwide or naturalized, in pasture lands. Sorghum is in the subfamily Panicoideae and the tribe Andropogoneae (the tribe of big bluestem and sugarcane).

States and territories of Australia

The states and territories are the first-level administrative divisions of the Commonwealth of Australia. They are the second level of government in Australia, located between the federal and local government tiers.

The country comprises six states: New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia and Tasmania. They retain a degree of sovereignty, being the successors of the previous Australian colonies. The states each have their own parliaments, able to legislate over certain residual and concurrent power areas.

Two of the three internal territories, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), function in reality as states themselves. The ACT and Northern Territory each possess their own level of self-government through their respective legislative assemblies, but instead derive their power from the Commonwealth, theoretically revocable at any time. The third internal territory, the Jervis Bay Territory, is a territory in its own right and is the product of Australia's complex relationship with its capital city. Rather than having the same level of autonomy as the states and the two other internal territories, Jervis Bay instead has services provided by arrangement from New South Wales and the ACT.

Australia also consists of seven external territories. These do not comprise Australia proper, but are nevertheless under Australian sovereignty. Only three of the external territories have a permanent population, and as a result, they are all directly administered by the federal Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities (or the Department of the Environment and Energy in the case of the Australian Antarctic Territory). Norfolk Island was partially self-governing, until this was revoked in 2015.

Uluru

Uluru (, Pitjantjatjara: Uluṟu), also known as Ayers Rock (, like airs) and officially gazetted as Uluru / Ayers Rock, is a large sandstone rock formation in the southern part of the Northern Territory in central Australia. It lies 335 km (208 mi) south west of the nearest large town, Alice Springs.

Uluru is sacred to the Pitjantjatjara Anangu, the Aboriginal people of the area. The area around the formation is home to an abundance of springs, waterholes, rock caves and ancient paintings. Uluru is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Uluru and Kata Tjuta, also known as the Olgas, are the two major features of the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park.

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