Northern America

Northern America is the northernmost region of North America. The boundaries may be drawn slightly differently. In one definition, it lies directly north of Middle America (Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central America).[2] Northern America's land frontier with the rest of North America then coincides with the Mexico–United States border. Geopolitically, according to the United Nations' scheme of geographic regions and subregions, Northern America consists of Bermuda, Canada, Greenland, Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, and the United States of America (excluding Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands and other minor US territories).[3][4]

Northern America
Northern America (orthographic projection)
Area21,780,142 km2 (8,409,360 sq mi)
Population358,593,810 (2016 est.)
Population density16.5/km2
GDP (nominal)$22.2 trillion
(2018 est.)[1]
Countries
Dependencies
LanguagesEnglish, French, Spanish, Danish, Greenlandic, and various recognized regional languages
Time zonesUTC (Danmarkshavn, Greenland) to
UTC -10:00 (west Aleutians)
Largest cities
UN M.49 code021 – Northern America
003North America
019Americas
001World

Definitions

Maps using the term Northern America date back to 1755, when the region was occupied by France, Great Britain, and Spain.[5] The Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America in 1813 applied to Mexico. Today, Northern America includes the Canada–US dyad, developed countries that exhibit very high Human Development Indexes and intense economic integration while sharing many socioeconomic characteristics.[6]

The World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions has "Northern America" as the seventh of its nine "botanical continents". Its definition differs from the usual political one: Mexico is included, Bermuda is excluded (being placed in the Caribbean region), Hawaii is excluded (being placed in the Pacific botanical continent) and all of the Aleutian Islands, Russian as well as American, are included.[7]

Countries and dependent territories

Country or territory Area
(km²)[8]
Population
(2016)[9]
Population density
(per km²)
Capital
 Bermuda 53.2 61,666 1,275 Hamilton
 Canada 9,984,670 36,289,822 3.4 Ottawa
 Greenland 2,166,086 56,412 0.026 Nuuk
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 242 6,305 25 Saint-Pierre
 United States[10] 9,826,675 322,179,605 32.7 Washington, D.C.

Demographics

Year Population of
Northern America
Canada population,
% of Northern America
U.S. population,
% of Northern America
1950 171,615,000 13,737,000 8.0% 157,813,000 92.0%
1960 204,167,000 +19.0% 17,909,000 8.8% 186,177,000 91.2%
1970 231,029,000 +13.2% 21,439,000 9.3% 209,486,000 90.7%
1980 254,217,000 +10.0% 24,516,000 9.6% 229,588,000 90.3%
1990 280,633,000 +10.4% 27,662,000 9.9% 252,848,000 90.1%
2000 313,724,000 +11.8% 30,702,000 9.8% 282,896,000 90.2%
2010 344,129,000 +9.7% 34,126,000 9.9% 309,876,000 90.0%
2015 357,838,000 +4.0% 35,940,000 10.0% 321,774,000 89.9%

[11]

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.
  2. ^ Gonzalez, Joseph. 2004. "Northern America: Land of Opportunity" (ch. 6). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Geography. (ISBN 1592571883) New York: Alpha Books; pp. 57-8
  3. ^ Definition of major areas and regions, from World Migrant Stock: The 2005 Revision Population Database, United Nations Population Division. Accessed on line October 3, 2007.
  4. ^ Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings, UN Statistics Division. Accessed on line October 3, 2007. (French)
  5. ^ Bellin, Jacques-Nicolas. 1755. Carte de l'Amerique septentrionale (Map of Northern America) Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine. Item NMC 21057: Library and Archives Canada.
  6. ^ Torrey, Barbara Boyle & Eberstadt, Nicholas. 2005 (Aug./Sep.). "The Northern America Fertility Divide Archived 2007-11-07 at the Wayback Machine." Hoover Institution Policy Review. No. 132.
  7. ^ Brummitt, R.K. (2001). World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions: Edition 2 (PDF). International Working Group on Taxonomic Databases For Plant Sciences (TDWG). Archived from the original on 2016-01-25. Retrieved 2016-04-06.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  8. ^ Unless otherwise noted, land area figures are taken from "Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. 2008. Retrieved 2010-10-14.
  9. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  10. ^ Includes the U.S. state of Hawaii, which is distant from the North American landmass in the Pacific Ocean and therefore more commonly associated with the other territories of Oceania.
  11. ^ "World Population Prospects". population.un.org.
Americas (terminology)

The Americas, also known as America, are lands of the western hemisphere, composed of numerous entities and regions variably defined by geography, politics, and culture.

