Northern California

Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. Spanning the state's northernmost 48 counties[1][2] its main population centers include the San Francisco Bay Area (anchored by the cities of San Jose, San Francisco, and Oakland), the Greater Sacramento area (anchored by the state capital Sacramento), and the Metropolitan Fresno area (anchored by the city of Fresno). Northern California also contains redwood forests, along with the Sierra Nevada, including Yosemite Valley and part of Lake Tahoe, Mount Shasta (the second-highest peak in the Cascade Range after Mount Rainier in Washington), and most of the Central Valley, one of the world's most productive agricultural regions.

The 48-county definition is not used for the Northern California Megaregion, one of the 11 megaregions of the United States. The megaregion's area is instead defined from Metropolitan Fresno north to Greater Sacramento, and from the Bay Area east across Nevada state line to encompass the entire Lake Tahoe-Reno area.[3]

Native Americans arrived in northern California at least as early as 8,000 to 5,000 BC and perhaps even much earlier, and successive waves of arrivals led to one of the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America. The arrival of European explorers from the early 16th to the mid-18th centuries did not establish European settlements in northern California. In 1770, the Spanish mission at Monterey was the first European settlement in the area, followed by other missions along the coast—eventually extending as far north as Sonoma County.

Northern California
Clockwise: California State Capitol in Sacramento, Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco skyline, San Jose skyline, Muir Woods National Monument, the northern California coast as seen from Muir Beach Overlook, view of the California side of Lake Tahoe and Natural Bridges State Beach in Santa Cruz.
Clockwise: California State Capitol in Sacramento, Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco skyline, San Jose skyline, Muir Woods National Monument, the northern California coast as seen from Muir Beach Overlook, view of the California side of Lake Tahoe and Natural Bridges State Beach in Santa Cruz.
Northern California counties in red
Northern California counties in red
Country United States
State California
Major CitiesSan Jose
San Francisco
Sacramento
Oakland
Fresno
Stockton
Modesto
Hayward
Fremont
Santa Rosa
Sunnyvale
San Rafael
Redding
Salinas
Visalia
Chico
Eureka
Largest citySan Jose
Population
(2015)
15,376,997

Description

NorCal county map (labeled and colored)
Map of northern California counties
Cal3 map
Map of the three Californias on the Cal 3 ballot proposal
  Northern California
  California
  Southern California

Northern California is not a formal geographic designation. California's north-south midway division is around 39° latitude, near the level of San Francisco. Popularly, though, "Northern California" usually refers to the state's northernmost 48 counties. Because of California's large size and diverse geography, the state can be subdivided in other ways as well. For example, the Central Valley is a region that is distinct both culturally and topographically from coastal California, though in northern versus southern California divisions, the Sacramento Valley and most of the San Joaquin Valley are usually placed in northern California.

The state is often considered as having an additional division north of the urban areas of the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento metropolitan areas. Extreme northern residents have felt under-represented in state government and in 1941 attempted to form a new state with southwestern Oregon to be called Jefferson, or more recently to introduce legislation to split California into two or three states. The coastal area north of the Bay Area is referred to as the North Coast, while the interior region north of Sacramento is referred by locals as the Northstate.[4]

Northern California is the name of a proposed new state on the 2018 California ballot created by splitting the existing state into three parts.[5]

Significance

Since the events of the California Gold Rush, Northern California has been a leader on the world's economic, scientific, and cultural stages. From the development of gold mining techniques and logging practices in the 19th century that were later adopted around the world, to the development of world-famous and online business models (such as Apple, Hewlett-Packard, Google, Yahoo!, and eBay), northern California has been at the forefront of new ways of doing business. In science, advances range from being the first to isolate and name fourteen transuranic chemical elements, to breakthroughs in microchip technology. Cultural contributions include the works of Ansel Adams, George Lucas, and Clint Eastwood, as well as beatniks, the Summer of Love, winemaking, the cradle of the international environmental movement, and the open, casual workplace first popularized in the Silicon Valley dot-com boom and now widely in use around the world. Other examples of innovation across diverse fields range from Genentech (development and commercialization of genetic engineering) to CrossFit as a pioneer in extreme human fitness and training. It is also home to one of the largest Air Force Bases on the West Coast, and the largest of California, Travis Air Force Base.

Cities

Northern California's largest metropolitan area is the San Francisco Bay Area which includes the cities of San Francisco, San Jose, Oakland, and their many suburbs. In recent years the Bay Area has drawn more commuters from as far as Central Valley cities such as Sacramento, Stockton, Fresno, Turlock and Modesto. With expanding development in all these areas, the San Francisco Bay Area, Monterey Bay Area, and central part of the Central Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may now be viewed as part of a single megalopolis.[3] The 2010 U.S. Census showed that the Bay Area grew at a faster rate than the Greater Los Angeles Area while Greater Sacramento had the largest growth rate of any metropolitan area in California.

