Northern Bavarian

Northern Bavarian is a dialect of the Bavarian language, together with Central Bavarian and Southern Bavarian. The language is mostly spoken in the Upper Palatinate, although not in Regensburg, which is a primarily Central Bavarian–speaking area, according to a linguistic survey done in the late 1980s.[3] According to the same survey, Northern Bavarian is also spoken in Upper Franconia, as well as in some areas in Upper and Lower Bavaria, such as in the areas around Eichstätt and Kelheim. Few speakers remained in the Czech Republic, mostly concentrated around and Železná Ruda, at the time of the survey, but considering the time which has passed since the survey, the dialect may be extinct in those places today. If it still exists there, it would include the ostegerländische Dialektgruppe.[4][5] Ethnologue estimates that there were 9,000 speakers of Bavarian Czech Republic in 2005, but does not clarify if these were Northern Bavarian speakers.[6]

According to the same linguistic survey,[3] the dialect is flourishing in the areas where it is spoken, despite the fact that most speakers actively use Standard German. In the south of the area where Northern Bavarian is spoken, Central Bavarian is said to have higher prestige, and Northern Bavarian characteristics are therefore not as visible as in the north, where speakers even tend to use a heavy Northern Bavarian accent when speaking German.

Northern Austro-Bavarian
Native toGermany
RegionUpper Palatinate, Upper Franconia, Upper Bavaria, Lower Bavaria
Latin (German alphabet),
historically the Gothic script
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolognort2634  North Bavarian[1]
nort2633  Northern Bavarian[2]
Bairisches Mundartgebiet
Bavarian dialects
  Northern Bavarian



Northern Bavarian has 8 vowels:

Front Back
Unrounded Unrounded Rounded
Close i u
Close-mid e o
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a ɑ

And 11 diphthongs:

Ending with /i/ Ending with /u/ Ending with /ə/
ɛi̯ ɔu̯ eə̯
ei̯ ou̯ iə̯
ai̯ au̯ uə̯
oi̯ oə̯

Before /l/, /i, e, ɛ/ are rounded to [ʏ, ø, œ].

In southern varieties of Northern Bavarian the diphthongs /iə̯, uə̯/ are realized with an opener offset, i.e. [iɐ̯, uɐ̯].

An interesting aspect of the diphthongs are the so-called reversed diphthongs, or in German, gestürzte Diphthonge. They are called so because the Middle High German diphthongs [ie̯, ye̯, uo̯] became [ei̯, ou̯] ([y] became [i] after unrounding) in Northern Bavarian, while they generally became [iː, yː, uː] in Standard German. Compare Standard German Brief [briːf], Bruder [ˈbruːdɐ], Brüder [ˈbryːdɐ] and Northern Bavarian [ˈb̥rei̯v̥], [ˈb̥rou̯d̥ɐ], [ˈb̥rei̯d̥ɐ].[7]

The Northern Bavarian diphthong [ɔu̯] corresponds to the Middle High German and Standard German [oː, aː]. Compare Standard German Schaf [ʃaːf], Stroh [ʃtroː] and Northern Bavarian [ʒ̊ɔu̯v̥], [ʒ̊d̥rɔu̯].[8] Likewise, the Northern Bavarian diphthong [ɛi̯] corresponds to the Middle High German and Standard German [eː] and by unrounding to [øː]. Compare Standard German Schnee [ʃneː], böse [ˈbøːzə] with Northern Bavarian [ʒ̊n̥ɛi̯], [b̥ɛi̯z̥].[9]

In many Northern Bavarian variants, nasalization is increasingly common.


Northern Bavarian has about 33 consonants:

Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p t k ɡ̊
Nasal m n ŋ
Fricative β, β̬ f s ʃ ʒ̊ ç ʝ x ɣ̊ h
Affricate p͡f b̥͡v̥ t͡s d̥͡z̥ t͡ʃ d̥͡ʒ̥ k͡x
Trill r
Approximant l, j

/r/ is realized as either [ɐ] or [ə] when occurring postvocally.

