Northeast China

Northeast China (Chinese: 中国东北) or Dongbei is a geographical region of China. It also historically corresponds with the term Inner Manchuria[note 1] in the English language. The name Manchuria was first invented in the 17th century by Japanese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia. However, no term for "Manchuria" exists in the Manchu language,[1] which originally referred to the area as the "Three Eastern Provinces"; mnc. ᡩᡝᡵᡤᡳ
ᡳᠯᠠᠨ
ᡤᠣᠯᠣ
, Dergi ilan golo; zh. 東三省 / 东三省, Dōng Sānshěng).[2]

It consists specifically of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang, collectively referred as the Three Northeastern Provinces (东北三省), but broadly also encompasses the eastern part of Inner Mongolia.[note 2] The region is separated from Far Eastern Russia to the north largely by the Amur, Argun, and Ussuri rivers, from North Korea to the south by the Yalu River and Tumen River, and from the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region to the west by the Greater Khingan Range. The heartland of the region is the Northeast China Plain.

Due to the shrinking of its once-powerful industrial sector and decline of its economic growth, the region is called the Rust Belt in China.[3] As the result, a campaign named Northeast Area Revitalization Plan has been launched by the State Council of the People's Republic of China, in which five prefecture-level cities of eastern Inner Mongolia, namely Xilin Gol, Chifeng, Tongliao, Hinggan, and Hulunbuir, are also formally defined as regions of the Northeast.[4] The region is nearly congruent with some definitions of "Manchuria" in historical foreign usage.[note 3]

Another term for the area is Guandong (关东), meaning "east of the Pass", referring to the famous Shanhai Pass between Liaoning Province and the neighboring Hebei Province (and also North China) to the west. This name was also used by the occupying Japanese colonists referring to their leased territory of Dalian after the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki, as the Kwantung Chou (関東州), which gave name to the occupying Kwantung Army that was later mobilized to set up the puppet state of Manchukuo.

Northeast China
Northeast China
Northeast China (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning)
Portions of Inner Mongolia included in light red
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese中国东北
Traditional Chinese中國東北
Literal meaningChina Northeast
Alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese东北三省
Traditional Chinese東北三省
Literal meaningThree Northeastern Provinces
Manchuria
Simplified Chinese满洲
Traditional Chinese滿洲
Guandong
Simplified Chinese关东
Traditional Chinese關東
Literal meaningpass east
Manchu name
Manchu scriptᡩᡝᡵᡤᡳ ᡳᠯᠠᠨ ᡤᠣᠯᠣ
RomanizationDergi ilan golo

Administrative divisions

GB[5] ISO №[6] Province Chinese Name Capital Population Density Area (km2) Abbreviation/Symbol
LN 21 Liaoning Province 辽宁省
Liáoníng Shěng
Shenyang 43,746,323 299.83 145,900
Liáo
JL 22 Jilin Province 吉林省
Jílín Shěng
Changchun 27,462,297 146.54 187,400
HL 23 Heilongjiang Province 黑龙江省
Hēilóngjiāng Shěng
Harbin 38,312,224 84.38 454,000
Hēi

Cities with urban area over one million in population

Provincial capitals in bold.
# City Urban area[7] District area[7] City proper[7] Prov. Census date
1 Shenyang 5,718,232 6,255,921 8,106,171 LN 2010-11-01
2 Harbin 4,933,054 5,878,939 10,635,971 HL 2010-11-01
3 Dalian 3,902,467 4,087,733 6,690,432 LN 2010-11-01
4 Changchun 3,411,209 4,193,073 7,674,439 JL 2010-11-01
5 Anshan 1,504,996 1,544,084 3,645,884 LN 2010-11-01
6 Jilin 1,469,722 1,975,121 4,413,157 JL 2010-11-01
7 Daqing 1,433,698 1,649,825 2,904,532 HL 2010-11-01
8 Fushun 1,318,808 1,431,014 2,138,090 LN 2010-11-01
9 Qiqihar 1,314,720 1,553,788 5,367,003 HL 2010-11-01
10 Benxi 1,000,128 1,094,294 1,709,538 LN 2010-11-01