The state's larger inland cities are considered part of Northern California in cases when the state is divided into two parts. Important cities in the region not in major metropolitan areas include Eureka on the far North Coast, Redding, at the northern end of the Central Valley, Chico, and Yuba City in the mid-north of the Valley, as well as Fresno and Visalia on the southern end. Though smaller in every case except for Fresno than the larger cities of the vast region, these smaller regional centers are often of historical, and perhaps inflated economic importance for their respective size, due to their locations, which are primarily rural or otherwise isolated.

SanFran downtown panorama

San Francisco, the second most populated city in Northern California and the leading economic center of the San Francisco Bay Area, its most populous metropolitan area (4.7 million residents) and the 14th largest in the United States.

Closeup aerial view of Downtown Oakland and Lakeside Park

Oakland, the center of Northern California's African American community.

Sacramento Skyline (cropped)

Sacramento, The capital city of California and the principal city of the Sacramento metropolitan area (2.5 million residents).

Panoramic Downtown San Jose

San Jose, the most populous city in Northern California and tenth largest in the United States, is the center of Silicon Valley, the preeminent region for technology in the US (1.9 million residents).

Chukchansi

Downtown Fresno, third most populated city in northern California and fifth in California, from Chuckchansi Park

History

Historical events to 1847

Inhabited for millennia by Native Americans, from the Shasta tribe in the north, to the Miwoks in the central coast and Sierra Nevada, to the Yokuts of the southern Central Valley, northern California was among the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America.[6]

European explorers

The first European to explore the coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing for the Spanish Crown; in 1542, Cabrillo's expedition sailed perhaps as far north as the Rogue River in today's Oregon.[7] Beginning in 1565, the Spanish Manila galleons crossed the Pacific Ocean from Mexico to the Spanish Philippines, with silver and gemstones from Mexico. The Manila galleons returned across the northern Pacific, and reached North America usually off the coast of northern California, and then continued south with their Asian trade goods to Mexico.

In 1579, northern California was visited by the English explorer Sir Francis Drake who landed north of today's San Francisco and claimed the area for England. In 1602, the Spaniard Sebastián Vizcaíno explored California's coast as far north as Monterey Bay, where he went ashore. Other Spanish explorers sailed along the coast of northern California for the next 150 years, but no settlements were established.

Spanish era

The first European inhabitants were Spanish missionaries, who built missions along the California coast. The mission at Monterey was first established in 1770, and at San Francisco in 1776. In all, ten missions stretched along the coast from Sonoma to Monterey (and still more missions to the southern tip of Baja California). In 1786, the French signaled their interest in the northern California area by sending a voyage of exploration to Monterey.

The first twenty years of the 19th century continued the colonization of the northern California coast by Spain. By 1820, Spanish influence extended inland approximately 25 to 50 miles (80 km) from the missions. Outside of this zone, perhaps 200,000 to 250,000 Native Americans continued to lead traditional lives. The Adams-Onís Treaty, signed in 1819 between Spain and the young United States, set the northern boundary of the Spanish claims at the 42nd parallel, effectively creating today's northern boundary of northern California.

Russian presence

Russians, from Alaska, were moving down the coast, and in 1812 established Fort Ross, a fur trading outpost on the coast of today's Sonoma County. Fort Ross was the southernmost point of expansion, meeting the Spanish northern expansion some 70 miles (113 km) north of San Francisco. In 1841, as the American presence in northern California began to increase and politics began to change the region, a deal was made with John Sutter and the Russians abandoned their northern California settlements.

Mexican era

After Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821, Mexico continued Spain's missions and settlements in northern California as well as Spain's territorial claims. The Mexican Californios (Spanish-speaking Californians) in these settlements primarily traded cattle hides and tallow with American and European merchant vessels.

In 1825, the Hudson's Bay Company established a major trading post just north of today's Portland, Oregon. British fur trappers and hunters then used the Siskiyou Trail to travel throughout northern California.[8] The leader of a further French scientific expedition to northern California, Eugene Duflot de Mofras, wrote in 1840 "...it is evident that California will belong to whatever nation chooses to send there a man-of-war and two hundred men."[9]:260 By the 1830s, a significant number of non-Californios had immigrated to northern California. Chief among these was John Sutter, a European immigrant from Switzerland, who was granted 48,827 acres (197.60 km2) centered on the area of today's Sacramento.[10]

American interest

American trappers began entering northern California in the 1830s.[9]:263–4 In 1834, American visionary Ewing Young led a herd of horses and mules over the Siskiyou Trail from missions in northern California to British and American settlements in Oregon. Although a small number of American traders and trappers had lived in northern California since the early 1830s, the first organized overland party of American immigrants to arrive in northern California was the Bartleson-Bidwell Party of 1841 via the new California Trail.[9]:263–273 Also in 1841, an overland exploratory party of the United States Exploring Expedition came down the Siskiyou Trail from the Pacific Northwest. In 1846, the Donner Party earned notoriety as they struggled to enter northern California.

Californian independence and beginning of United States era

When the Mexican–American War was declared on May 13, 1846, it took almost two months (mid-July 1846) for word to get to California. On June 14, 1846, some 30 non-Mexican settlers, mostly Americans, staged a revolt and seized the small Mexican garrison in Sonoma. They raised the "Bear Flag" of the California Republic over Sonoma. The "Bear Flag Republic" lasted only 26 days, until the U.S. Army, led by John Frémont, took over on July 9.[11] The California state flag today is based on this original Bear Flag, and continues to contain the words "California Republic."