/lʲ/ may be syllabic, as in Northern Bavarian [ml̩ʲ]; compare Standard German Mühle.




All nouns in Northern Bavarian have one of three genders: feminine, masculine and neuter. Many nouns have the same gender as in Standard German, but there are many exceptions. An example is Benzin, which is neuter in Standard German, but masculine in Northern Bavarian. Another example is Butter, which is feminine in Standard German, but can be all three genders in Northern Bavarian depending on where in the Northern Bavarian–speaking you are.[10]


As in Standard German there are four cases in Northern Bavarian: nominative, accusative, genitive and dative. The genitive case, however, is uncommon and is commonly replaced either with the dative and a possessive pronoun or with the preposition von [v̥ə, v̥ən, v̥əm] and the dative, e.g. [m̩̩ v̥ɑtɐ z̥ãi haːu̯z̥], or [s̩ haːu̯z̥ v̥om v̥ɑtɐ] father's house. An exception is the genitive instead of the dative after the singular possessive pronouns, e.g. [hintɐ mai̯nɐ], which is as correct as [hintɐ miɐ̯] behind me. Prepositions take the dative or the accusative, but not the genitive, e.g. [d̥rots n̩ reːŋ] (formally [d̥rots m̩ reːŋ]) despite the rain. The dative ending -m often sounds like the accusative ending -n (see the previous example), so that these two cases are not distinguishable.[11][12]


Nouns in Northern Bavarian are inflected for number, and to a lesser extent, case. Inflecting for number is common across all three genders, and especially umlaut is productive, in particular in masculine nouns. The most common plural marker in feminine nouns is [n], while it is [ɐ] with most neuter nouns. Many nouns, across the genders, are the same in the plural as in the singular.

English head, Standard German Kopf, Northern Bavarian sg. m. [kʰoːb̥͡v] > pl. [kʰep͡f]
English cat, Standard German Katze, Northern Bavarian sg. f. [kʰɑt͡s] > pl. [kʰɑt͡sn̩]
English house, Standard German Haus, Northern Bavarian sg. n. [haːu̯z̥] > pl. [haːi̯z̥ɐ]

Weak masculine nouns are inflected in the accusative and dative case, most commonly with suffixation of a nasal consonant, such as [m] or [n], while the other cases remain uninflected. Many weak feminine nouns have the ending [n] in most cases, though not to be confused with the plural ending. Weak neuter nouns have almost been lost, with only strong remaining, and therefore inflection for case is basically nonexistent.

English boy, Standard German Bube, Northern Bavarian m. nom. [dɐ bou̯] > m. acc./dat. [n̩ bou̯m]


The inflection of adjectives in Northern Bavarian differ depending on whether the adjective is preceded by a definite article or a demonstrative, or if it is preceded by an indefinite article or a possessive, or if it is used as a predicate, of which the latter is only present in some varieties. Adjectives without any determiner rarely occur.

Below can the inflectional paradigms be seen, with the adjective [ɔːld̥] serving as an example. This is also the form used in all situations, when the adjective is used as a predicate, and therefore no paradigm is needed. Compare Northern Bavarian [ɔːld̥] with the Standard German alt, in English old.

Precedence of a definite article,
or a demonstrative
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative [d̥ɐ ɔlt] [d̥ei̯ ɔlt] [s ɔlt] [d̥ei̯ ɔltn̩] [d̥ei̯ɐ ɔltn̩]
Accusative [n̩ ɔltn̩]
Dative [d̥ɐr(ɐ) ɔltn̩] [n̩ ɔltn̩] [(ɐ)n ɔltn̩]
Precedence of an indefinite article,
or a possessive
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative [ɐ ɔltɐ] [ɐ ɔltɐ] [ɐ ɔlts] [ɔlt] [ɔltɐ]
Accusative [ɐn ɔltn̩]
Dative [ɐrɐ ɔltn̩] [ɐn ɔltn̩] [ɔltn̩]

The predicate form of an adjective differ from the other forms, not only because it is the basic form, but also because it has a long vowel, unlike the other forms, as in [ɔːld̥] above. Other examples include [ɡ̊rɔːu̯z̥] and [b̥rɔːɐ̯d̥], which become [ɡ̊rou̯s] and [b̥roi̯t], respectively. Compare with the Standard German gross and breit, in English big and broad.

