Northern Kyushu

Northern Kyushu (北部九州 Hokubu Kyūshū) is a subregion of Kyushu.[1]

This northern region encompasses the prefectures of Fukuoka, Saga, Nagasaki, Kumamoto, and Ōita.

Northern Kyushu Data
Sum of 5 prefectures
Area 25,256.75km²
General Population 10,381,372
(Sept 2008)
Pop Density 411.03 per km²
(Sept 2008)

History

The northern region of Kyushu was the first to be colonized by the Chinese and Koreans.[2]

Before 1963 it was called North Kyushu (Kitakyūshū, 北九州) until the city of Kitakyūshū was formed. The name of the city means North Kyushu in Japanese. To avoid confusion the name of the region was changed.

It is the most urbanized and industrialized part of the Kyushu region.[2]

For the purposes of development analysis, the area is construed to include Yamaguchi Prefecture on Honshū. Although Yamaguchi not part of Kyushu, it is a functional satellite of the Kanmon Straits metropolitan area.[3]

The region is part of the Taiheiyō Belt and comprises the Northern Kyushu Industrial Zone (ja:北九州工業地帯)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Northern Kyushu Rail Pass
  2. ^ a b Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Kyushu" in Japan Encyclopedia, pp. 588-589, p. 588, at Google Books,
  3. ^ Sakamoto, Hiroshi. (2011). "CGE Analysis of Regional Policy in the Northern Kyushu Area." Kitakyushu: The International Centre for the Study of East Asian Development (ICSEAD), Working Paper Series Vol. 2011-03

References

  • Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128

External links

1953 North Kyushu flood

The 1953 North Kyushu flood was a flood which hit Northern Kyushu, Japan (Fukuoka Prefecture, Saga Prefecture, Kumamoto Prefecture and Ōita Prefecture) in June 1953. The flood was caused by cloudbursts and prolonged rain from the Meiyu rain front which dropped 1,000 mm (3.3 ft.) of rain over Mount Aso and Mount Hiko. This downpour resulted in the overflow of many of the surrounding rivers, such as the Chikugo River.

The flood was a major disaster with 1,001 people dead or missing, 450,000 houses flooded, and about 1 million people affected. Due to the severity of the disaster, flood control measures along rivers in Northern Kyushu were fundamentally revised, with many of the changes still in place.

The flood was not given an official name by the Japan Meteorological Agency which has resulted in it being referred to differently in a variety of sources. In Kumamoto Prefecture, Shirakawa Great Flood (白川大水害) or 6.26 Flood (6.26水害) are usually used. In Kitakyushu city, they tend to use North Kyushu Great Flood (北九州大水害). In this article, 1953 North Kyushu Flood is used, based on the area of the flood.

Azumi people

The Azumi (安曇族) were a strong warrior clan and tribe during the Jōmon period in Japan. They lived in northern Kyushu, especially in an area now part of the modern day Fukuoka Prefecture. It is suggested that they were skilled seafarers who conquered parts of Kyushu. According to some Japanese historians, they were of Austronesian origin.

BEC819 series

The BEC819 series (BEC819系), branded "DENCHA" (Dual Energy Charge Train), is a two-car battery electric multiple unit (BEMU) train operated by Kyushu Railway Company (JR Kyushu) on inter-running services over the Fukuhoku Yutaka Line and Chikuhō Main Line in Fukuoka Prefecture in northern Kyushu, Japan, since October 2016.

Bombing of Yawata (June 1944)

The Bombing of Yawata on the night of 15/16 June 1944 was the first air raid on the Japanese home islands conducted by United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) strategic bombers during World War II. The raid was undertaken by 75 B-29 Superfortress heavy bombers staging from bases in China. Only 47 of these aircraft bombed the raid's primary target, the Imperial Iron and Steel Works at Yawata in northern Kyūshū, and little damage was caused. Five B-29s were lost in accidents during the operation and two were destroyed by Japanese aircraft.

While the raid did not achieve its aims, it had other effects. It raised Japanese civilians' awareness that their country was being defeated and received unduly positive media coverage in the United States. Intelligence gathered by the B-29s also revealed weaknesses in Japan's air defenses and the raid was the first of many on Japan. Yawata was attacked again by B-29s operating from China on 20 August 1944 and much of the city was destroyed in a firebombing raid conducted by B-29s based in the Mariana Islands on 8 August 1945.

