The Northeast megalopolis (also Boston–Washington corridor or Bos-Wash corridor), the most populous megalopolis in the United States with over 50 million residents, is the most heavily urbanized agglomeration of the United States. Located primarily on the Atlantic Ocean in the Northeastern United States, with its lower terminus in the upper Southeast, it runs primarily northeast to southwest from the northern suburbs of Boston, Massachusetts, to the southern suburbs of Washington, D.C., in Northern Virginia. It includes the major cities of Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C., along with their metropolitan areas and suburbs, as well as many smaller urban centers such as Richmond and Norfolk, Virginia to the south and Portland, Maine to the north.
On a map, the megalopolis appears almost as a straight line. As of 2010, the region contained over 50 million people, about 17% of the U.S. population on less than 2% of the nation's land area, with a population density of approximately 1,000 people per square mile (390 people/km2), compared to the U.S. average of 80.5 per square mile 2 (31 people/km2). America 2050 projections expect the area to grow to 58.1 million people by 2025.
French geographer Jean Gottmann popularized the term in his landmark 1961 study of the region, Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States. Gottmann concluded that the region's cities, while discrete and independent, are uniquely tied to each other through the intermeshing of their suburban zones, taking on some characteristics of a single, massive city: a megalopolis.
The megalopolis' higher education network comprises hundreds of colleges and universities, including Harvard University, Princeton University, Columbia University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Yale University, Johns Hopkins University, and the University of Pennsylvania which are ranked among the top 10 universities in the United States and in the world.
Population density in the Northeast megalopolis along the Atlantic Seaboard
Northeast corridor, BosWash, Boston–Washington corridor, Eastern Seaboard, Atlantic Seaboard
|Federal Districts||Washington, D.C.|
|Largest city||New York (8,405,837)|
|• Density||931.3/sq mi (359.6/km2)|
The megalopolis encompasses the District of Columbia and part or all of 11 states: from south to north, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine. It is linked by Interstate 95 and U.S. Route 1, which start in Miami and Key West, Florida, respectively, and terminate in Maine at the Canadian border, as well as the Northeast Corridor railway line, the busiest passenger rail line in the country. It is home to over 50 million people, and metropolitan statistical areas are contiguous from Washington to Boston. The region is not uniformly populated between the terminal cities, and there are regions nominally within the corridor yet located away from the main transit lines that have been bypassed by urbanization, such as Connecticut's Quiet Corner.
The region accounts for 20% of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product. It is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ, the White House and United States Capitol, the UN Headquarters, and the headquarters of ABC, NBC, CBS, NPR, Fox, Comcast, the New York Times Company, USA Today, and The Washington Post. The headquarters of many major financial companies—such as J.P. Morgan Chase, Citigroup, Goldman Sachs, Fannie Mae, and Fidelity—are located within the region, which is also home to 54 of the Fortune Global 500 companies. The headquarters of 162 of the Fortune 500 are in the region. The region is also the center of the global hedge fund industry, with 47.9% of $2.48 trillion of hedge fund assets being managed in its cities and suburbs. Academically, the region is home to six of the eight Ivy League universities.
|Combined Statistical Area
|1||New York–Newark–Bridgeport, NY–NJ–CT–PA CSA||23,076,664||23,689,255||+2.65%|
|4||Washington–Baltimore–Arlington, DC–MD–VA–WV–PA CSA||9,051,961||9,665,892||+6.78%|
|6||Boston–Worcester–Manchester, MA–RI–NH CSA||7,893,376||8,176,376||+3.59%|
|8||Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD CSA||7,067,807||7,179,357||+1.58%|
The Eastern coast of the United States of America, due to its proximity to Europe, was among the first regions of the continent to be widely settled by Europeans. Over time, the cities and towns founded here had the advantage of age over most other parts of the US. However, it was the Northeast in particular that developed most rapidly, owing to a number of fortuitous circumstances.