Comparative adjectives are formed by suffixing [ɐ], and superlative adjectives are formed by suffixing [st]. Vowel changes often take place when the suffixation happens. An example is [hɔːu̯ɣ̊], which becomes [ˈhɛi̯xɐ] when comparative and [ˈhɛi̯kst] when superlative. Compare with the Standard German hoch, höher and höchsten, in English high, higher and highest.


The pronouns of Northern Bavarian differ slightly from variety to variety. Furthermore, there are two pairs of pronouns, one used when in stressed position and the other used when unstressed.

Singular, Stressed
First person Second person Third person
Informal Formal Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative [iː(j)] [d̥uː] [z̥iː] [eɐ] [z̥iː] -
Accusative [miː(j)] [d̥iː(j)] [eɐ̃nɐ] [eɐ̃m]
Dative [miɐ] [d̥iɐ] [iɐ]
Singular, Unstressed
First person Second person Third person
Informal Formal Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative [e] - [z̥] [ɐ] [z̥], [s]
Accusative [me] [d̥e] [n(ɐ)]
Dative [mɐ] [d̥ɐ] - [ɐrɐ] [n(ɐ)]
Plural, Stressed
First person Second person Third person
Nominative [miɐ] [d̥iɐts], [eŋk(s)] -
Accusative [unz̥] [eŋk(s)], [aiç]
Dative [eɐ̃nɐ]
Plural, Unstressed
First person Second person Third person
Nominative [mɐ] [s] [z̥], [s]
Accusative -
Dative [nɐ]

There is no gender distinction in the plural.

The ending [j] in the stressed first person singular nominative and -accusative and in stressed the second person singular accusative is only present in northern- and western varieties of Northern Bavarian.

At the time of a linguistic survey carried out in the late 1980s,[3] pronouns also existed for unstressed first person plural accusative and unstressed second person plural accusative, [iz] and [iç], respectively, but they have probably fallen out of usage today.


Verbs in Northern Bavarian are conjugated for person, tense and mood. The Northern Bavarian verbs are also subject to both vowel change and apophony.

Non-finite forms

The non-finite forms have one three endings: [∅], [n] and [ɐ]. The first ending is rare, and is only present in some few monosyllabic verbs, such as [za͡i], Standard German sein, English to be; [ɡ̊ɛi], Standard German gehen, English to go; [ʒ̊d̥ɛi], Standard German stehen, English to stand; and [d̥o͡u], Standard German tun, English to do. The second ending is the most common ending found on most verbs, such as [b̥itn̩], Standard German bitten, English to ask. The third ending is used with verbs having a certain stem-final consonant, such as [z̥iŋɐ], Standard German singen, English to sing.[13]

Present tense

The personal endings for the present tense differ slightly from variety to variety, but are largely uniform. The endings in the scheme below are attached to the stem, and not the non-finite form. The stem is found by removing the non-finite ending, if it is [n] or [ɐ].

Singular Plural
First person nf.
Second person -[z̥d̥] -[t͡s]
Third person -[d̥] nf.

As can be seen in the scheme above, the first person singular is basically the same as the stem, and the first- and third persons plural are the same as the non-finite form. Furthermore, the third person singular is realized as -[d̥] when occurring before a fortis obstruent, and that in some southern varieties of Northern Bavarian the first person plural has the ending -[mɐ], and therefore isn't the non-finite form.

The singular imperative is the same as the first person singular, and the plural imperative is the same as the second person plural. Only one exception exists, which is the imperative of [z̥a͡i], Standard German sein, English to be, which is [b̥iː].