Buzen Province

Buzen Province (豊前国, Buzen no kuni) was an old province of Japan in northern Kyūshū in the area of Fukuoka Prefecture and Ōita Prefecture. It was sometimes called Hōshū (豊州), with Bungo Province. Buzen bordered on Bungo and Chikuzen Provinces.

Chikuzenni

Chikuzenni (筑前煮, chikuzen-ni) is a dish that originated from northern Kyushu, Japan, made of braised chicken and vegetables. It is often eaten when bringing in the new year in Japan.

Dazaifu

Dazaifu may refer to:

Dazaifu, Fukuoka, a city in northern Kyūshū

Dazaifu (government), the regional government in northern Kyūshū

Dojin-kai

The Dojin-kai (道仁会, Dōjin-kai), or "Dojin group", is a yakuza organization headquartered in Kurume, Fukuoka, on the Kyushu island of Japan, a designated yakuza syndicate, with approximately 850 members.As well as being known as a militant yakuza organization, the Dojin-kai has also been known as a de facto drug cartel, as its activities have allegedly included large-scale drug trafficking, specifically methamphetamine trafficking, which is traditionally shunned in the yakuza world.

With its activities of drug trafficking, the Dojin-kai has allegedly been Japan's largest wholesale dealer in drugs since the late 20th century, after the disbanding of three other yakuza groups based in northern Kyushu; Tagawa-based Sadaoka-gumi, known as "[Japan's] Methlord in the Showa era" which was crushed by the Taishu-kai, Okawa-based Hamada-kai, and Kumamoto-based Yamano-kai.

Fujiwara no Sumitomo

Fujiwara no Sumitomo (藤原 純友, died 941) was a Japanese Heian era court noble and warrior. From 939 to 941 he aided the Taira clan in a series of revolts.

Sumitomo built his power base in Northern Kyushu. After making a secret agreement with Taira no Masakado, who was leading a revolt in Shimōsa Province, Sumitomo led his own revolt in Iyo province in 939, and soon afterwards invaded the provinces of Harima and Bizen. The revolt quickly spread throughout the whole San'yō region.

Pursued by imperial forces led by Ono Yoshifuru and Minamoto no Tsunemoto, Sumitomo fled to Dazaifu, burning down the Dazaifu headquarters before he was defeated in battle at Hakata Bay. He then fled back to Iyo province, where he was captured. He was executed shortly afterwards, in 941, by Tachibana Tōyasu.

His father was Fujiwara no Yoshinori, and he was the ancestor of the Arima clan of Hizen province.

Fukuoka–Kitakyushu

Fukuoka-Kitakyushu Greater Metropolitan Region (福岡・北九州大都市圏, Fukuoka Kitakyūshū Daitoshiken) is the most common name given to the region comprising the metropolitan areas of the cities of Fukuoka and Kitakyushu in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan and in between. Alternate names are many, including Kitakyushu-Fukuoka Greater Metropolitan Region (北九州・福岡大都市圏), Northern Part of Kyushu Greater Metropolitan Region (北部九州大都市圏)One reason for complications in naming is because the whole region itself was once referred to as "Kitakyushu", which had become ambiguous after the city merger in 1963 which created the city by the same name.

These cities may be referred to separately, but often are lumped together since they are close and lie in the same prefecture. Furthermore, their economic spheres, infrastructure, and transport links overlap. Note that the metro areas include the tip of Honshu island (Shimonoseki on Honshu is a significant suburb of Kitakyushu), as well as the northern part of Kyushu. The definition of Northern Kyushu is not a superset of Fukuoka–Kitakyushu; among the ways it differs: it generally does not include any cities on Honshu island.

Haniwa

The Haniwa (埴輪) are terracotta clay figures that were made for ritual use and buried with the dead as funerary objects during the Kofun period (3rd to 6th centuries AD) of the history of Japan. Haniwa were created according to the wazumi technique, in which mounds of coiled clay were built up to shape the figure, layer by layer.Haniwa were made with water-based clay and dried into a coarse and absorbent material that stood the test of time. Their name means “circle of clay” referring to how they were arranged in a circle above the tomb. The protruding parts of the figures were made separately and then attached, while a few things were carved into them. They were smoothed out by a wooden paddle. Terraces were arranged to place them with a cylindrical base into the ground, where the earth would hold them in place.

During the Kofun period, a highly aristocratic society with militaristic rulers developed. The cavalry wore iron armor, carried swords and other weapons, and used advanced military methods like those of northeast Asia. Many of them are represented in haniwa figurines for funerary purposes.