History

Northeast China was the homeland of several ethnic groups, including the Koreans, Manchus (or Jurchens), Ulchs, Hezhen (also known as the Goldi and Nanai). Various ethnic groups and their respective kingdoms, including the Sushen, Xianbei, and Mohe have risen to power in the Northeast. Various states and dynasties such as the State of Yan, Han Dynasty, Gongsun Yuan, Cao Wei, Western Jin, Former Yan, Former Qin, Later Yan, Tang Dynasty, Yuan dynasty, Ming dynasty and Qing dynasty ruled parts of the region.

Many Korean kingdoms have also incorporated parts of modern-day Northeast China, including Gojoseon, Buyeo, Goguryeo, and Balhae. During the Song dynasty, the Khitan set up the Liao Dynasty in Northeast China. Later, the Jurchen overthrew the Liao and formed the Jin dynasty, which went on to conquer northern China. In AD 1234, the Jin dynasty fell to the Mongols, whose Yuan Dynasty was later replaced by the Ming Dynasty in 1368. In 1644, the Han Bannermen established the Qing dynasty (1644–1912) and unified the entirety of China.

Northeast China came under influence of the Russian Empire with the building of the Chinese Eastern Railway through Harbin to Vladivostok. The Empire of Japan replaced Russian influence in the region as a result of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904–1905, and Japan laid the South Manchurian Railway in 1906 to Port Arthur. During the Warlord Era in China, Zhang Zuolin established himself in Northeast China, but was murdered by the Japanese for being too independent. The last Qing dynasty emperor, Puyi, was then placed on the throne to lead a Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. After the atomic bombing of Japan in 1945, the Soviet Union invaded the region as part of its declaration of war against Japan. From 1945 to 1948, Northeast China was a base area for the Communist People's Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War. With the encouragement of the Soviet Union, the area was used as a staging ground during the Civil War for the Chinese Communists, who were victorious in 1949 and have been controlling this region since.

Demographics

Northeast China has a total population of about 107,400,000 people, accounting for 8% of China’s total population. The overwhelming majority of the population in the Northeast is Han Chinese, many of whose ancestors came in the 19th and 20th centuries during a migration movement called "Chuang Guandong" (Chinese: 闖關東; literally: 'venture into the east of the Pass'). Northeast China historically had a significant Han Chinese population, reaching over 3 million by the end of Ming Dynasty, but they were subjected to eviction and assimilation by the conquest of the Qing Dynasty, who then set up Willow Palisades during the reign of Shunzhi Emperor and prohibited any settlement of Han Chinese into the region. Despite officially prohibiting Han Chinese settlement, by the 18th century the Qing decided to settle Han into the Northeast so that Han Chinese farmed 500,000 hectares in the region by the 1780s.[8][9][10][11][12] Besides moving into the Liao area in southern Manchuria, the path linking Jinzhou, Fengtian, Tieling, Changchun, Hulun, and Ningguta was settled by Han Chinese during the Qianlong Emperor's reign, and Han Chinese were the majority in urban areas of Manchuria by 1800.[13][14] This resulted in the local Han Chinese population growing to over 20 million before the Second Sino-Japanese War. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China at the end of the Chinese Civil War, further immigrations were organized by the Central Government to "develop the Great Northern Wilderness" (开发北大荒), eventually peaking the population over 100 million people.

Because most people in Northeast China trace their ancestries back to the migrants from the Chuang Guandong era, Northeastern Chinese were more culturally uniform compared to other geographical regions of China. People from the Northeast would first identify themselves as "Northeasterners" (东北人) before affiliating to individual provinces and cities/towns.