While possessing neither particularly rich soil—one exception being New England's Connecticut River Valley—nor exceptional mineral wealth, the region does support some agriculture and mining. The climate is also temperate and not particularly prone to hurricanes or tropical storms, which increase further south. However, the most important factor was the "interpenetration of land and sea," which makes for exceptional harbors, such as those at the Chesapeake Bay, the Port of New York and New Jersey, Narragansett Bay in Providence, Rhode Island, and Boston Harbor. The coastline to the north is rockier and less sheltered, and to the South is smooth and does not feature as many bays and inlets that function as natural harbors. Also featured are navigable rivers that lead deeper into the heartlands, such as the Hudson, Delaware, and Connecticut Rivers, which all support large populations and were necessary to early settlers for development. Therefore, while other parts of the country exceeded the region in raw resource value, they were not as easily accessible, and often, access to them necessarily had to pass through the Northeast first.
By 1800, the region included the only four U.S. cities with populations of over 25,000: Philadelphia, New York, Baltimore, and Boston. By 1850, New York and Philadelphia alone had over 300,000 residents, while Baltimore, Boston, Brooklyn (at that time a separate city from New York), Cincinnati, and New Orleans had over 100,000: five were within one 400-mile strip, while the last two were each four hundred miles away from the next closest metropolis. The immense concentration of people in one relatively densely packed area gave that region considerable sway through population density over the rest of the nation, which was solidified in 1800 when Washington, D.C., only 38 miles southwest of Baltimore, was made the capital. According to Gottmann, capital cities "will tend to create for and around the seats of power a certain kind of built environment, singularly endowed, for instance, with monumentality, stressing status and ritual, a trait that will increase with duration." The transportation and telecommunications infrastructure that the capital city mandated also spilled over into the rest of the strip.
Additionally, the proximity to Europe, as well as the prominence of Ellis Island as an immigrant processing center, made New York especially but also the cities nearby a "landing wharf for European immigrants," who represented an ever-replenished supply of diversity of thought and determined workers. By contrast, the other major source of trans-oceanic immigrants was China, which was farther from the U.S. West Coast than Europe was from the East, and whose ethnicity made them targets of racial discrimination, creating barriers to their seamless integration into American society.
By 1950, the region held over one-fifth of the total U.S. population, with a density nearly 15 times that of the national average.
Jean Gottmann wrote his most famous work, Megalopolis, around the central theory that the cities between Washington, DC and Boston, MA together form a sort of cohesive, integrated "supercity." He took the term "Megalopolis" from a small Greek town that had been settled in the Classical Era with the hope it would "become the largest of the Greek cities". Though it still exists today, it is just a sleepy agricultural community. The dream of the founders of the original Megalopolis, Gottmann argued, was being realized in the Northeastern U.S. in the 1960s.
Gottmann defined two criteria for a group of cities to be a true megalopolis: “polynuclear structure” and “manifold concentration:” that is, the presence of multiple urban nuclei, which exist independently of each other yet are integrated in a special way relative to sites outside their area.
To this end, "twin cities" such as Minneapolis–Saint Paul in Minnesota would not be considered a megalopolitan area since both cities are fairly integrated with each other even though both cities have distinct city borders and large central business districts. Large communities on the outskirts of major cities, such as Silver Spring or Bethesda in Maryland outside of Washington, DC, are clearly distinct areas with even their own downtowns. However, they are not in any way independent of their host city, being still considered suburbs that would almost certainly not have developed in the ways that they have without the presence of Washington.
On the other hand, while the major cities of the Boston–Washington megalopolis all are distinct, independent cities, they are closely linked by transportation and telecommunications. Neil Gustafson showed in 1961 that the vast majority of phone calls originating in the region terminate elsewhere in the region, and it is only a minority that are routed to elsewhere in the United States or abroad. In 2010 automobiles carried 80% of Boston-Washington corridor travel; intercity buses 8–9%; Amtrak 6%; and airlines 5%. Business ventures unique to the region have sprung up that capitalize on the interconnectedness of the megalopolis, such as airline shuttle services that operate short flights between Boston-New York and New York-Washington that leave every half-hour, Amtrak's Acela Express high-speed rail service from Washington to Boston, and the Chinatown bus lines, which offer economy transportation between the cities' Chinatowns and elsewhere. Other bus lines operating in the megalopolitan area owned by national or international corporations have also appeared, such as BoltBus and Megabus. These ventures indicate not only the dual "independent nuclei"/"interlinked system" nature of the megalopolis, but also a broad public understanding of and capitalization on the concept.