The Americas are recognised in the English-speaking world to comprise two separate continents: North America and South America. The Americas are also considered to comprise a single continent named America in parts of Europe, Latin America and some other areas.

College ice hockey

College ice hockey is played in Canada and the United States, though leagues exist outside North America.

In Canada, the term "college hockey" refers to community college and small college ice hockey that currently consists of a varsity conference—the Alberta Colleges Athletic Conference (ACAC) -- and a club league—the British Columbia Intercollegiate Hockey League (BCIHL). "University hockey" is the term used for hockey primarily played at four-year institutions; that level of the sport is governed by U Sports.

In the United States, competitive "college hockey" refers to ice hockey played between colleges and universities within the governance structure established by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and the American Collegiate Hockey Association (ACHA).

FIBA AmeriCup

The FIBA AmeriCup (previously known as the FIBA Americas Championship) is the name commonly used to refer to the American Basketball Championship that takes place every two years between national teams of the Western Hemisphere continents. Through the 2015 edition, the Americas Championship was also a qualifying tournament for the FIBA World Cup and the Summer Olympic Games. Beginning in 2017, the championship, along with all other FIBA continental championships for men, is played once every four years, and the continental championships are no longer a part of the qualifying process for either the World Cup or Olympics.Since FIBA organized the entire Western Hemisphere west of the Atlantic Ocean under one zone, countries from Northern America, Central America, the Caribbean and South America compete in this tournament.

The United States is the most successful team in this tournament, having won it seven times. Argentinean Luis Scola, is both the all-time leading scorer in tournament history, and the player who has won the most tournament MVPs, with four.

Folk costume

A folk costume (also regional costume, national costume, or traditional garment) expresses an identity through costume, which is usually associated with a geographic area or a period of time in history. It can also indicate social, marital or religious status. If the costume is used to represent the culture or identity of a specific ethnic group, it is usually known as ethnic costume (also ethnic dress, ethnic wear, ethnic clothing, traditional ethnic wear or traditional ethnic garment). Such costumes often come in two forms: one for everyday occasions, the other for traditional festivals and formal wear.

Following the outbreak of romantic nationalism, the peasantry of Europe came to serve as models for all that appeared genuine and desirable. Their dress crystallised into so-called "typical" forms, and enthusiasts adopted that attire as part of their symbolism.

In areas where Western dress codes have become usual, traditional garments are often worn at special events or celebrations; particularly those connected with cultural traditions, heritage or pride. International events may cater for non-Western attendees with a compound dress code such as "business suit or national dress".

In modern times, there are instances where traditional garments are required by sumptuary laws. In Bhutan, the traditional Tibetan-style clothing of gho and kera for men, and kira and toego for women, must be worn by all citizens, including those not of Tibetan heritage. In Saudi Arabia, women are also required to wear the abaya in public.

Hashish

Hashish, or hash, is a drug made from the resin of the cannabis plant. It is consumed by smoking a small piece, typically in a pipe, bong, vaporizer or joint, or via oral ingestion (after decarboxylation). As pure hashish will not burn if rolled alone in a joint, it is typically mixed with herbal cannabis, tobacco or another type of herb for this method of consumption.

Depending on region or country, multiple synonyms and alternative names exist.Hash is an extracted cannabis product composed of compressed or purified preparations of stalked resin glands, called trichomes, from the plant. It is defined by the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (Schedule I and IV) as "the separated resin, whether crude or purified, obtained from the cannabis plant". The resin contains ingredients such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids—but often in higher concentrations than the unsifted or unprocessed cannabis flower. Purities of confiscated hashish in Europe (2011) range between 4-15%. Between 2000 and 2005 the percentage of hashish in cannabis end product seizures was at 18%.Hashish may be solid or resinous depending on both preparation and room temperature; pressed hashish is usually solid, whereas water-purified hashish—often called "bubble melt hash", or simply "bubble hash"—is often a paste-like substance with varying hardness and pliability; its color, most commonly light to dark brown, can vary from transparent to yellow, tan, black, or red. This all depends on the process and amount of leftover plant material (i.e. chlorophyl) Hashish was the primary form of cannabis used in Europe in 2008. Herbal cannabis is more widely used in Northern America.