The most important of the haniwa were found in southern Honshū—especially the Kinai region around Nara—and northern Kyūshū. Haniwa grave offerings were made in many forms, such as horses, chickens, birds, fans, fish, houses, weapons, shields, sunshades, pillows, and humans. Besides decorative and spiritual reasons of protecting the deceased in his afterlife, these figures served as a sort of retaining wall for the burial mound.

Because these haniwa display the contemporary clothing, hairstyle, farming tools, and architecture, these sculptures are important as a historical archive of the Kofun Period.

Everyday pottery items from that period are called Haji pottery.

JNR Class D60

The Class D60 (D60形) is a Japanese 2-8-4 Berkshire wheel arrangement steam locomotive type created by rebuilding an earlier class to suit post-war requirements. 78 of the successful pre-war 380-strong Class D50 2-8-2 Mikado locomotives were rebuilt as D60s between 1951 and 1956 at the JNR Hamamatsu (Nagoya) Region, Nagano, (Nagoya) Region, and Tsuchizaki, (Sendai) Region workshops. As with the rebuilding of Class C59 to Class C60 locomotives, an additional trailing axle was included to reduce the heavy axle load of the D50 and allow more widespread use. The cylinder diameter was reduced from 570 mm on the D50s to 550 mm to minimize wheel spin.

The spread of electrification and increasing numbers of diesel locomotives resulted in the first D60s being withdrawn from 1966. A few examples based at Wakamatsu Depot soldiered on hauling coal trains on the Chikuhō Mainline in northern Kyushu, and the last member of the class (D60 61) was finally withdrawn in August 1974.

Kudo-kai

The Kudo-kai (工藤會, Kudō-kai) is a yakuza group headquartered in Kitakyushu, Fukuoka on the Kyushu island of Japan, with an estimated 630 active members. An article by the Independent newspaper refers to the Kudo-kai as an affiliate of the Yamaguchi-gumi, but that is false. The Kudo-kai has been a purely independent syndicate ever since its foundation, and has caused numerous conflicts with the Yamaguchi-gumi (at least on eight separate occasions in 2000; at least one Yamaguchi-affiliate boss was shot to death by the Kudo-kai in 2000). The Independent article may mean "Kodo-kai".

The Kudo-kai is the largest yakuza group in the Kitakyushu area, and like other yakuza groups based in the northern Kyushu region, it is noted for its extremely militant stance, by using the likes of machine guns and hand grenades in their activities. The Kudo-kai is regarded as the best example of Kyushu yakuza who strongly oppose the police, get angry easily, and "fight with pride".The National Police Agency's official report refers to the Kudo-kai as a "particularly nefarious group". One notable incident happened in March 1988, while feuding with a Chinese mafia syndicate attempting to enter the Kitakyushu area, the Kudo-kai attacked the Consulate General Fukuoka office of the People's Republic of China, which had nothing to do with the mafia, with shotguns and a dump truck.

The Kudo-kai is a member of an anti-Yamaguchi fraternal federation, the Yonsha-kai, with three other northern-Kyushu based organizations, the Taishu-kai, Dojin-kai, and Kumamoto-kai. The Yonsha-kai had been known as the "Sansha-kai" until 2005 when the Kumamoto-kai joined it. The Kudo-kai is the principal member of this federation.

Kure Naval District

Kure Naval District (呉鎮守府, Kure chinjufu) was the second of four main administrative districts of the pre-war Imperial Japanese Navy. Its territory included the Inland Sea of Japan and the Pacific coasts of southern Honshū from Wakayama to Yamaguchi prefectures, eastern and northern Kyūshū and Shikoku.

The area of the Kure Naval District encompassed Hashirajima Anchoring Area located at the south end of Hiroshima Bay, 30-40 kilometers southwest of Kure. When not in need of repairs ships usually anchored in this area to free up pier space at Kure. Hashirajima was also a major staging area for fleet operations.

Tokuyama port, was also part of Kure Naval District, and had the largest fuel depot in the Japanese Navy.

Kyushu

Kyushu (九州, Kyūshū, pronounced [kʲɯꜜːɕɯː] (listen); literally "Nine Provinces") is the third largest island of Japan's five main islands. Its alternative ancient names include Kyūkoku (九国, "Nine Countries"), Chinzei (鎮西, "West of the Pacified Area"), and Tsukushi-no-shima (筑紫島, "Island of Tsukushi"). The historical regional name Saikaidō (西海道, lit. West Sea Circuit) referred to Kyushu and its surrounding islands.