Among examples of academic acceptance of Gottmann's Megalopolis concept, John Rennie Short authored a major update to Gottmann’s book in 2007, Liquid City: Megalopolis and the Contemporary Northeast. The National Geographic Society released a map in 1994 of the region at the time of the Revolutionary War and in present day, which borrowed Gottmann's book's title and referred to him by name. Senator Claiborne Pell wrote a full-length book entitled Megalopolis Unbound in 1966, which summarized and then expanded on the original book to outline his vision for a cohesive transportation policy in the region (of which his state, Rhode Island, is part). Futurists Herman Kahn and Anthony Wiener coined the term "BosWash" in 1967 in their predictions concerning the area described by Gottmann as "Megalopolis".
The immensity of the megalopolis, and the idea that it might one day form an actual uninterrupted city, has inspired several authors and has resulted in extrapolations of the current megalopolis appearing in fiction. Examples include William Gibson's Sprawl trilogy, which envisions a future Boston–Atlanta Metropolitan Axis known as The Sprawl, and the even larger Quebec–Florida Mega-City One from the Judge Dredd comic books and films.
A rather cool and uneventful summer along the East Coast of the United States (with a more average heat pattern occurring in the Midwest/Great Lakes regions) changed abruptly when a ridge of high pressure centered off the coast of South Carolina strengthened in late July.
It began in early August for areas of the Midwest and western Great Lakes before spreading eastward and intensifying. It waned in most areas by the middle of the month, and although fairly short in duration compared with some other continental heat waves, it was very intense at its peak.
The high humidity and high temperatures led to major heat wave that overtook the major Northeast Megalopolis. Temperatures in Central Park, New York City reached a peak of 103 °F (39 °C). The temperature reached 105 °F (41 °C) in Newark, New Jersey.
Meanwhile, in Ontario and Quebec, extreme temperatures were also reported daily during the first week of August. Ottawa recorded its second-hottest day ever when the mercury approached 37 °C (99 °F) on August 9 and at the Toronto Airport it hit 38 °C (100 °F) on the same day, the hottest day there since 1955 with four straight days topping 35 °C (95 °F). Numerous records were shattered during the heatwave. Even in Nova Scotia, surrounded by the relatively cool waters of the Atlantic Ocean, temperatures still broke 35 °C (95 °F) in some locations. Glace Bay, which has a sub-Arctic climate reached a record-breaking 35.5 °C (95.9 °F) on August 10.
At least four New Yorkers died of hyperthermia. Chicago had at least 21 deaths.Atlantic League of Professional Baseball
The Atlantic League of Professional Baseball is a professional, independent baseball league located primarily in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, especially the greater metropolitan areas of the Northeast megalopolis, with one team located in Texas. League offices are located in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
The Atlantic League operates in cities not served by Major or Minor League Baseball teams and is not affiliated with either; most of its teams are within suburbs and exurbs too close to other teams in the organized baseball system to have minor league franchises of their own. The Atlantic League requires cities to have the market for a 4,000 to 7,500-seat ballpark and for the facility to be maintained at or above AAA standards. When Atlantic League professionals are signed by MLB clubs, they usually start in their Double-A or Triple-A affiliates. The league uses a pitch clock of 12 seconds and a maximum time between innings of two minutes, five seconds in an effort to speed up the game. In 2019, the Atlantic League will begin a three-year partnership with Major League Baseball allowing MLB to implement changes to Atlantic League playing rules in order to observe the effects of potential future rule changes and equipment.Christiana Mall
The Christiana Mall is a super-regional shopping mall located between the cities of Newark and Wilmington, Delaware, United States. The mall is situated at the intersection of Interstate 95 (exits 4A-B) and Delaware Route 1, near the Cavaliers Country Club, and close to the center of the Northeast megalopolis.