Kapatid Channel

Kapatid Channel (stylized as Kapatid), formerly known as Kapatid TV5, is a general entertainment channel. owned by the Philippine-based multimedia conglomerate TV5 Network through its subsidiary Pilipinas Global Network, Ltd. The network is currently available in Worldwide,

Central Asia, South Africa, France,

Lebanon, Tonga, Africa, Asia, Europe, Mongolia, Macau, Bhutan,

Sri Lanka, Middle East, Italy, Mauritius, Japan, North Africa, Guam, Canada, Fiji, Bangladesh,

Brunei, Russia, Maldives, Sweden, Nepal, Solomon Island, Switzerland, Pakistan, Indonesia, South Korea, Cambodia, Thailand, Papua New Guinea, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, India, Taiwan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Seychelles, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Hungary, Timor-Leste, Turkey, Vanuatu, Vietnam and Northern America, United States on Verizon FiOS, Xfinity,Comcast,AT&T U-verse, Service Electric, Charter Spectrum, Altice USA, DirecTV, Time Warner Cable , Dish Network Complete Aparatus Permament Northern America Areas. As of September 2015, it is no longer offered on Dish Network and as of July 31, 2016, it will no longer be available on Dish Network's over-the-top streaming subsidiary Sling TV. Pilipinas Global Network, Ltd., the international distributor of Kapatid TV5 and 5 Plus International , aims to expand both channels to Asia and the Pacific regions in the second quarter of 2012.The channel offers programming highlights from the Philippine television channels 5, 5 Plus, Sari-Sari Channel, Colours, One News, PBA Rush and INCTV.

List of birds of North America

The lists of birds in the light blue box below are divided by biological family. The lists are based on The AOU Check-list of North American Birds of the American Ornithological Society supplemented with checklists from Panama, Greenland, Bermuda and Trinidad and Tobago. It includes the birds of Greenland, Canada, the United States (excluding Hawaii), Mexico, Central America, Bermuda, and the Caribbean Islands including offshore islands of Colombia and Venezuela.

List of countries by population (United Nations)

This is a list of countries and other inhabited areas of the world by total population, based on projections published by the United Nations in the 2017 revision of World Population Prospects. Figures refer to the de facto population in a country or area projected according to the "medium fertility" scenario.

List of language families

The following is a list of language families. It also includes language isolates, unclassified languages and other types.

Lists of birds by region

The following are the regional bird lists by continent. Some are full species lists, others, particularly continental lists, have just the families.

For another list see Category:Lists of birds by location

Lists of mammals by region

The following are the regional mammal lists by continent. Some are full species lists, others, particularly continental lists, have just the families.

Metallurgy in pre-Columbian America

Metallurgy in pre-Columbian America is the extraction and purification of metals, as well as creating metal alloys and fabrication with metal by Indigenous peoples of the Americas prior to European contact in the late 15th century. Indigenous Americans have been using native metals from ancient times, with recent finds of gold artifacts in the Andean region dated to 2155–1936 BCE, and North American copper finds dated to approximately 5000 BCE. The metal would have been found in nature without need for smelting techniques and shaped into the desired form using heat and cold hammering techniques without chemically altering it by alloying it. To date "no one has found evidence that points to the use of melting, smelting and casting in prehistoric eastern North America." In South America the case is quite different. Indigenous South Americans had full metallurgy with smelting and various metals being purposely alloyed. Metallurgy in Mesoamerica and Western Mexico may have developed following contact with South America through Ecuadorian marine traders.

North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea.

North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface.

North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands (most notably the Caribbean) are included.

North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge approximately 40,000 to 17,000 years ago. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago (the beginning of the Archaic or Meso-Indian period). The Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, and the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants.

Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, and their culture commonly reflects Western traditions.

Pan-American Team Handball Federation

The Pan-American Team Handball Federation (PATHF) is the continental governing body for handball, beach handball, wheelchair handball and snow handball in Americas since 23 May 1977. PATHF includes Northern America, Central America, South America and the Caribbean. PATHF's primary functions is to organize competitions for national teams and clubs, and to conduct Men's World Handball Championship and Women's World Handball Championship qualifying tournaments.

On 14 January 2018, during the IHF Council meeting, PATHF was suspended by International Handball Federation and was divided into two continental confederations namely the North America and the Caribbean Handball Confederation and the South and Central America Handball Confederation. The IHF Council decision was taken on the facts that there are no signs of development in the level of handball and beach handball in the North American, Central American and the Caribbean countries. There was some development in South American level but that was also not comparable to the other continents like Europe, Asia and Africa. No team from Americas had ever reached to the semifinal stage of the IHF World Men's Handball Championship and the IHF Men's Junior World Championship till date. The PATHF appealed to the Court of Arbitration for Sport, and it annulled IHF's decision.