Ethnic Manchus form the second significant ethnic group in Northeast China, followed by the Mongols, Koreans, and the Huis, as well as 49 other ethnic minorities such as Daurs, Sibos, Hezhens, Oroqens, Evenks, Kyrgyz, etc.

Religion

Taoism and Chinese Buddhism were never well established in this region - instead Chinese folk religions led by local shamans predominate. The region has also a strong presence of folk religions and Confucian churches.

Economy

The Northeast was one of the earliest regions to industrialize in China during the era of Manchukuo. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, Northeast China continued to be a major industrial base of the country, and has been hailed as "the Republic's eldest son" (共和国长子). Recent years, however, have seen the stagnation of Northeast China's heavy-industry-based economy, as China's economy continues to liberalize and privatize; the government has initialized the Revitalize the Northeast campaign to counter this problem, and established the Northeast Summit to improve policy coordination and integration. The region has experienced difficulty distancing itself from a planned economy, a legacy that began in 1905 with the establishment of the Japanese sphere of influence there. The region's once-abundant raw materials have also depleted and the economy has suffered from bureaucratic inefficiency and protectionist politics.[15]

The region is, on the whole, more heavily urbanised than most parts of China, largely because it was the first part of the country to develop heavy industry owing to its abundant coal reserves. Major cities include Shenyang, Dalian, Harbin, Changchun and Anshan, all with several million inhabitants. Other cities include the steel making centres of Fushun and Anshan in Liaoning, Jilin City in Jilin, and Qiqihar and Mudanjiang in Heilongjiang. Harbin, more than any other city in China, possesses significant Russian influences: there are many Orthodox churches that have fallen out of use since the Cultural Revolution. Shenyang and Dalian, meanwhile, have sizable populations of Japanese and South Koreans due to their traditional linkages.

The rural population of the Northeast is heavily concentrated in the warmer southern part of the area, where very warm to hot summer weather permits crops such as maize and millet to be grown with high yields. Soybeans and flax are also very important, as are wheat and barley. The region possesses large flocks of sheep, and pigs are abundant in the more densely settled southern part. The northern half of Heilongjiang is so cold and poorly drained that agriculture is almost impossible; however, the Amur River provides very rich fishing prospects, and sheep are even more abundant than in southern Heilongjiang.

Northeast China is the country’s traditional industrial base, focusing mainly on equipment manufacturing. Major industries include the steel, automobile, shipbuilding, aircraft manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries. The gross regional product of the three northeast provinces totaled ¥1.63 trillion in 2002. In recent years, the Chinese government has initialized the "Revitalize the Northeast campaign" to turn this region into one of China's economic growth engines. As of 2015 the region was losing population and the economy, dominated by state-owned enterprises, was stagnant.[16]

Culture

Dalian Hotel 大连宾馆
Dalian Hotel at Zhongshan Square in Dalian

In general, the culture of Northeast China takes its elements from the cultures of North China and Shandong, where most of the Han Chinese migration into Northeast China, known as Chuang Guandong, originated, the native Korean and Tungusic peoples, and its own innovations.

Dialects

There are two main dialects of Mandarin Chinese spoken in Northeast China. The dialect spoken in the majority of the Northeast is the Northeastern Mandarin, which is a very slight variant of the Standard Chinese but retains sporadic elements from native Tungusic languages, Korean and Russian, where there are enough differences to give the dialect its own distinctive characteristics. However many residents in the southern fringe of the Liaodong region (mostly in Dalian and Dandong) speak the Jiaoliao Mandarin, which is actually a Shandong dialect.

Ethnic Manchus speak mostly Mandarin, and the Manchu language is almost extinct due to widespread assimilation to Han culture over the last four centuries. Mongols tend to be bilingual in their own Mongolian tongues as well as Mandarin.