Christiana Mall has four anchor stores - Nordstrom, Macy's, JCPenney, and Target - along with Barnes & Noble as a junior anchor and Cabela's and Cinemark Theatres located along the mall's perimeter. The mall contains 179 shops, and is owned and managed by Brookfield Properties Retail Group. It has 1,267,241 square feet of gross leasable area on one level. Christiana Mall is the largest shopping mall in the state of Delaware and the largest in the five states without sales tax outside of Oregon. The Christiana Mall is located nearly 40 miles from Center City, Philadelphia. Due to the lack of sales tax in Delaware, the mall attracts numerous shoppers from neighboring states.Eagles–Steelers rivalry
The Eagles–Steelers rivalry is a National Football League (NFL) rivalry between the Philadelphia Eagles and the Pittsburgh Steelers. Unofficially nicknamed "The Battle of Pennsylvania", this is an in-state, interconference rivalry between the two NFL teams located in the state of Pennsylvania. The Eagles lead the all-time series 48–28–3.
The rivalry is one of the oldest in the NFL, dating back to 1933. The most recent meetings between the teams was in 2016 at Lincoln Financial Field, with the Eagles beating the Steelers 34–3. The rivalry is one of two the Steelers have with the NFC East, the other being with the Dallas Cowboys; by contrast, the Steelers have friendly relations with the New York Giants and the Washington Redskins due to the Rooney family having intermarried with the Mara family and the team having once had scrimmages with the Redskins at each other's training camps, back when the Redskins held training camp in Carlisle, Pennsylvania.
Much like other rivalries between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, the rivalry is mostly fueled by the two cities being within Pennsylvania and their sociocultural differences, with Philadelphia and the neighboring Lehigh Valley being part of the Northeast megalopolis while Pittsburgh and Western Pennsylvania in general being part of the Rust Belt and Appalachia. Central Pennsylvania, coined by residents as Pennsyltucky, is considered battleground territory between the two teams.Eastern seaboard
An Eastern seaboard can mean any easternmost part of a continent, or its countries, states and cities.
Eastern seaboard may also refer to:
Eastern states of Australia
East Coast of the United States
Eastern seaboard of Thailand
Northeast megalopolis, often coterminous with "Eastern seaboard", the most heavily urbanized region of the United StatesGreater Richmond Region
The Greater Richmond Region, the Richmond metropolitan area or Central Virginia, is a region and metropolitan area in the U.S. state of Virginia, centered on Richmond. The U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines the area as the Richmond, VA Metropolitan Statistical Area, a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) used by the U.S. Census Bureau and other entities. The OMB defines the area as comprising thirteen counties, including the principal cities of Richmond, Petersburg, Hopewell, and Colonial Heights. As of 2016, it had a population of 1,263,617, making it the 45th largest MSA in the country.The Greater Richmond Region is located in the central part of Virginia. It straddles the Fall Line, where the coastal plain and the Piedmont come together on the James River at Richmond and the Appomattox River at Petersburg. The English established each as colonial ports in the 17th century. The Greater Richmond Metro region is considered to be the southern extension of the Northeast megalopolis.Jean Gottmann
(Ivan) Jean Gottmann (10 October 1915, in Kharkov – 28 February 1994, in Oxford) was a French geographer who was best known for his seminal study on the urban region of the Northeast megalopolis. His main contributions to human geography were in the sub-fields of urban, political, economic, historical and regional geography. His regional specializations ranged from France and the Mediterranean to the United States, Israel, and Japan.List of bridges, tunnels, and cuts in Hudson County, New Jersey
This is a list of vehicular and rail bridges, tunnels, and cuts in Hudson County, New Jersey. Located in the northeastern part of New Jersey Hudson lies at the heart of the Port of New York and New Jersey and is a major crossroads of the New York Metropolitan area and Northeast Megalopolis. Located on two peninsulas, formerly known as Bergen Neck and New Barbadoes Neck, it has extensive waterfront along the Hudson River, Upper New York Bay, Kill van Kull, Newark Bay and the Hackensack and Passaic Rivers. The main part of Hudson lies on Bergen Hill, the southern emergence of the Hudson Palisades, starting at sea level at Bergen Point and rising to 260 feet travelling through Bayonne, Jersey City and North Hudson. Secaucus and most of West Hudson are part of the New Jersey Meadowlands. Listings are generally from south to north.List of highest-income counties in the United States