Commodore John Drake Sloat ordered his naval forces to occupy Yerba Buena (present San Francisco) on July 7 and within days American forces controlled San Francisco, Sonoma, and Sutter's Fort in Sacramento.[11] The treaty ending the Mexican–American War was signed on February 2, 1848, and Mexico formally ceded Alta California (including all of present-day northern California) to the United States.

Gold Rush and California statehood

The California Gold Rush took place almost exclusively in northern California from 1848–1855. It began on January 24, 1848, when gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in Coloma.[12] News of the discovery soon spread, resulting in some 300,000 people coming to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. San Francisco grew from a tiny hamlet of tents to a boomtown, and roads, churches, schools and other towns were built. New methods of transportation developed as steamships came into regular service and railroads were built. However, the Gold Rush also had negative effects: Native Americans were attacked and pushed off traditional lands, the native oyster species became overharvested and nearly wiped out all the way into the Pacific Northwest, and gold mining caused environmental harm.

The Gold Rush also increased pressure to make California a U.S. state. Pro-slavery politicians initially attempted to permanently divide northern and southern California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. But instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be admitted to the Union as a free state.

Population and agricultural expansion (1855–1899)

Mount Shasta Farm
Farm near Mount Shasta

The decades following the Gold Rush brought dramatic expansion to northern California, both in population and economically – particularly in agriculture. The completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869, with its terminus in Sacramento, meant that northern California's agricultural produce (and some manufactured goods) could now be shipped economically to the rest of the United States. In return, immigrants from the rest of the United States (and Europe) could comfortably come to northern California. A network of railroads spread throughout northern California, and in 1887, a rail link was completed to the Pacific Northwest. Almost all of these railways came under the control of the Southern Pacific Railroad, headquartered in San Francisco, and San Francisco continued as a financial and cultural center.

Substantial tensions during this era included nativist sentiments (primarily against Chinese immigrants), tensions between the increasing power of the Southern Pacific Railroad and small farmers, and the beginnings of the labor union movement.

Economy

Northern California's economy is noted for being the de facto world leader in industries such as high technology (software, semiconductor/micro-electronics, biotechnology and medical devices/instruments), as well as being known for clean power, biomedical, government, and finance. Other significant industries include tourism, shipping, manufacturing, and agriculture. Its economy is diverse, though more concentrated in high technology, and subject to the whims of venture capital than any other major regional economy in the nation especially within Silicon Valley, and less dependent on oil and residential housing than Southern California. It is home to the state capital, as well as several Western United States regional offices in San Francisco, such as the Federal Reserve and 9th Circuit Court.

Climate

Northern California Köppen
Köppen climate types in northern California

Northern California has warm or mild to cold climate, in which the Sierra gets snow in the late fall through winter and occasionally into spring. Summers are mild along the coast and generally warm and dry, while winters are cool and usually wet. The high temperatures range from 50s to 30s in the winters while summers temperature range is 90s to 60s or 50s, with highs well into the 100s for the Sacramento region. Snow covers the mountains (generally above 3000 feet) in mid January through February. Fog occurs infrequently or occurs normally in the west and coast, especially in the summer, creating some of the coolest summer conditions in North America.

Population

Historical population
Census Pop.
185086,105
1860346,714302.7%
1870516,08948.9%
1880772,77849.7%
1890961,62824.4%
19001,147,72519.4%
19101,569,14136.7%
19202,003,07527.7%
19302,632,27331.4%
19403,066,65416.5%
19504,654,24851.8%
19606,318,48235.8%
19707,849,57524.2%
19809,359,16019.2%
199011,490,92622.8%
200013,234,13615.2%
201014,573,94610.1%

The population of the forty-eight counties of northern California has shown a steady increase over the years.[13][14] The 1850 census almost certainly undercounted the population of the area, especially undercounting a still substantial Native American population.

The largest percentage increase outside the Gold Rush era (51%) came in the decade of the 1940s, as the area was the destination of many post-War veterans and their families, attracted by the greatly expanding industrial base and (often) by their time stationed in northern California during World War II. The largest absolute increase occurred during the decade of the 1980s (over 2.1 million person increase), attracted to job opportunities in part by the expansion taking place in Silicon Valley and the Cold War era expansion of the defense industry. The 2010 U.S. Census revealed that northern California grew at a faster rate than Southern California in the 2000s with a rate slightly higher than the state average.

Parks and other protected areas

National Park System

The U.S. National Park System controls a large and diverse group of parks in northern California. The best known is Yosemite National Park, which is displayed on the reverse side of the California state quarter. Other prominent parks are the Kings Canyon-Sequoia National Park complex, Redwood National Park, Pinnacles National Park, Lassen Volcanic National Park and the largest in the contiguous forty-eight states, Death Valley National Park.