Cuisine

Northeastern Chinese cuisine reflects the region's ethnic diversity. Northern Chinese, Manchu and Korean cooking styles all find their traces in Manchurian cooking. One of the distinguishing characteristics of the cuisine is the use of uncooked fresh vegetables. During the long winter season, pickled Chinese cabbage, which is called "Suan Cai", is preserved and used for cooking. In almost every other region of China, vegetables are cooked thoroughly before being eaten. Most of the meat dishes are based around Pork due to how cold it can get. Often braised pork or dumplings are the main attraction of a meal. This region's often cold climate makes it hard to grow or produce much of anything and growing seasons are correspondingly very short.

Folk dance and sports

Errenzhuan, yangge, Jilin opera and stilts are popular forms of traditional entertainment in Northeast China. "Northeastern Cradle Song" is an example of the folk songs of this region.

Because of its climatic conditions, Northeast China is the base for China's winter sports. Ice hockey and ice skating athletes often come from or were educated in Northeast China.

Major universities

Notes

  1. ^ Depending on the context, Manchuria can also refer to a larger region that also includes Outer Manchuria.
  2. ^ According to the Republic of China (1912–49)'s administrative divisions, the Northeast (including parts of Inner Mongolia) is divided into nine provinces and the region was historically called the Nine Northeastern Provinces (traditional Chinese: 東北九省; simplified Chinese: 东北九省; pinyin: Dōngběi Jiǔshěng).
  3. ^ It is also sometimes referred to as Inner Manchuria in contrast with Outer Manchuria, provinces lost to the Russian Empire during the Qing dynasty.

References

  1. ^ [1]Giles 1912, p. 8.
  2. ^ Clausen 1995, p. 7.
  3. ^ The nine nations of China: Rust Belt, Atlantic
  4. ^ "Northeast Revitalization Plan (2007)". State Council of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
  5. ^ GB/T 2260 codes for the provinces of China
  6. ^ ISO 3166-2:CN (ISO 3166-2 codes for the provinces of China)
  7. ^ a b c 国务院人口普查办公室; 国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司, eds. (2012). 中国2010年人口普查分县资料. Beijing: China Statistics Press. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.
  8. ^ Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 504.
  9. ^ Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 505.
  10. ^ Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 506.
  11. ^ Scharping 1998, p. 18.
  12. ^ Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 507.
  13. ^ Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 508.
  14. ^ Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 509.
  15. ^ Chan, Elaine (6/5/2019). "China's Northeastern rust belt was once 'eldest son', now struggling as runt of the litter". China Economy. South China Morning Post. Retrieved 6/5/2019. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (help)
  16. ^ Li Yongfeng (24 September 2015). "Central Planning Got the Northeast in Trouble – and Won't Save It". Caixin. Retrieved 24 September 2015.

Bibliography

  • Thomas R. Gottschang and Diana Lary: Swallows and Settlers - The Great Migration from North China to Manchuria, Centre for Chinese Studies, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 2000. ISBN 0-89264-134-7.
  • Michael Meyer: In Manchuria: A Village Called Wasteland and the Transformation of Rural China, Bloomsbury Press, 2015, ISBN 978-1620402863
  • Lenore Lamont Zissermann: Mitya's Harbin; Majesty and Menace, Book Publishers Network, 2016. ISBN 978-1-940598-75-8.

External links

Autumn Offensive of 1947 in Northeast China

The Autumn Offensive of 1947 in Northeast China was a series of battles initiated by the communists against the nationalists during the Chinese Civil War after World War II.

Campaign to Suppress Bandits in Northeast China

The Campaign to Suppress Bandits in Northeast China (东北剿匪) was a counterinsurgency operation waged by the Communist Party of China against bandits and guerrillas affiliated with the Kuomintang near the end of the Chinese Civil War.