Past tense

Only one verb with a distinct simple past tense form remains, [z̥ai̯], Standard German sein, English to be, with the simple past tense form [βoə̯], Standard German war, English was. The past tense of other verbs is formed in the same way as Standard German uses haben or sein, English to have and to be, respectively, and the past participle.

The past participle in Northern Bavarian is formed by the prefix [ɡ̊]-, although not on verbs beginning with a plosive consonant, where the prefix is left out. Thus we see [ɡ̊ʒ̊it], Standard German geschüttet, English shaken; [ɡ̊numɐ], Standard German genommen, English taken; [b̥rɑxd̥], Standard German gebracht, English brought; and [d̥roŋ], Standard German getragen, English carried.

The verbs [hɔm] and [z̥ai̯], Standard German haben and sein, English to have and to be, can be seen conjugated in the scheme below in the present, as they are irregular. They have the past participles, [ɡ̊hɔt] and [ɡ̊βeːn], respectively. Compare with Standard German gehaben and gewesen, English had and been.

Singular Plural
First person [hoː] [hɔm]
Second person [hɔu̯z̥d̥] [hɔu̯t͡s]
Third person [hɔu̯d̥] [hɔm]
Singular Plural
First person [b̥in] [z̥an, han]
Second person [b̥iːz̥d̥] [z̥at͡s, hat͡s]
Third person [iːz̥] [z̥an, han]

Examples can be seen below:

  • [iː hoː ɡ̊ʒ̊it], Standard German Ich habe geschüttet, English I have shaken
  • [eɐ̯ hɔu̯d̥ b̥rɑxd̥], Standard German Er hat gebracht, English He has brought


It is quite straightforward to form the subjunctive in Northern Bavarian. The subjunctive of verbs is formed with the suffix -[ɐd̥], as in [βisn̩] > [βisɐd̥], Standard German wissen > wüßte, English to know > I would know.


Both weak verbs and strong verbs may undergo apophony. The strong verbs can be split into two groups: the first group where the vowel in the non-finite form is the same as in the past participle; and the second group where the vowel in the non-finite form is different from the vowel in the past participle. The most common vowel gradations in the second group can be seen below:

  • [ai̯] > [i(ː)]: [ʒ̊nai̯n] > [ɡ̊ʒ̊niːn], Standard German schneiden > geschnitten - English to cut
  • [ei̯] > [o], [uɐ̯]: [b̥ei̯n] > [b̥uɐ̯n], Standard German bieten > geboten - English to offer
  • [i] > [u]: [ziŋɐ] > [ɡ̊z̥uŋɐ], Standard German singen > gesungen - English to sing
  • [ɛ] > [o]: [d̥rɛʃn̩] > [d̥roʃn̩], Standard German dreschen > gedroschen - English to thresh

Apophony is not as common with weak verbs as in Standard German. However, the number of weak verbs with morphophonological variations is high, especially change in vowel length is common.


This is a phonetic transcription of a text in Northern Bavarian, with translations in German and English.[3]

Northern Bavarian German English

ɪç bɪn ɪn ʒdoːᵈl ɡɔŋə, ᶷn do βoən daːm drɪnə, ᶷn dao ɪz uəm və də mlʲ aː ɪz uəm troi̯t aːvɡʒit kβeːzd...

Ich bin in den Stadel gegangen, und da waren Tauben drinnen, und da ist oben von der Mühle auch ist oben Getreide aufgeschüttet gewesen...

I went into the barn, and there were pigeons in it, and then, upstairs, there was grain heaped up as well, from the mill...