National Monuments and other federally protected areas

Other areas under federal protection include Muir Woods National Monument, Giant Sequoia National Monument, Devils Postpile National Monument, Lava Beds National Monument, Point Reyes National Seashore, the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, and the Cordell Bank and Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuaries (both off the coast of San Francisco). Included within the latter National Marine Sanctuary is the Farallon National Wildlife Refuge; this National Wildlife Refuge is one of approximately twenty-five such refuges in northern California. National forests occupy large sections of northern California, including the Shasta-Trinity, Klamath, Modoc, Lassen, Mendocino, El Dorado, Tahoe, and Sequoia national forests, among others. Included within (or adjacent to) national forests are federally protected wilderness areas, including the Trinity Alps, Castle Crags, Granite Chief, and Desolation wilderness areas.

In addition, the California Coastal National Monument protects all islets, reefs, and rock outcroppings from the shore of northern California out to a distance of 12 nmi (22 km), along the entire northern California coastline. In addition, the National Park Service administers protected areas on Alcatraz Island, the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, and the Whiskeytown National Recreation Area. The NPS also administers the Manzanar National Historic Site in Inyo County, the Rosie the Riveter/World War II Home Front National Historical Park in Richmond, and the Tule Lake Unit of the World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument outside of Tulelake.

Other parks and protected areas

Educational institutions

Northern California hosts a number of world-renowned universities including Stanford University and University of California, Berkeley. Top-tier public graduate schools include Boalt Hall and Hastings law schools and UC San Francisco, a top-ranked medical school, and UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, the largest vet school in the United States.

Public institutions

Private institutions

(Partial list)

Research institutions

(Partial list)

Counties

Regions

The following regions are entirely or partly within northern California:

Cities and towns in northern California with more than 50,000 inhabitants

San Jose California Skyline

1 - San Jose

Fresno skyline

3 - Fresno

Oakland California skyline

5 - Oakland

Commercial & Savings Bank - Stockton, CA

6 - Stockton

Mission-Peak-2006

7 - Fremont

Modesto Arch

8 - Modesto

Laguna Springs Dr and Laguna Blvd

10 - Elk Grove

Main Street, Salinas

11 - Salinas

Hayward City Hall number 3 front

12 - Hayward

Murphystreetsunnyvale

13 - Sunnyvale

Visalia Transit 2011

14 - Visalia

ConcordSquare

15 - Concord

Roseville - City Civic Center

16 - Roseville

DK From Parking Lot

18 - Vallejo

Berkeley-downtown-Bay-bridge-SF-in-back-from-Lab

19 - Berkeley

Aerial view of Fairfield, California

20 - Fairfield

Point Richmond, Richmond, California

21 - Richmond

Shannon-Williamson Ranch (Antioch, CA)

22 - Antioch

Daly City

23 - Daly City

MCB-san-mateo-aerial

24 - San Mateo

Pollasky Ave. Clovis

25 - Clovis

Aerial view of Vacaville, California

26 - Vacaville

Sundialbridge2

27 - Redding

Bidwell Park Chico

28 - Chico

11th and Central Tracy California 14-May-2006

31 - Tracy

LLNL Aerial View

32 - Livermore

Merced Theatre

33 - Merced

Napa River floodwall USACE

34 - Napa

Alameda City Hall (Alameda, CA) 2

37 - Alameda

Lake Folsom

38 - Folsom

SanRamonPanorama

39 - San Ramon

MCB-pleasanton-ca

40 - Pleasanton

City Population (2010)
Alameda 73,812
Antioch 102,372
Berkeley 112,580
Brentwood 51,481
Chico 86,187
Citrus Heights 83,301
Clovis 95,631
Concord 122,067
Cupertino 58,302
Daly City 101,123
Davis 65,622
Elk Grove 153,015
Fairfield 105,321
Folsom 72,203
Fresno 510,365
Fremont 214,089
Hanford 53,967
Hayward 144,186
Livermore 80,968
Lodi 62,134
Madera 61,416
Manteca 67,096
Merced 78,958
Milpitas 66,790
Modesto 201,165
Mountain View 74,066
Napa 76,915
Novato 51,904
Oakland 390,724
Palo Alto 64,403
Petaluma 57,941
Pittsburg 63,264
Pleasanton 70,285
Porterville 54,165
Rancho Cordova 64,776
Redding 89,861
Redwood City 76,815
Richmond 103,701
Rocklin 56,974
Roseville 118,788
Sacramento 466,488
Salinas 150,441
San Francisco 805,235
San Jose 945,942
San Leandro 84,950
San Mateo 97,207
San Rafael 57,713
San Ramon 72,148
Santa Clara 116,468
Santa Cruz 59,946
Santa Rosa 167,815
South San Francisco 63,632
Stockton 291,707
Sunnyvale 140,081
Tracy 82,922
Tulare 59,278
Turlock 68,549
Union City 69,516
Vacaville 92,428
Vallejo 115,942
Visalia 124,442
Walnut Creek 64,173
Watsonville 51,199
Woodland 55,468
Yuba City 64,925

[15]