Inner Asia

Inner Asia refers to regions within East Asia and North Asia that are today part of Western China, Mongolia and eastern Russia. It overlaps with some definitions of Central Asia, mostly the historical ones, but certain regions of Inner Asia (such as Northeast China) are not considered a part of Central Asia by any of its definitions. Inner Asia may be considered as the "frontier" of China, and as bounded by East Asia, which consists of China, Japan, and Korea.The extent of Inner Asia was seen differently in different periods. "Inner Asia" is sometimes contrasted to "China Proper", that is, the original provinces, those with majority Han Chinese populations. In 1800 it consisted of four main areas, namely Manchuria (modern Northeast China and Outer Manchuria), Mongolia (Inner and Outer), Xinjiang and Tibet. These areas had been recently conquered by the Qing dynasty but were governed through different administrative structure not as regular provinces during most of the Qing period. The Qing government agency known as the Lifan Yuan was established to supervise the empire's Inner Asian regions.

Japanese invasion of Manchuria

The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident. After the war, the Japanese established the puppet state of Manchukuo. Their occupation lasted until the Soviet Union and Mongolia launched the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation in 1945.

The South Manchuria railway zone and the Korean Peninsula were already under the control of the Japanese empire since the Russo-Japanese War of 1904. Japan's ongoing industrialization and militarization ensured their growing dependence on oil and metal imports from the US. The American sanctions which prevented trade with the United States (which had occupied the Philippines around the same time) resulted in Japan furthering their expansion in the territory of China and Southeast Asia.

Jilin

Jilin (吉林; formerly romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces of Northeast China. Its capital and largest city is Changchun. Jilin borders North Korea (Rasŏn, North Hamgyong, Ryanggang and Chagang) and Russia (Primorsky Krai) to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, and Inner Mongolia to the west. The name "Jilin" translates to "Auspicious Forest" in Chinese, and originates from girin ula, a Manchu phrase meaning "along the river".

The Manchu people once inhabited the area of Jilin, thus making Jilin part of the historical region of Manchuria. The area had been heavily contested, successively falling under the rule of the non-Han states of Xiongnu, Xianbei state, Khitan Liao Dynasty, the Jurchen Jin Dynasty, and the Mongol Yuan dynasty. With the adoption of Han culture and the Chinese languages by the Manchu people, the Manchu language is considered a critically endangered language. Koreans comprise about 4% of the population, owing to its proximity to the Korean Peninsula. The majority of the province speaks Mandarin.

Along with the rest of Northeast China, Jilin underwent an early period of industrialization. However, Jilin's economy, characterized by heavy industry, has been facing economic difficulties with privatization. This prompted the central government to undertake a campaign called "Revitalize the Northeast". The region contains large deposits of oil shale.

Jilin University

Jilin University (JLU; simplified Chinese: 吉林大学; traditional Chinese: 吉林大學; pinyin: Jílín Dàxué; often abbreviated JLU or 吉大) located in Changchun, founded in 1946, is a leading national research university under the direct jurisdiction of China's Ministry of Education. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University.

It is strongly supported by state key projects such as Project 985, Project 211 and Project 2011. Jilin University is consistently ranked as one of the most prestigious universities in China, and has research projects in automobile engineering, chemistry, computer science, electrical engineering and biology be identified as internationally renowned. In 2017, the university is supported to achieve "world-class" academic status under the Double First Class University Plan by China.

JLU's alumni include the Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China Liu Yandong, and 2010 Nobel Peace Prize winner Liu Xiaobo.

Koreans in China

The population of Koreans in China include millions of descendants of Korean immigrants with citizenship of the People's Republic of China, as well as smaller groups of South and North Korean expatriates, with a total of roughly 2.3 million people as of 2009, making it the largest ethnic Korean population living outside the Korean Peninsula.

Chaoxianzu (Chinese: 朝鲜族), Joseonjok or Chosŏnjok (Korean: 조선족) form one of the 56 ethnicities officially recognized by the Chinese government. Their total population was estimated at 1,923,842 as of 2005 and 1,830,929 according to the 2010 Chinese census. High levels of emigration to South Korea, which has conversely reported a large increase in Chosŏnjok, are the likely cause of the drop. Most of them live in Northeast China, especially in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, which had 854,000 ethnic Koreans living there as of 2000.

