The Northeast China Plain (simplified Chinese: 东北平原; traditional Chinese: 東北平原; pinyin: Dōngběi Píngyuán), also known as the Manchurian Plain, is located in Northeast China. It lies between the Greater and Lesser Khingan and Changbai mountains. Covering 350,000 km2, it is China's largest plain, with an elevation of lower than 200 meters. The Songhua, Nen, and Liao rivers run through its vast and fertile land. The Manchurian plain of Asia is the other name of Amur valley.
This plain includes Songnan Plain in north, Liaohe Plain in the south and Shanjiang Plain in the northeast.
It is suitable for mechanized farming, and huge areas are planted with wheat, corn, soybeans, rice, sugar beets, sunflowers. There are very few trees on this landscape that have not been planted, typically poplars in long rows along roads, or on either side of the train tracks. Also, there are not many fences on the landscape, no long running fences, though there are many wooden or stone fences adjacent to the houses. There are also much wetland, vast marshes, and many areas that are subject to flooding.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north. The region consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of".Central Asia (2019) has a population of about 72 million, consisting of five republics: Kazakhstan (pop. 18 million), Kyrgyzstan (6 million), Tajikistan (9 million), Turkmenistan (6 million), and Uzbekistan (33 million). Afghanistan (pop. 35 million), which is a part of South Asia, is also sometimes included in Central Asia.Central Asia has historically been closely tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road. It has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Europe, Western Asia, South Asia, and East Asia. The Silk Road connected Muslim lands with the people of Europe, India, and China. This crossroads position has intensified the conflict between tribalism and traditionalism and modernization.In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, Central Asia was predominantly Iranian, populated by Eastern Iranian-speaking Bactrians, Sogdians, Chorasmians and the semi-nomadic Scythians and Dahae. After expansion by Turkic peoples, Central Asia also became the homeland for the Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Tatars, Turkmen, Kyrgyz, and Uyghurs; Turkic languages largely replaced the Iranian languages spoken in the area.
From the mid-19th century until almost the end of the 20th century, most of Central Asia was part of the Russian Empire and later the Soviet Union, both Slavic-majority countries, and the five former Soviet "-stans" are still home to about 7 million ethnic Russians and 500,000 Ukrainians.Changchun
Changchun (simplified Chinese: 长春; traditional Chinese: 長春; pinyin: Chángchūn) is the capital and largest city of Jilin Province. Lying in the center of the Songliao Plain, Changchun is administered as a sub-provincial city, comprising 7 districts, 1 county and 2 county-level cities. According to the 2010 census of China, Changchun had a total population of 7,674,439 under its jurisdiction. The city's metro area, comprising 5 districts and 4 development areas, had a population of 3,815,270 in 2010, as the Shuangyang and Jiutai districts are not urbanized yet. It is one of the biggest cities in Northeast China, along with Shenyang, Dalian and Harbin.
The name of the city means "long spring" in Chinese. Between 1932 and 1945, Changchun was renamed Hsinking (Chinese: 新京; pinyin: Xīnjīng; literally: 'new capital') by the Japanese as it became the capital of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo, occupying modern Northeast China. After the foundation of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Changchun was established as the provincial capital of Jilin in 1954.
Known locally as China's "City of Automobiles", Changchun is an important industrial base with a particular focus on the automotive sector. Because of its key role in the domestic automobile industry, Changchun was sometimes referred to as the "Detroit of China." Apart from this industrial aspect, Changchun is also one of four "National Garden Cities" awarded by the Ministry of Construction of P.R. China in 2001 due to its high urban greening rate.Daqing
Daqing (Chinese: 大庆; pinyin: Dàqìng; formerly romanized as Taching) is a prefecture-level city in the west of Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China. The name literally means "Great Celebration". Daqing is known as the Oil Capital of China and has experienced a phenomenal boom since oil was discovered at the Daqing Oil Field in 1959.Its population was 2,963,458 at the 2010 Census, of whom 1,415,268 lived in the built-up area in four out of the total of five urban districts: Sartu, Longfeng, Ranghulu and Honggang.Geography of China
China has great physical diversity. The eastern plains and southern coasts of the country consist of fertile lowlands and foothills. They are the location of most of China's agricultural output and human population. The southern areas of the country (South of the Yangtze River) consist of hilly and mountainous terrain. The west and north of the country are dominated by sunken basins (such as the Gobi and the Taklamakan), rolling plateaus, and towering massifs. It contains part of the highest tableland on earth, the Tibetan Plateau, and has much lower agricultural potential and population.