Metropolitan areas

Northern California is home to three of the state's four extended metropolitan areas that are home to over three-fourths of the region's population as of the 2010 United States Census:[16]

Metropolitan region Population
San Francisco Bay Area 7,468,390
Greater Sacramento 2,461,780
Metropolitan Fresno 1,081,315

Major business districts

The following are major central business districts:

Transportation

See also categories:

  • Transportation in Alameda County
  • Transportation in Alpine County
  • Transportation in Amador County
  • Transportation in Butte County
  • Transportation in Calaveras County
  • Transportation in Colusa County
  • Transportation in Contra Costa County
  • Transportation in Del Norte County
  • Transportation in El Dorado County
  • Transportation in Fresno County
  • Transportation in Glenn County
  • Transportation in Humboldt County
  • Transportation in Inyo County
  • Transportation in Kings County
  • Transportation in Lake County
  • Transportation in Lassen County
  • Transportation in Madera County
  • Transportation in Marin County
  • Transportation in Mariposa County
  • Transportation in Mendocino County
  • Transportation in Merced County
  • Transportation in Modoc County
  • Transportation in Mono County
  • Transportation in Monterey County
  • Transportation in Napa County
  • Transportation in Nevada County
  • Transportation in Oakland
  • Transportation in Placer County
  • Transportation in Plumas County
  • Transportation in Sacramento
  • Transportation in Sacramento County
  • Transportation in San Benito County
  • Transportation in the San Francisco Bay Area
  • Transportation in San Francisco
  • Transportation in San Joaquin County
  • Transportation in San Mateo County
  • Transportation in Santa Clara County
  • Transportation in Santa Cruz County
  • Transportation in Shasta County
  • Transportation in Sierra County
  • Transportation in Siskiyou County
  • Transportation in Solano County
  • Transportation in Sonoma County
  • Transportation in Stanislaus County
  • Transportation in Sutter County
  • Transportation in Tehama County
  • Transportation in Trinity County
  • Transportation in Tulare County
  • Transportation in Tuolumne County
  • Transportation in Yolo County
  • Transportation in Yuba County
 

Airports within northern California

International Terminal of San Francisco International Airport2
San Francisco International Airport or SFO is the largest and busiest airport in northern California and second in the state and tenth in the United States.

There are 11 airports in Northern California categorized as Primary Service Commercial airports by the FAA:[17]

Airport ID City Category 2016 Enplanements
San Francisco International Airport SFO San Francisco Large Hub 25,707,101
Oakland International Airport OAK Oakland Medium Hub 5,934,659
San Jose International Airport SJC San Jose Medium Hub 5,321,603
Sacramento International Airport SMF Sacramento Medium Hub 4,969,366
Fresno Yosemite International Airport FAT Fresno Small Hub 761,298
Monterey Regional Airport MRY Monterey Non Hub 192,136
Charles M. Schulz–Sonoma County Airport STS Santa Rosa Non Hub 167,151
Stockton Metropolitan Airport SCK Stockton Non Hub 93,076
Arcata-Eureka Airport ACV Arcata Non Hub 69,732
Redding Municipal Airport RDD Redding Non Hub 43,414
Mammoth Yosemite Airport MMH Mammoth Lakes Non Hub 21,826

Railroad

19th Street-Oakland BART
The 19th Street/Oakland BART station in downtown Oakland

Major transit organizations

Major transit ferries

San Francisco Ferry Building
The historic San Francisco Ferry Building is the busiest ferry terminal on the West Coast and connects Downtown San Francisco to various parts of the Bay Area.

Freeways

Interstate highways

U.S. Routes

GoldenGateBridge
The Golden Gate Bridge is one of northern California's most well known landmarks and one of the most famous bridges in the world.
I-80 Eastshore Fwy
I-80 and I-580 in Berkeley in the Bay Area
SR 120 Yosemite
State Route 120 is one of the many highways that traverse the isolated areas of inner northern California

Principal state highways

Communication

Telephone Area Codes

Sports

Major league professional sports teams

Sport League Team Venue
Baseball MLB Oakland Athletics (American League) O.co Coliseum
San Francisco Giants (National League) AT&T Park
Basketball NBA Golden State Warriors Oracle Arena
Sacramento Kings Golden 1 Center
Football NFL Oakland Raiders O.co Coliseum
San Francisco 49ers Levi's Stadium
Ice hockey NHL San Jose Sharks SAP Center
Soccer MLS San Jose Earthquakes Avaya Stadium
Arena Football AFL San Jose SaberCats SAP Center