Liaoning bronze dagger culture

The Liaoning bronze dagger culture or Lute-shaped bronze dagger culture is an archeological complex of the late Bronze Age in Korea and China. Artifacts from the culture are found primarily in the Liaoning area of northeast China and in the Korean peninsula. Various other bronze artifacts, including ornaments and weapons, are associated with the culture, but the daggers are viewed as the most characteristic. Liaoning bronzes contain a higher percentage of zinc than those of the neighboring bronze cultures.Lee Chung-kyu (1996) considers that the culture is properly divided into five phases: Phases I and II typified by violin-shaped daggers, Phases IV and V by slender daggers, and Phase III by the transition between the two. Of these, remains from Phases I, II and III can be found in some amounts in both the Korean peninsula and northeast China, but remains from Phases IV and V are found almost exclusively in Korea.

Northeast Area Revitalization Plan

Revitalize The Old Northeast Industrial Bases (simplified Chinese: 振兴东北老工业基地; traditional Chinese: 振興東北老工業基地; pinyin: Zhènxīng Dōngběi Lǎo Gōngyè Jīdì), also Revitalize Northeast China or Northeast China Revitalization, is a policy adopted by the People's Republic of China to rejuvenate industrial bases in Northeast China. The areas targeted once functioned as the center of heavy industry in China, first under Japanese-occupation and then under the state-led development of the People's Republic of China. Since the 1980s, the region has been heavily affected by the restructuring of the Chinese economy and the closing and consolidation of many heavy industry State-owned enterprises (SOEs). It covers three provinces: Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning, collectively referred to as Dongbei, as well as the five eastern prefectures of Inner Mongolia: Xilin Gol, Chifeng, Tongliao, Hinggan and Hulunbuir.Premier Wen Jiabao held a State Council meeting on 10 September 2003 regarding the issue of reviving northeast China. The meeting saw the drafting of the document "Certain Opinions Regarding Implementing the Strategies of Reviving the Old Industrial Bases Including the Northeast", which would be jointly disseminated by the Central Committee of the CCP and the State Council in October 2003.The State Council established a special Leading Group to define and adopt related strategies, which held its first meeting in August 2009 and the second in August 2010. The Chairman of the Leading Group is Premier Wen Jiabao.

Following the first meeting of the Leading Group, the revitalization strategy was affirmed and extended in a document of September 9, 2009. The State Council asked the Northeastern provinces to better coordinate their economic development strategies. As a result, the top party and government leaders of Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia met in Shenyang, capital of Liaoning for the first Northeast Summit in April 2010, and signed a framework agreement of 25 articles for cooperation and integrated regional development.

The core of the program is to revitalize the region's traditional industry, while speeding up development in aspects of structural regulation, regional cooperation, economic reform, the construction of an environment-friendly economy, and increased efforts in education, healthcare, and cultural projects.

In 2016, it was announced that 1.6 trillion RMB would be used to continue to revitalize the economy.

Cooperation with Russia, the two Koreas and Mongolia, as well as securing natural gas supplies will become important factors in this revitalisation program.

Northeast China Plain

The Northeast China Plain (simplified Chinese: 东北平原; traditional Chinese: 東北平原; pinyin: Dōngběi Píngyuán), also known as the Manchurian Plain, is located in Northeast China. It lies between the Greater and Lesser Khingan and Changbai mountains. Covering 350,000 km2, it is China's largest plain, with an elevation of lower than 200 meters. The Songhua, Nen, and Liao rivers run through its vast and fertile land. The Manchurian plain of Asia is the other name of Amur valley.

This plain includes Songnan Plain in north, Liaohe Plain in the south and Shanjiang Plain in the northeast.