There are 3,144 counties and county-equivalents in the United States. The source of the data is the U.S. Census Bureau and the data is current as of the indicated year. Independent cities are considered county-equivalent by the Census Bureau.Manchester, New Hampshire
Manchester is a city in the southern part of the U.S. state of New Hampshire. It is the most populous city in northern New England, an area comprising the states of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. As of the 2010 census the city had a population of 109,565, up slightly to 111,196 in a 2017 estimate. The combined Manchester-Nashua Metropolitan Area had a 2010 population of 400,721.Manchester is, along with Nashua, one of two seats of Hillsborough County, the state's most populous. Manchester lies near the northern end of the Northeast megalopolis and straddles the banks of the Merrimack River. It was first named by the merchant and inventor Samuel Blodgett, namesake of Samuel Blodget Park and Blodget Street in the city's North End. His vision was to create a great industrial center similar to that of the original Manchester in England, which was the world's first industrialized city.Manchester often appears favorably in lists ranking the affordability and livability of U.S. cities, placing particularly high in small business climate, affordability, upward mobility, and education level.Megalopolis
A megalopolis (sometimes called a megapolis; also megaregion, or supercity) is typically defined as a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas, which may be somewhat separated or may merge into a continuous urban region.Megapolis Festival
The Megapolis Audio Festival (aka MEGAPOLIS) is a weekend-long event dedicated to the art of sound and to do-it-yourself (DIY) culture. The festival serves as a forum for artists, documentarians, musicians, and fans to come together to share secrets on producing and presenting challenging audio works online, on-air, and on the stage. Traveling to a new city each year to connect artists from around the world with local artists and arts organizations, MEGAPOLIS remains an affordable event where people of all ages can educate and inspire each other to hear the world differently.
MEGAPOLIS was founded in 2008 by Justin Grotelueschen (Managing Director) and Nick van der Kolk (of Love and Radio) and is administered by a new team of organizers each year.
The name Megapolis is a variation of megalopolis, referring originally to the Northeast megalopolis of the United States and to the cultural influence of an urban environment on the soundscape.Mid-Atlantic (United States)
The Mid-Atlantic, also called Middle Atlantic states or the Mid-Atlantic states, form a region of the United States generally located between New England and the South Atlantic States. Its exact definition differs upon source, but the region usually includes New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Washington, D.C., Virginia, and West Virginia. When discussing climate, Connecticut is sometimes included in the region, since its climate is closer to the Middle Atlantic than the New England states. The Mid-Atlantic has played an important role in the development of American culture, commerce, trade, and industry.In the late 19th century, it was called "the typically American" region by Frederick Jackson Turner. Religious pluralism and ethnic diversity have been important elements of Mid-Atlantic society from its settlement by Dutch, Swedes, English Catholics, and Quakers through to the period of British rule, and beyond to the current day. After the American Revolution, the Mid-Atlantic region hosted each of the historic capitals of the United States, including the current federal capital, Washington, D.C.
In the early part of the 19th century, New York and Pennsylvania overtook Virginia as the most populous states and the New England states as the country's most important trading and industrial centers. Large numbers of German, Irish, Italian, Jewish, Polish, and other immigrants transformed the region, especially coastal cities such as New York City, Newark, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C., but also interior cities such as Pittsburgh, Rochester, Albany, and Buffalo.