College sports teams

Sports venues

Sports events

See also

References

  1. ^ Morgan, Neil (April 19, 1963). "Westward Tilt: Northern California". Lodi News-Sentinel. Lodi, California. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
  2. ^ John E. Kent, eds. (1917). Kent Guide Manual (Harrison Narcotic Law) and Progressional Registry. San Francisco: The Service Press. p. 6.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  3. ^ a b Metcalf, Gabriel; Terplan, Egon (November–December 2007). "The northern California megaregion". The Urbanist. San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
  4. ^ Wiles, Tay (January 22, 2018). "A separatist state of mind". High Country News. Archived from the original on June 17, 2018. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
  5. ^ Myers, John. "Radical plan to split California into three states earns spot on November ballot". Latimes.com. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
  6. ^ R.F. Heizer (1966). "California Indian Tribes map". CaliforniaPrehistory.com. Retrieved February 10, 2007.
  7. ^ "Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo: A Voyage of Discovery". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved February 10, 2007.
  8. ^ "Hunters and Trappers at Upper Soda Springs". Museum of the Siskiyou Trail. Retrieved February 10, 2007.
  9. ^ a b c Bancroft, Hubert Howe (1886). History of California, 1840–1845, Volume 4. A. L. Bancroft. OCLC 9475460.
  10. ^ "Sutter's Fort Historic State Park". California Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved February 10, 2007.
  11. ^ a b "American Transition to Early Statehood". California Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved February 10, 2007.
  12. ^ "[E]vents from January 1848 through December 1855 [are] generally acknowledged as the 'Gold Rush' .... After 1855, California gold mining changed and is outside the 'rush' era." "The Gold Rush of California: A Bibliography of Periodical Articles". California State University, Stanislaus. 2002. Retrieved January 23, 2008.
  13. ^ "Historical census data by U.S. Census Bureau". Web.archive.org. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  14. ^ Bureau, U. S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  15. ^ Population figures are the most recent figures contained in the respective Wikipedia articles, in the List of cities in California (by population), or in the State of California, Department of Finance 2007 estimates Archived March 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ Excerpted from 2010 United States Census
  17. ^ "Passenger Boarding (Enplanement) and All-Cargo Data for U.S. Airports – Airports". Faa.gov. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  18. ^ For current information, see nanpa.com, the North American Numbering Plan Administration site.

External links

California Coast Ranges

The Coast Ranges of California span 400 miles (640 km) from Del Norte or Humboldt County, California, south to Santa Barbara County. The other three coastal California mountain ranges are the Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges and the Klamath Mountains.Physiographically, they are a section of the larger Pacific Border province, which in turn are part of the larger Pacific Mountain System physiographic division. UNESCO has included the "California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve" in its Man and the Biosphere Programme of World Network of Biosphere Reserves since 1983.

Cascade Range

The Cascade Range or Cascades is a major mountain range of western North America, extending from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California. It includes both non-volcanic mountains, such as the North Cascades, and the notable volcanoes known as the High Cascades. The small part of the range in British Columbia is referred to as the Canadian Cascades or, locally, as the Cascade Mountains. The latter term is also sometimes used by Washington residents to refer to the Washington section of the Cascades in addition to North Cascades, the more usual U.S. term, as in North Cascades National Park. The highest peak in the range is Mount Rainier in Washington at 14,411 feet (4,392 m).

The Cascades are part of the Pacific Ocean's Ring of Fire, the ring of volcanoes and associated mountains around the Pacific Ocean. All of the eruptions in the contiguous United States over the last 200 years have been from Cascade volcanoes. The two most recent were Lassen Peak from 1914 to 1921 and a major eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980. Minor eruptions of Mount St. Helens have also occurred since, most recently from 2004 to 2008. The Cascade Range is a part of the American Cordillera, a nearly continuous chain of mountain ranges (cordillera) that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, and South America.

Central California

Central California is a subregion of Northern California, generally thought of as the middle third of the state, north of Southern California. It includes the northern portion of the San Joaquin Valley (which itself is the southern portion of the Central Valley, beginning at the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta), the Central Coast, the central hills of the California Coast Ranges, and the foothills and mountain areas of the central Sierra Nevada.

Central California is considered to be west of the crest of the Sierra Nevada. (East of the Sierras is Eastern California.) The largest cities (over 50,000 population) in the region are Fresno, Modesto, Salinas, Visalia, Clovis, Merced, Turlock, Madera, Tulare, Porterville, and Hanford.

Clifton Court Forebay

Clifton Court Forebay is a reservoir in the San Joaquin River Delta region of eastern Contra Costa County, California, 17 mi (27 km) southwest of Stockton. The estuary region the forebay is located in is only 1m to 3m above mean sea level.

Indigenous peoples of California

The Indigenous peoples of California (known as Native Californians) are the indigenous inhabitants who have lived or currently live in the geographic area within the current boundaries of California before and after the arrival of Europeans. With over forty groups seeking to be federally recognized tribes, California has the second largest Native American population in the United States. The California cultural area does not conform exactly to the state of California's boundaries. Many tribes on the eastern border with Nevada are classified as Great Basin tribes, and some tribes on the Oregon border are classified as Plateau tribes. Tribes in Baja California who do not cross into California are classified as Indigenous peoples of Mexico.

J. The Jewish News of Northern California

J. The Jewish News of Northern California, formerly known as Jweekly, is a weekly print newspaper in Northern California, with its online edition updated daily. It is owned and operated by San Francisco Jewish Community Publications Inc. It is based in San Francisco, California.

KQED

KQED is a public media outlet based in San Francisco, California, which operates the radio station KQED and the television stations KQED/KQET and KQEH.