It is suitable for mechanized farming, and huge areas are planted with wheat, corn, soybeans, rice, sugar beets, sunflowers. There are very few trees on this landscape that have not been planted, typically poplars in long rows along roads, or on either side of the train tracks. Also, there are not many fences on the landscape, no long running fences, though there are many wooden or stone fences adjacent to the houses. There are also much wetland, vast marshes, and many areas that are subject to flooding.

The Songliao Plain (simplified Chinese: 松辽平原; traditional Chinese: 松遼平原; pinyin: Sōngliáo Píngyuán) is the part of the Northeastern Plain, located in Manchuria, China.

Northeast China folk religion

Northeast China folk religion is the variety of Chinese folk religion of northeast China, characterised by distinctive cults original to Hebei and Shandong, transplanted and adapted by the Han Chinese settlers of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang (the three provinces comprising Manchuria) since the Qing dynasty. It is characterised by terminology, deities and practices that are different from those of central and southern Chinese folk religion. Many of these patterns derive from the interaction of Han religion with Manchu shamanism.Prominence is given to the worship of zoomorphic deities, of a "totemic" significance. In the region the terms shen 神 ("god") and xian 仙 ("immortal being") are synonymous. Figures of ritual specialists or shamans perform various ritual functions for groups of believers and local communities, including chūmǎxiān (出馬仙 "riding for the immortals"), dances, healing, exorcism, divination, and communication with ancestors.

Northeastern Mandarin

Northeastern Mandarin (simplified Chinese: 东北话; traditional Chinese: 東北話; pinyin: Dōngběihuà; literally: 'Northeast Speech' or 东北官话/東北官話 Dōngběiguānhuà "Northeast Mandarin") is the subgroup of Mandarin varieties spoken in Northeast China with the exception of the Liaodong Peninsula. The classification of Northeastern Mandarin as a separate dialect group from Beijing Mandarin was first proposed by Li Rong, author of the Language Atlas of China, in 1989. However, many researchers do not accept the distinction.

Northeastern University (China)

Northeastern University (NEU; simplified Chinese: 东北大学; traditional Chinese: 東北大學; pinyin: Dōngběi Dàxué) is a public university in Shenyang, Liaoning province with strengths in engineering and architecture. It is known for its prominent role in the information technology industry.

Having built China's first electronic analog computer, university research park, and university-run commercial enterprise, Northeastern is now part of a government plan to revitalize the Northeast China economy with a focus on high-tech manufacturing. Its alumni include the founder and CEO of Neusoft, the largest Chinese IT and software outsourcing corporation, the first Olympic athlete to represent China, in the 1932 Summer Olympics, and the founder of Amnesty International in Taiwan.

With a total enrollment of over 20,000 students, Northeastern has received significant government funding through the 211 Project and 985 Project, initiatives which sought to elevate the research standards of rising Chinese universities. In 2017, Northeastern was selected by the Chinese Ministry of Education as a Class B institution in the Double First Class University Plan, a major government initiative to comprehensively develop a group of elite universities into "world-class institutions" by 2050.

Oroqen language

Oroqen (also known as Orochon, Oronchon, Olunchun, Elunchun, Ulunchun) is a Northern Tungusic language spoken in the People's Republic of China. Dialects are Gankui and Heilongjiang. Gankui is the standard dialect. It is spoken by the Oroqen people of Inner Mongolia (predominantly the Oroqin Autonomous Banner) and Heilongjiang in Northeast China.

Currently, the Oroqen language is still unwritten. However, the majority of the Oroqen are capable of reading and writing Chinese and some can also speak the Daur language.

Outer Manchuria

Outer Manchuria or Outer Northeast China (Chinese: 外东北; pinyin: Wài Dōngběi; Russian: Приаму́рье, romanized: Priamurye) is an unofficial term for a territory in Northeast Asia that was formerly controlled by the Qing dynasty and now belongs to Russia. It is considered part of Manchuria by some definitions. Russia officially received this territory by way of the Treaty of Aigun in 1858 and the Treaty of Peking in 1860. The northern part of the area was also in dispute between 1643 and 1689.