Traditionally, the Chinese population centered on the Chinese central plain and oriented itself toward its own enormous inland market, developing as an imperial power whose center lay in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River on the northern plains. More recently, the 18,000 km (11,000 mi) coastline has been used extensively for export-oriented trade, causing the coastal provinces to become the leading economic center.
The People's Republic of China has an area of about 9,600,000 km2 (3,700,000 sq mi). The exact land area is sometimes challenged by border disputes, most notably about Taiwan, Aksai Chin, the Trans-Karakoram Tract, and South Tibet. The area of the People's Republic of China is 9,596,960 km2 (3,705,410 sq mi) according to the CIA's The World Factbook. The People's Republic of China is either the third or fourth largest country in the world, being either slightly larger or slightly smaller than the United States depending on how the area of the United States is measured. Both countries are smaller than Russia and Canada and larger than Brazil.Greater Khingan
The Greater Khingan Range (simplified Chinese: 大兴安岭; traditional Chinese: 大興安嶺; pinyin: Dà Xīng'ān Lǐng; IPA: [tâ ɕíŋ.án.lìŋ]; Mongolian: Их Хянганы нуруу, Ih Hyangani’ nurū; Manchu: Amba Hinggan), is a volcanic mountain range in the Inner Mongolia region of Northeast China. The range extends roughly 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) from northeast to southwest.Liao River
The Liao River (simplified Chinese: 辽河; traditional Chinese: 遼河; pinyin: Liáo Hé) is the principal river in southern Northeast China, and one of the seven main river systems in mainland China. The province of Liaoning and the Liaodong Peninsula derive their names from this river. The river is also popularly known as the "mother river" in Northeast China. Coursing 1,345 kilometres (836 mi) long, the Liao River system drains a catchment basin of over 232,000 square kilometres (90,000 sq mi), but its mean discharge is quite small at only about 500 cubic metres per second (18,000 cu ft/s), about one-twentieth that of the Pearl River. The Liao River has an exceedingly high sediment load because many parts of it flow through powdery loess.
The Liao River is also an important geographical landmark, as it divides the province of Liaoning into two broad regions — Liaodong ("east of Liao River") and Liaoxi ("west of Liao River").List of ecoregions in China
The following is a list of terrestrial ecoregions of the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China, according to the World Wide Fund for Nature.
The transition between two of the planet's eight ecozones – the Palearctic, which includes temperate and boreal Eurasia, and Indomalaya, which includes tropical South and Southeast Asia – extends through southern China.List of terrestrial ecoregions (WWF)
This is a list of terrestrial ecoregions as compiled by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). The WWF identifies terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecoregions.
The terrestrial scheme divides the Earth's land surface into 8 terrestrial ecozones, containing 867 smaller ecoregions. Each ecoregion is classified into one of 14 major habitat types, or biomes.
Additional ecoregions for Antarctic Realm are currently being incorporated (based on Terauds et al. 2012).
Antarctic Realm - Tundra Biome:
1 North-east Antarctic Peninsula;
2 South Orkney Islands;
3 North-west Antarctic Peninsula;
4 Central south Antarctic Peninsula;
5 Enderby Land;
6 Dronning Maud Land;
7 East Antarctica;
8 North Victoria Land;
9 South Victoria Land;
10 Transantarctic Mountains;
11 Ellsworth Mountains;
12 Marie Byrd Land;
13 Adelie Land;
14 Ellsworth Land;
15 South Antarctic Peninsula.
Terauds, A, SL Chown, F Morgan, HJ Peat, DJ Watts, H Keys, P Convey, DM Bergstrom. 2012. Conservation biogeography of the Antarctic. Diversity and Distributions 1–16. DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2012.00925.xMongolian-Manchurian grassland
The Mongolian-Manchurian grassland ecoregion, also known as the Mongolian-Manchurian steppe, in the temperate grassland Biome, is found in Mongolia, the Chinese Autonomous region of Inner Mongolia and northeastern China.North China sika deer
The North China sika deer or Mandarin sika deer (Cervus nippon mandarinus) is one of the many subspecies of sika deer. It is a large subspecies with some of the most prominent spots of all subspecies, which is permanent throughout the year. It previously inhabited lowland forests of North China Plain and Northeast China Plain. Because of intensive habitat alterations the subspecies was endangered centuries ago, surviving only in remote areas of northeastern China and the Qing Imperial Hunting Grounds. Though no surveys have been conducted on the subspecies' status, there have been no sightings for many decades and it is reasonable to presume that it is extinct in the wild. Although it is fairly common in zoos and purebred North China sika deer is a valuable breed in the Asian antler farming industry, the lack of suitable habitats and government efforts makes reintroduction impossible.Northeast China
Northeast China (Chinese: 中国东北) or Dongbei is a geographical region of China. It also historically corresponds with the term Inner Manchuria in the English language. The name Manchuria was first invented in the 17th century by Japanese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia. However, no term for "Manchuria" exists in the Manchu language, which originally referred to the area as the "Three Eastern Provinces"; mnc. ᡩᡝᡵᡤᡳᡳᠯᠠᠨᡤᠣᠯᠣ, Dergi ilan golo; zh. 東三省 / 东三省, Dōng Sānshěng).It consists specifically of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang, collectively referred as the Three Northeastern Provinces (东北三省), but broadly also encompasses the eastern part of Inner Mongolia. The region is separated from Far Eastern Russia to the north largely by the Amur, Argun, and Ussuri rivers, from North Korea to the south by the Yalu River and Tumen River, and from the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region to the west by the Greater Khingan Range. The heartland of the region is the Northeast China Plain.
Due to the shrinking of its once-powerful industrial sector and decline of its economic growth, the region is called the Rust Belt in China.
As the result, a campaign named Northeast Area Revitalization Plan has been launched by the State Council of the People's Republic of China, in which five prefecture-level cities of eastern Inner Mongolia, namely Xilin Gol, Chifeng, Tongliao, Hinggan, and Hulunbuir, are also formally defined as regions of the Northeast. The region is nearly congruent with some definitions of "Manchuria" in historical foreign usage.Another term for the area is Guandong (关东), meaning "east of the Pass", referring to the famous Shanhai Pass between Liaoning Province and the neighboring Hebei Province (and also North China) to the west. This name was also used by the occupying Japanese colonists referring to their leased territory of Dalian after the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki, as the Kwantung Chou (関東州), which gave name to the occupying Kwantung Army that was later mobilized to set up the puppet state of Manchukuo.Palearctic realm
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight biogeographic realms on the Earth's surface, first identified in the 19th century, and still in use today as the basis for zoogeographic classification. The Palearctic is the largest of the eight realms. It stretches across all of Europe, Asia north of the foothills of the Himalayas, North Africa, and the northern and central parts of the Arabian Peninsula.
The realm consists of several ecoregions: the Euro-Siberian region; the Mediterranean Basin; the Sahara and Arabian Deserts; and Western, Central and East Asia. The Palaearctic realm also has numerous rivers and lakes, forming several freshwater ecoregions. Some of the rivers were the source of water for the earliest recorded civilizations that used irrigation methods.Songhua River
The Songhua River (also Haixi or Xingal, formerly Sunggari) is one of the primary rivers of China, and the largest tributary of the Amur River. It flows about 1,434 kilometres (891 mi) from the Changbai Mountains on the China–North Korea border through China's northeastern Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces. The river drains 557,180 square kilometres (215,130 sq mi) of land, and has an annual discharge of 2,463 cubic metres per second (87,000 cu ft/s).The extreme flatness of the Northeast China Plain has caused the river to meander widely over time. The result of the meandering is that the river is surrounded by a wide plain that is filled with swirls and curves, showing paths the river once took.Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial habitat type defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, and with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions.These forests are richest and most distinctive in central China and eastern North America, with some other globally distinctive ecoregions in the Caucasus, the Himalayas, southern Europe, and the Russian Far East.
Plains of China
|Northeast China Plain|
|North China Plain|
|Middle and Lower Reaches Plain of Yangtze River|
|Coastal Plains in Southeast China|
|Upper and Middle Reaches Plains of Yellow River|