Lake Berryessa

Lake Berryessa is the largest lake in Napa County, California. This reservoir in the Vaca Mountains is formed by the Monticello Dam, which provides water and hydroelectricity to the North Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area.

The reservoir was named for the first European settlers in the Berryessa Valley, José Jesús and Sexto "Sisto" Berrelleza (a Basque surname, Anglicized to "Berreyesa", then later respelled "Berryessa"), who were granted Rancho Las Putas in 1843.

List of earthquakes in California

Although the written history of California is not long, records of earthquakes exist that affected the Spanish missions that were constructed beginning in the late 18th century. Those records ceased when the missions were secularized in 1834, and from that point until the California Gold Rush in the 1840s, records were sparse. Other sources for the occurrence of earthquakes usually came from ship captains and other explorers. The earliest known earthquake was documented in 1769 by the Spanish explorers and Catholic missionaries of the Portolá expedition as they traveled northward from San Diego along the Santa Ana River near the present site of Los Angeles. For the period 1850–2004, there was about one potentially damaging event per year on average, though many of these did not cause serious consequences or loss of life.The few damaging earthquakes that occurred in the American Midwest and the East Coast were well known (1755 Cape Ann, 1811–12 New Madrid, 1886 Charleston), and it became apparent to settlers that the earthquake hazard situation was much different in the West. While the 1812 San Juan Capistrano, 1857 Fort Tejon, and 1872 Lone Pine shocks were only moderately destructive in mostly unpopulated areas, the 1868 Hayward event affected the thriving financial hub that is the San Francisco Bay Area, with damage from Santa Rosa in the north to Santa Cruz in the south. By this time, scientists were well aware of the threat, but seismology was still in its infancy. Reactions following destructive events in the late 19th and early 20th centuries included real estate developers, press, and boosters minimizing and downplaying the risk out of fear that the ongoing economic boom would be negatively affected.

According to seismologist Charles Richter, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake moved the United States Government into acknowledging the problem. Prior to that, no agency was specifically focused on researching earthquake activity. The United States Weather Bureau did record when they happened and several United States Geological Survey scientists had briefly disengaged from their regular duties of mapping mineral resources to write reports on the New Madrid and Charleston events, but no trained geologists were working on the problem until the Coast and Geodetic Survey was made responsible after 1906. The outlook improved when Professor Andrew Lawson brought the state's first monitoring program online at the University of California, Berkeley in 1910 with seismologist Harry Wood, who was later instrumental in getting the Caltech Seismological Laboratory operational in the 1920s.Early developments at the Caltech lab in Pasadena included an earthquake observation network using their own custom built short period seismometers, the Richter magnitude scale, and an updated version of the Mercalli intensity scale. In 1933, the Long Beach earthquake occurred in a populated area and damaged or destroyed a large number of public school buildings in Long Beach and Los Angeles. Some decades later, the San Fernando earthquake affected the San Fernando Valley north of Los Angeles with heavy damage to several hospitals. In both cases, the perception of those involved with policy making in California was changed, and state laws and building codes were modified (but not without much debate) to require commercial and residential properties to be built to withstand earthquakes. Higher standards were established for fire stations, hospitals, and schools and construction of dwellings was also restricted near active faults.

List of regions of California

This is a list of regions of California, organized by location.

Monterey Bay

Monterey Bay is a bay of the Pacific Ocean located on the coast of the U.S. state of California. The bay is south of the major cities of San Francisco and San Jose. The county-seat city of Santa Cruz is located at the north end of the bay. The city of Monterey is on the Monterey Peninsula at the south end. The Monterey Bay Area is a local colloquialism sometimes used to describe the whole of the Central Coast communities of Santa Cruz and Monterey counties.

North Coast (California)

The North Coast of California (also called the Redwood Empire or the Redwood Coast) is the region in Northern California that lies on the Pacific coast between San Francisco Bay and the Oregon border. It commonly includes Mendocino, Humboldt, and Del Norte counties and sometimes includes two counties from the San Francisco Bay area, Marin and Sonoma.

Northern California Athletic Conference

The Northern California Athletic Conference (NCAC), a former NCAA Division II college athletic association that sponsored American football, was formed in 1925. It disbanded in 1998 after the majority of its member schools were forced to drop football.