Trading post

A trading post, trading station, or trading house was a place or establishment where the trading of goods took place; the term is generally used, in modern parlance, in reference to such establishments in historic Northern America, although the practice long predates that continent's colonization by Europeans. The preferred travel route to a trading post or between trading posts, was known as a trade route.

Trading posts were also places for people to meet and exchange the news of the world or simply the news from their home country (many of the world's trading posts were located in places which were popular destinations for emigration) in a time when not even newspapers existed.

European colonialism traces its roots to ancient Carthage. Originally a trading settlement of Phoenician colonists, Carthage grew into a vast economic and political power throughout the Mediterranean, accumulating wealth and influence through its economic (trading) prowess. Numerous cities of importance once started their history as trading posts: Venice, New York City, Shanghai, Singapore, Hong Kong, Naples, Rotterdam, Kansas City, etc.

The annexation of trading posts along ancient trade routes took place in the 16th and 17th century by European powers like the Dutch and English. It began with the capture of Ceuta (a terminus of the trans-Saharan trade route) by the Portuguese in 1415. They went on to establish further enclaves as they explored the coasts of Africa, Arabia, India and South East Asia in search of the source of the lucrative spice trade. Trading posts were also very common in the early settlements of Canada and the United States for the trade of such things as fur. They were also used in many camps across the United States as places to buy snacks, items and souvenirs.

The Hudson's Bay Company set up trading posts around Hudson Bay during the fur trade. Goods were traded for beaver pelts amongst the Europeans and the Native Americans. In the United States in the early 19th century, trading posts used by Native Americans were licensed by the federal government and called "factories". Tribes were to concede substantial territory to the United States in order to access the "factories" as happened at Fort Clark in the Treaty of Fort Clark in which the Osage Nation conceded most of Missouri in order to access the trading post.

United Nations geoscheme for the Americas

The following is an alphabetical list of subregions in the United Nations geoscheme for the Americas.In this scheme, the continent of North America is divided into the subregions of Northern America, Caribbean, and Central America.

World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions

The World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions (WGSRPD) is a biogeographical system developed by the international Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG) organization, formerly the International Working Group on Taxonomic Databases. The WGSRPD standards, like other standards for data fields in botanical databases, were developed to promote "the wider and more effective dissemination of information about the world's heritage of biological organisms for the benefit of the world at large". The system provides clear definitions and codes for recording plant distributions at four scales or levels, from "botanical continents" down to parts of large countries. Current users of the system include the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), and the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP).

World economy

The world economy or global economy is the economy of the humans of the world, considered as the international exchange of goods and services that is expressed in monetary units of account. In some contexts, the two terms are distinct "international" or "global economy" being measured separately and distinguished from national economies while the "world economy" is simply an aggregate of the separate countries' measurements. Beyond the minimum standard concerning value in production, use and exchange the definitions, representations, models and valuations of the world economy vary widely. It is inseparable from the geography and ecology of Earth.

It is common to limit questions of the world economy exclusively to human economic activity and the world economy is typically judged in monetary terms, even in cases in which there is no efficient market to help valuate certain goods or services, or in cases in which a lack of independent research or government cooperation makes establishing figures difficult. Typical examples are illegal drugs and other black market goods, which by any standard are a part of the world economy, but for which there is by definition no legal market of any kind.

However, even in cases in which there is a clear and efficient market to establish a monetary value, economists do not typically use the current or official exchange rate to translate the monetary units of this market into a single unit for the world economy since exchange rates typically do not closely reflect worldwide value, for example in cases where the volume or price of transactions is closely regulated by the government.

Rather, market valuations in a local currency are typically translated to a single monetary unit using the idea of purchasing power. This is the method used below, which is used for estimating worldwide economic activity in terms of real United States dollars or euros. However, the world economy can be evaluated and expressed in many more ways. It is unclear, for example, how many of the world's 7.62 billion people have most of their economic activity reflected in these valuations.

According to Maddison, until the middle of 19th century, global output was dominated by China and India. Waves of Industrial Revolution in Western Europe and Northern America shifted the shares to the Western Hemisphere. As of 2017, the following 15 countries or regions have reached an economy of at least US$2 trillion by GDP in nominal or PPP terms: Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Russia, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.

Earth's primary regions

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