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "North Bavarian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Northern Bavarian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b c d Russ, Charles V. J. (1990). The Dialects of Modern German. ISBN 0-415-00308-3.
  4. ^ Ludwig Erich Schmitt (ed.): Germanische Dialektologie. Franz Steiner, Wiesbaden 1968, p. 143
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-06-10. Retrieved 2010-03-27.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ Ethnologue
  7. ^ Renn, Manfred; König, Werner (2006). Kleiner Bayerischer Sprachatlas. pp. 62–64, 37. ISBN 3-423-03328-2.
  8. ^ Renn, Manfred; König, Werner (2006). Kleiner Bayerischer Sprachatlas. pp. 40–41, 44–45. ISBN 3-423-03328-2.
  9. ^ Renn, Manfred; König, Werner (2006). Kleiner Bayerischer Sprachatlas. pp. 46–47, 37. ISBN 3-423-03328-2.
  10. ^ Zehetner, Ludwig (1985). Das bairische Dialektbuch. pp. 121–123. ISBN 3-406-30562-8.
  11. ^ Zehetner, Ludwig (1985). Das bairische Dialektbuch. pp. 106–108. ISBN 3-406-30562-8.
  12. ^ Merkle, Ludwig (2005). Bairische Grammatik. pp. 96–99, 184–185. ISBN 3-86520-078-8.
  13. ^ Kranzmayer, E. (1956). Historische Lautgeographie des gesamtbairischen Dialektaumes.

External links

  • Sprechender Sprachatlas von Bayern (Speaking Language Atlas of Bavaria, with dialect maps from the book Kleiner Bayerischer Sprachatlas, and sound recordings)
  • DiWA - Digitaler Wenker-Atlas (Digital Wenker-Atlas, with dialect maps and more) - the map Nordbairischer Sprachatlas from the menu item DiWA --> Karten, and then Auswahl (a technical advice: choose erweiterte Ausgabe, and then in the menu item DiWA --> Installation/Einstellungen under ECS-Darstellung the radio button HTML, its independent from plugins and java)
Bad Kötzting

Bad Kötzting (before 2005: Kötzting; Northern Bavarian: Bad Ketzing) is a town in the district of Cham, in Bavaria, Germany, near the Czech border. It is situated in the Bavarian Forest, 15 km (9.3 mi) southeast of Cham.


Flossenbürg (Northern Bavarian: Flossenbirch) is a municipality in the district of Neustadt an der Waldnaab in Bavaria in Germany. The state-approved leisure area is located in the Bavarian Forest and borders the Czech Republic in the east. During World War II, the Flossenbürg concentration camp was located here.

Freising Bishops' Conference

The Freising Bishops' Conference was founded in 1850. In it the bishops of the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising in southern Bavaria, with the suffragans of Regensburg, Passau and Augsburg as well as the Franconia Archdiocese of Bamberg with the suffragans of Würzburg, Eichstätt and Speyer are represented. The bishops of these dioceses meet since 1867 twice a year at the Freising cathedral hill, its leader, the Archbishop of Munich and Freising (since 2008 Archbishop Reinhard Marx); Substitute is the Metropolitan of the northern Bavarian ecclesiastical province of Bamberg (since 2002 Archbishop Ludwig Schick).

The territory of the diocese of Speyer, although now part of the federal states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland, the boundaries of the Province of Bamberg are unchanged since 1920/1945 - with the exception of the assignment of Thuringia areas of the diocese of Würzburg in the diocese of Erfurt - which is why the Palatinate canonically continues to be a part of Bavaria.

The Freising Bishops' Conference has the mission to promote common pastoral duties to coordinate the church's work and provide a platform for mutual consultation. Unlike the German Bishops' Conference, supported by the Bavarian bishops in 1933, it has no decision making powers.


Grafenwöhr (Northern Bavarian: Groafawehr) is a town in the district of Neustadt an der Waldnaab, in the region of the Upper Palatinate (German: Oberpfalz) in eastern Bavaria, Germany. It is widely known for the United States Army military installation and training area, called Grafenwoehr Training Area (Tower Barracks), located directly south and west of the town.

Hans-Peter Friedrich

Hans-Peter Friedrich (born 10 March 1957) is a German politician, representative of the Christian Social Union (CSU). On 3 March 2011 he succeeded Thomas de Maizière as Federal Minister of the Interior and held this ministry until 17 December 2013 when he was appointed Federal Minister for Food and Agriculture. Friedrich resigned from that position in February 2014. Friedrich has a controversial history with minorities in Germany, causing outrage in 2013 after telling journalists that Islam in Germany is not something supported by history at any point.