New York City, with its skyscrapers, subways, and headquarters of the United Nations, emerged in the 20th century as an icon of modernity and American economic and cultural power. By the 21st century, the coastal areas of the Mid-Atlantic were thoroughly urbanized.
The Northeast Corridor and Interstate 95 link an almost contiguous sprawl of suburbs and large and small cities, forming the Mid-Atlantic portion of the Northeast megalopolis, one of the world's most important concentrations of finance, media, communications, education, medicine, and technology.
The Mid-Atlantic is a relatively affluent region of the nation, having 43 of the 100 highest-income counties in the nation based on median household income and 33 of the top 100 based on per capita income. Most of the Mid-Atlantic states rank among the 15 highest-income states in the nation by median household income and per capita income.
The Mid-Atlantic is home to some of the most prestigious universities in the nation and world including Columbia University and Princeton University, which rank among the top 3 universities in the United States and top 10 universities in the world.Northeastern Connecticut
Northeastern Connecticut, also known as the Quiet Corner, is a region of the state of Connecticut, located in the northeastern corner of the state. It is generally associated with Windham County, but also incorporates eastern sections of Tolland County and the northern portion of New London County. The most frequently cited boundary is the semi-rural town of Coventry, which is more rustic than the more suburban towns to the west.Northeastern United States (disambiguation)
Northeastern United States, Northeast United States or Northeast region within the United States may refer to:
Northeastern United States, one of four U.S. Census Bureau regions
Northeast megalopolis, the heavily urbanized area of the U.S. stretching from Boston to Washington
Northeast Region, an administrative division of the U.S. National Park Service
Northeast Region (Boy Scouts of America)Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia County is the most populous county in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. As of 2017, Philadelphia County was home to an estimated population of 1,580,863 residents. The county is the second smallest county in Pennsylvania by land area. Philadelphia County is one of the three original counties, along with Chester and Bucks counties, created by William Penn during November 1682. Since 1854, the county has been coterminous with the City of Philadelphia, which also serves as its seat of government. Philadelphia County is part of the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD (Combined Statistical Area, known as the Delaware Valley), located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis. Philadelphia County is the economic and cultural anchor of the Delaware Valley, the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States, with a population of 7.2 million.Quebec City–Windsor Corridor
The Quebec City–Windsor Corridor (French: Corridor Québec-Windsor) is the most densely populated and heavily industrialized region of Canada. As its name suggests, the region extends between Quebec City in the northeast and Windsor, Ontario in the southwest, spanning 1,150 kilometres (710 mi). With more than 18 million people, it contains about half of the country's population, three of Canada's five largest metropolitan areas and eight of Canada's twelve largest metropolitan areas, all based on the 2016 census. In its relative importance to Canada's economic and political infrastructure, it has many similarities to the Northeast megalopolis in the United States. The name was first popularized by Via Rail, which runs frequent passenger rail service in the region in its service area known as "The Corridor".The Sprawl
In William Gibson's fiction, the Sprawl is a colloquial name for the Boston-Atlanta Metropolitan Axis (BAMA), an urban sprawl environment on a massive scale, and a fictional extension of the real Northeast megalopolis.
Large parts of the novels Neuromancer (1984), Count Zero (1986), and Mona Lisa Overdrive (1988) (collectively known as the Sprawl trilogy) take place in this environment, as do the short stories "Johnny Mnemonic," "New Rose Hotel," and "Burning Chrome."Washington metropolitan area
The Washington metropolitan area is the metropolitan area centered on Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. The area includes all of the federal district and parts of the U.S. states of Maryland and Virginia, along with a small portion of West Virginia. While not a part of the Washington metropolitan area, St. Mary's County is part of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area.
The Washington metropolitan area is one of the most educated and most affluent metropolitan areas in the US. The metro area anchors the southern end of the densely populated Northeast megalopolis with an estimated total population of 6,216,589 as of the 2017 U.S. Census Bureau estimate, making it the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the nation and the largest metropolitan area in the Census Bureau's South Atlantic division.
|Major metropolitan areas|