Outer Manchuria comprises the present-day Russian areas of Primorsky Krai, southern Khabarovsk Krai, the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, the Amur Oblast and the island of Sakhalin. Currently, the People's Republic of China has no claim to the territory.

The Treaty of Nerchinsk signed in 1689 after a series of conflicts, defined the China–Russia border as the Stanovoy Mountains and the Argun River, making Outer Manchuria a part of Qing dynasty China. After losing the Opium Wars, the Qing dynasty was forced to sign a series of treaties that gave away land and ports to the imperialist European powers; these were known as the Unequal Treaties. Starting with the Treaty of Aigun in 1858 and the Treaty of Peking in 1860, the Sino–Russian border was realigned in Russia's favor along the Amur and Ussuri rivers. As a result, China lost Outer Manchuria, and access to the Sea of Japan.

Siberian tiger

The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a tiger population in the Far East, particularly the Russian Far East and Northeast China. This population inhabits mainly the Sikhote Alin mountain region in southwest Primorye Province in the Russian Far East. The Siberian tiger once ranged throughout Korea, north China, Russian Far East, and eastern Mongolia. In 2005, there were 331–393 adult and subadult Siberian tigers in this region, with a breeding adult population of about 250 individuals. The population had been stable for more than a decade due to intensive conservation efforts, but partial surveys conducted after 2005 indicate that the Russian tiger population was declining. An initial census held in 2015 indicated that the Siberian tiger population had increased to 480–540 individuals in the Russian Far East, including 100 cubs. This was followed up by a more detailed census which revealed there was a total population of 562 wild Siberian tigers in Russia.Results of a phylogeographic study comparing mitochondrial DNA from Caspian tigers and living tiger subspecies indicate that the common ancestor of the Siberian and Caspian tigers colonized Central Asia from eastern China, via the Gansu−Silk Road corridor, and then subsequently traversed Siberia eastward to establish the Siberian tiger population in the Russian Far East. The Caspian and Siberian tiger populations were the northernmost in mainland Asia.The Siberian tiger was also called Amur tiger, Manchurian tiger, Korean tiger, and Ussurian tiger, depending on the region where individuals were observed.

Soviet invasion of Manchuria

The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operatsiya) or simply the Manchurian Operation (Маньчжурская операция), began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. It was the last campaign of the Second World War, and the largest of the 1945 Soviet–Japanese War, which resumed hostilities between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Empire of Japan after almost six years of peace. Soviet gains on the continent were Manchukuo, Mengjiang (Inner Mongolia) and northern Korea. The Soviet entry into the war and the defeat of the Kwantung Army was a significant factor in the Japanese government's decision to surrender unconditionally, as it made apparent the Soviet Union had no intention of acting as a third party in negotiating an end to hostilities on conditional terms.Since 1983, the operation has sometimes been called Operation August Storm after U.S. Army historian David Glantz used this title for a paper on the subject.

Summer Offensive of 1947 in Northeast China

The Summer Offensive of 1947 in Northeast China (东北1947年夏季攻势) is a series of battles initiated by the communists against the nationalists during the Chinese Civil War after World War II.

Winter Offensive of 1947 in Northeast China

The Winter Offensive of 1947 in Northeast China (simplified Chinese: 东北1947年冬季攻势; traditional Chinese: 東北1947年冬季攻勢; pinyin: Dōngběi yījiǔsìqī nián dōngjì gōngshì) was a series of battles initiated by the Communist forces against the Kuomintang (Nationalists) during the Chinese Civil War after World War II.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinZhōngguó Dōngběi
Wade–GilesChungkuo Tungpei
IPA[ʈʂʊ́ŋkwǒ tʊ́ŋpèi]
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinDōngběi Sānshěng
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinMǎnzhōu
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinGuāndōng
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