High German languages

The High German languages or High German dialects (German: hochdeutsche Mundarten) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg, as well as in neighboring portions of France (Alsace and northern Lorraine), Italy (South Tyrol), the Czech Republic (Bohemia), and Poland (Upper Silesia). They are also spoken in diaspora in Romania, Russia, the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Chile, and Namibia.

The High German languages are marked by the High German consonant shift, separating them from Low German and Low Franconian (Dutch) within the continental West Germanic dialect continuum.

Lamer Winkel

The Lamer Winkel is a region in the northern Bavarian Forest between the mountains of Hoher Bogen, Osser, Arber and Kaitersberg; politically it belongs to the county of Cham in the Bavarian province of Upper Palatinate.

Lauf an der Pegnitz

Lauf an der Pegnitz (Northern Bavarian: Lauf an da Pegnitz) is a town to the East of Nuremberg, Germany. It is the capital of the district Nürnberger Land, in Bavaria. It is in the valley of the River Pegnitz, which flows through the town.

In 2009, the municipality developed a climate protection plan which was supported by the German Ministry for the Environment.


Mitterteich (Northern Bavarian: Miederdeich) is a municipality in the district of Tirschenreuth, in Bavaria, Germany. It is situated 10 km northwest of Tirschenreuth, and 17 km southwest of Cheb.

Neumarkt in der Oberpfalz

Neumarkt in der Oberpfalz (Northern Bavarian: Neimack or Neimoarkt) is the capital of the Neumarkt district in the administrative region of the Upper Palatinate, in Bavaria, Germany. With a population of about 40,000, Neumarkt is the seat of various projects, and acts as the economic and cultural center of the western Upper Palatinate, along with Nürnberg, Ingolstadt, and Regensburg.

Rimbach, Upper Palatinate

Rimbach is a municipality in the district of Cham (district) in the Upper Palatinate in Bavaria in Germany.

Rimbach is a beautiful little vacation village at the foot of the Hoher Bogen (a seven-peaked mountain ridge in the Northern Bavarian Forest National Park). In the village is the Baroque 'Church of Saint Michael' built in 1719. The church had a major expansion in 1970 but preserved the wonderful Baroque carvings on the main altar and side altars. Within the church grounds is the ‘Old Church’, built in 1438 with its famous carvings and altars. And is still used for small services (it seats about 36 individuals).

This village holds on to the traditional customs and culture of the Bavarian Forest Area. There are many organized groups that maintain the native dress, dancing, songs, and the traditional musical instruments from the area. Every Fall there is a “High Garden Fest”(not a ‘beer tent’ or Om-Pa-Pa Fest) to celebrate these cultural treasures of music and song.

There are numerous hiking trails within this area of the National Forest. One hike is to the castle-ruin property of the Earls Preysing, arena of the Erzählung. This area was the inspiration of “The Maiden of Lichtenegg" by the forest poet Maximilian Schmidt. This castle-ruin was used as a watchtower to protect the area from the advancing Swedes during the 16th century. In late July, an outdoor, annual 'Folk Play' is held at outdoor stage area next to the Ruin that tells the story of "The Maiden of Lichtenegg".

Two other popular hikes to the top of the mountain are to the antenna area for German TV broadcasting at the peak called Burgstall. This relay station brought broadcast TV to a remote area of German and provided news and educational content to Western Bohemia over the "Iron Curtain" during the Cold War. From this location, one can hike to the other end of the mountain ridge to the peak named Eckstein. It also has a Cold War history, since it was the site of German, French and American Signal Intelligence operations (since closed in the 1990s) that were directed over the Czech Border (3.5 miles to the East).

(A few references above were taken from the "Bayerischer Wald" 'Bertelsmann Reiseführer' [Bavarian Forest Bertelsmann Tour Guide] c 1973) and translated from German by the author.)