October 2017 Northern California wildfires

The October 2017 Northern California wildfires, also known as the Northern California firestorm, North Bay Fires, and the Wine Country Fires were a series of 250 wildfires that started burning across the state of California, United States, beginning in early October. Twenty-one became major fires that burned at least 245,000 acres (99,148 ha). The wildfires broke out throughout Napa, Lake, Sonoma, Mendocino, Butte, and Solano Counties during severe fire weather conditions, effectively leading to a major red flag warning for much of the Northern California area. Pacific Gas and Electric reported that red flag conditions existed in 44 of the 49 counties in its service area. Seventeen separate wildfires were reported at that time. These fires included the Tubbs Fire (which grew to become the most destructive wildfire in the history of California (at the time), the Atlas Fire, Nuns Fire, and others. These wildfires were also the most destructive ones of the 2017 California wildfire season. The October 2017 fires were the costliest group of wildfires on record, causing around $14.5 billion (2017 USD) in damages, including $11 billion in insured losses and $1.5 billion in fire suppression costs, surpassing the 1991 Oakland firestorm, which until then had been the single costliest fire on record. In addition, the Northern California fires were predicted to cost the US economy at least $85 billion.Owing to the extreme conditions, shortly after the fires ignited on October 8 and 9, they rapidly grew to become extensive, full-scale incidents spanning from 1,000 acres (400 hectares) to well over 20,000 acres (8,100 ha), each within a single day. By October 14, the fires had burned more than 210,000 acres (85,000 ha) while forcing 90,000 people to evacuate from their homes. In total, the Northern California fires killed 44 people and hospitalized at least 192 others, making this one of the deadliest wildfire events in the United States during the past century.

San Francisco / Northern California Emmy Awards

The San Francisco/Northern California are a division of the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. The San Francisco, California division was founded in 1961. In addition to granting the San Francisco/Northern California Emmy Awards, this division awards scholarships, honors industry veterans at the Silver Circle Celebration, conducts National Student Television Awards of Excellence, has a free research and a nationwide job bank. The chapter also participates in judging Emmy entries at the regional and national levels.

Shasta Cascade

The Shasta Cascade region of California is located in the northeastern and north-central sections of the state bordering Oregon and Nevada, including far northern parts of the Central Valley and the Sierra Nevada mountain range.

Temescal Creek (Northern California)

Temescal Creek is one of the principal watercourses in the city of Oakland, California, United States.

The word "temescal" derives from the word temescalli, which means "sweat house" in the Nahuatl language of the Mexica ("Aztec") people of Mexico. The name was given to the creek when it became part of the Peralta's Rancho San Antonio. It is surmised that the Peraltas or perhaps one of their ranch hands (vaqueros) had seen local indigenous (Ohlone) structures along the creek similar to those in other parts of New Spain which were called temescalli.

Two forks begin in the Berkeley Hills in the northeastern section of Oakland (also referred to as the Oakland Hills), part of the Pacific Coast Ranges, coming together in the Temescal district of Oakland, then flowing westerly across Oakland and Emeryville to San Francisco Bay.

The north fork of Temescal Creek was renamed "Harwood's Creek" in the mid 19th century after an early claimant to grazing lands in the canyon above the Claremont neighborhood, retired sea captain and Oakland wharfinger William Harwood. It was renamed yet again "Claremont Creek" in the early 20th century after a residential development in the same vicinity, today's Claremont district.

The south fork begins in the northern section of Oakland's Montclair district, flowing southwest out of a canyon in the hills, then turning abruptly northwestward in the linear valley formed by the Hayward Fault. It then flows into Lake Temescal, a natural sag pond which was dammed in the 19th century to increase its capacity for use as a reservoir. Lake Temescal is now a public park.

The creek continues out of Lake Temescal, curving westerly around the end of the shutter ridge in the Rockridge district of Oakland, then flowing almost in a line toward the Bay.

UC Davis Aggies football

The UC Davis Aggies football team represents the University of California, Davis in NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) intercollegiate competition. The UC Davis football program began competing in 1915, and has fielded a team each year since with the exception of 1918 during World War I and from 1943 to 1945 during World War II, when the campus, then known as the University Farm, was shut down. UC Davis competed as a member of the NCAA College Division through 1972. From 1973 to 2006, the Aggies competed within the NCAA Division II. In 2007, UC Davis promoted its football program to the Division I FCS level, and joined the Great West Conference. UC Davis has secured a total of 30 conference championships. Between 1929 and 1992, the Aggies captured 27 outright or shared Northern California Athletic Conference championships, including 20 in a row from 1971 to 1990. In 1993, UC Davis shared the American West Conference title, and in 2005 and 2009, the Aggies have won the Great West Conference.

Wine Country (California)

Wine Country is the region of California, in the northern Bay Area, known worldwide as a premium wine-growing region. The region is famed for its wineries, its cuisine,, Michelin star restaurants, boutique hotels, luxury resorts, historic architecture, and culture. Viticulture and wine-making have been practiced in the region since the Spanish missionaries from Mission San Francisco Solano established the first vineyards in 1812.

There are over 400 wineries in the North San Francisco Bay Area, mostly located in the area's valleys, including Napa Valley in Napa County, and the Sonoma Valley, Alexander Valley, Dry Creek Valley, Bennett Valley, and Russian River Valley in Sonoma County. Wine grapes are also grown at higher elevations, such as Atlas Peak and Mount Veeder AVAs. Cities and towns associated with the Wine Country include Santa Rosa, Healdsburg, Sonoma, Kenwood, Petaluma, Sebastopol, Guerneville, Windsor, Geyserville, and Cloverdale in Sonoma County; Napa, Yountville, Rutherford, St. Helena and Calistoga in Napa County; and Hopland and Ukiah in Mendocino County. Lake County is an increasingly important part of the area, surpassing Mendocino County in 2014 in price paid per ton of grapes in the North Coast premium market.

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