In the 8th-century Taihō Code reforms, Dazaifu was established as a special administrative term for the region.As of 2016, Kyushu has a population of 12,970,479 and covers 36,782 square kilometres (14,202 sq mi).

Maeda Genzō

Maeda Genzō (前田 玄造) (1831–1906) was a Japanese photographer from northern Kyūshū. In Nagasaki he studied photography under Jan Karel van den Broek and J. L. C. Pompe van Meerdervoort. Neither of these teachers was an experienced photographer, and their attempts to produce photographs were largely failures. Nevertheless, in turn they taught wet-collodion process to Maeda and his fellow students, who included Furukawa Shumpei, Kawano Teizō, Ueno Hikoma, and Horie Kuwajirō, among others. When Swiss photographer Pierre Rossier arrived in Japan in 1858 on a commission from Negretti and Zambra, Maeda was instructed to assist and accompany him and to further learn photography. Maeda and other students escorted Rossier around Nagasaki, while the latter took photographs of priests, beggars, the audience of a sumo match, the foreign settlement, and the group portrait of Alexander von Siebold and samurai. Rossier believed that Pompe van Meerdervoort's failures in photography were due to a lack of the necessary chemicals and so he provided Maeda with a letter of recommendation to procure photographic apparatus and chemicals from a source in Shanghai. Both Maeda and Furukawa bought lenses, chemicals and albumen paper through Rossier. Maeda and Furukawa succeeded in taking a photograph with these materials on 28 October 1860, a day which is still commemorated in Fukuoka where the photograph was taken.

Maizuru Naval District

Maizuru Naval District (舞鶴鎮守府, Maizuru chinjufu) was one of four main administrative districts of the pre-war Imperial Japanese Navy. Its territory included the entire Sea of Japan coastline from northern Kyūshū to western Hokkaidō.

Toi invasion

The Toi invasion (Japanese: 刀伊の入寇 toi no nyūkō) was the invasion of northern Kyūshū by Jurchen pirates in 1019. At the time, Toi (되, Doe) meant "barbarian" in the Korean language.

The Toi pirates sailed with about 50 ships from direction of Goryeo, then assaulted Tsushima and Iki, starting 27 March 1019. After the Iki Island garrison comprising 147 soldiers was wiped out, the pirates has proceed to Hakata Bay. For a week, using Noko Island in the Hakata Bay as a base, they sacked villages and kidnapped over 1,000 Japanese, mostly women and young girls, for use as slaves. The Dazaifu, the administrative center of Kyūshū, then raised an army and successfully drove the pirates away.

During the second failed raid to Matsuura 13 April 1019, three enemies were captured by the Japanese army. They were identified as Koreans. They said that they had guarded the borderland but had been captured by the Toi. However, this was unlikely, and the Japanese officers suspected them because there had been Korean pirates attacking Japan coasts during the Silla period. A few months later, the Goryeo delegate Jeong Jaryang (鄭子良) reported that Goryeo forces attacked the pirates off Wŏnsan and rescued about 260 Japanese. The Korean government then repatriated them to Japan where they were thanked by the Dazaifu and given rewards. There remain detailed reports by two captive women, Kura no Iwame and Tajihi no Akomi.

These Jurchen pirates lived in what is today Hamgyŏngdo, North Korea.

Yayoi period

The Yayoi period (弥生時代, Yayoi jidai), dated 1,000 BC – 300 AD, started at the beginning of the Neolithic in Japan, continued through the Bronze Age, and towards its end crossing into the Iron Age.Since the 1980s, scholars have argued that a period previously classified as a transition from the Jōmon period should be reclassified as Early Yayoi. The date of the beginning of this transition is controversial, with estimates ranging from the 10th to the 6th centuries BC.The period is named after the neighborhood of Tokyo where archaeologists first uncovered artifacts and features from that era. Distinguishing characteristics of the Yayoi period include the appearance of new Yayoi pottery styles and the start of an intensive rice agriculture in paddy fields. A hierarchical social class structure dates from this period and has its origin in China. Techniques in metallurgy based on the use of bronze and iron were also introduced from China over Korea to Japan in this period.

The Yayoi followed the Jōmon period (14,000–1,000 BC) and Yayoi culture flourished in a geographic area from southern Kyūshū to northern Honshū. Archaeological evidence supports the idea that during this time, an influx of farmers from the Asian continent to Japan absorbed or overwhelmed the native hunter-gatherer population. Modern Japanese are largely descendants of the Yayoi people.

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