Steinberg am See

Steinberg am See (Northern Bavarian: Stoaberg) is a municipality in the district of Schwandorf in Bavaria, Germany.

Tirschenreuth (district)

Tirschenreuth (Northern Bavarian: Landgreis Tirschenreith) is a Landkreis (district) in the northeastern part of Bavaria, Germany. Neighboring districts are (from the south, clockwise) Neustadt an der Waldnaab, Bayreuth and Wunsiedel. To the east are the Czech districts of Tachov (Plzeň) and Cheb (Karlovy Vary).


In phonetics, a triphthong ( or ) (from Greek τρίφθογγος, "triphthongos", literally "with three sounds," or "with three tones") is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement of the articulator from one vowel quality to another that passes over a third. While "pure" vowels, or monophthongs, are said to have one target articulator position, diphthongs have two, and triphthongs three.

Upper German

Upper German (German: Oberdeutsch ) is a family of High German languages spoken primarily in the southern German-speaking area (Sprachraum).


The Waldnaab (Northern Bavarian: Woidnaab, Czech: Lesní Nába, in its upper course: Tirschenreuther Waldnaab) is the left-hand, eastern and longest headstream of the River Naab in the Upper Palatinate (Bavaria, Germany). At its confluence with the Haidenaab near Luhe-Wildenau, the Naab is formed. The Waldnaab is 99.1 km long; combined with the Naab, the total length is 196.6 kilometres (122.2 mi).

Weiden in der Oberpfalz

Weiden in der Oberpfalz (official name: Weiden i.d.OPf.; Northern Bavarian: Weidn in da Owapfalz) is a district-free city in Bavaria, Germany. It is located 100 km east of Nuremberg and 35 km west of the Czech border. A branch of the German Army is located here.


The Ödriegel is an elongated ridge of the Arber ridge in the northern Bavarian Forest.

On its flat summit, there are some fantastic vistas that offer a view of Lam, the Osser and the Hohenbogen. Most hikers will pass the Ödriegel on their tour along the European Walking Route E6, from the Arber to the Kaitersberg. It is hardly ever climbed as an independent mountain, but usually in connection with its neighbours, the Mühlriegel and Schwarzeck.

Željko Čajkovski

Željko Čajkovski (5 May 1925 – 11 November 2016) was a Croatian football player and coach, who played as a forward. He was born in Zagreb, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

With the Yugoslavia national team he won the silver medal in the football tournament of the 1948 Olympics held in London, losing in the final 1–3 to Sweden, then starring the young attacking trio of Gunnar Nordahl, Gunnar Gren, and Nils Liedholm. In the qualification for the 1950 World Cup in December 1949, he scored the winning goal in the 114th minute of the decisive match against France. Together with his brother Zlatko he was in the side that won its 1950 FIFA World Cup matches against Switzerland and Mexico, to which he contributed a goal. A 0–2 defeat against hosts and eventual runners up Brazil, however, put an end to the Yugoslav campaign.

At club level he played from 1942 for HAŠK Zagreb and, after the dissolution of the club, from 1945 onward for Dinamo Zagreb. With Dinamo he won the championship titles of 1950 and 1954 as well as the 1951 cup tournament. In 1956 he joined the German first division club Werder Bremen for two seasons. According to some sources he was amongst the ranks of 1. FC Nürnberg in the 1958–59 season. In the 1959–60 season, he served as player-manager of the northern Bavarian third division side 1. FC Lichtenfels, which he led to the Bavarian amateur championship.

Later he served as a coach for the German second division clubs SpVgg Fürth and Borussia Neunkirchen. He led Borussia into the Bundesliga, however he had to face relegation after one season. From 1971 he was at the helm of the third division club SSV Ulm 1846, winning the division two times, albeit failing to achieve promotion. In the first half of the 1974–75 season, he managed VfR Heilbronn, and in the second half, Wacker 04 Berlin, both in the second division.

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