North Wales (Welsh: Gogledd Cymru) is a region of Wales. Retail, transport and educational infrastructure are centred on Wrexham (the largest town), Rhyl, Colwyn Bay, Llandudno and Bangor. It is bordered to the rest of Wales with the counties of Ceredigion and Powys, and to the east by the English counties of Shropshire, Merseyside, and Cheshire.
North Wales was traditionally divided into three regions: Upper Gwynedd (or Gwynedd above the Conwy), defined as the area north of the River Dyfi and west of the River Conwy); Lower Gwynedd (or Gwynedd below the Conwy, also known as the Perfeddwlad and defined as the region east of the River Conwy and west of the River Dee; and Ynys Môn (or Anglesey), a large island off the north coast. The division with the rest of Wales is arbitrary and depends on the particular use being made. For example, the boundary of North Wales Police differs from the boundary of the North Wales area of the Natural Resources Wales and the North Wales Regional Transport Consortium (Taith).
The historic boundary follows the pre-1996 county boundaries of Merionethshire and Denbighshire which in turn closely follows the geographic features of the river Dovey to Aran Fawddwy, then crossing the high moorlands following the watershed until reaching Cadair Berwyn and then following the river Rhaeadr and river Tanat to the Shropshire border.
The region is steeped in history and was for almost a millennium known as the Kingdom of Gwynedd. The mountainous stronghold of Snowdonia formed the nucleus of that realm and would become the last redoubt of independent Wales — only overcome in 1283. To this day it remains a stronghold of the Welsh language and a centre for Welsh national and cultural identity.
The area is home to two of the three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Wales. These are Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and canal and, collectively, the Edwardian castles and town walls of the region which comprise those at Caernarfon, Beaumaris, Conwy and Harlech. It also shares with Powys and Ceredigion the distinction of hosting the only UNESCO Biosphere (from Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme to promote sustainable development) reserve in Wales, namely, Biosffer Dyfi Biosphere.
The region is made up of the following administrative areas:
In addition to the six Local Authority divisions, North Wales is also divided into the following preserved counties for various ceremonial purposes:
North Wales was a European Parliament constituency until 1999. Currently, there is an electoral region for the National Assembly for Wales with the name (used, in parallel with the smaller constituencies, to elect top-up members under the Additional Member System), which covers the northeast of Wales (specifically the entire area of the former pre-1996 county of Clwyd) as well as the northern-most coastal areas of north-western Wales; the rest of North Wales is covered by Mid and West Wales.
The area is mostly rural with many mountains and valleys. This, in combination with its coast (on the Irish Sea), means tourism is the principal industry. Farming, which was once the principal economic force in the area, is now much reduced in importance. The average income per capita of the local population is the lowest in the UK and much of the region has EU Objective 1 status.
The eastern part of North Wales contains the most populous areas, with more than 300,000 people living in the areas around Wrexham and Deeside. Wrexham, with a population of 63,084 in 2001 is the largest town. The total population of North Wales is 687,937 (2011). The majority of other settlements are along the coast, including some popular resort towns, such as Rhyl, Llandudno, Pwllheli and Tywyn. The A55 road links these towns to cities like Manchester, Liverpool and Birmingham and the port of Holyhead for ferries to Ireland; The A470 runs from Llandudno to Cardiff; and the A483 from Wrexham to Swansea. There are two cathedral cities – Bangor and St. Asaph – and a number of mediaeval castles (e.g., Criccieth, Dolbadarn, Dolwyddelan, Harlech, Caernarfon Castle, Beaumaris, Conwy) The area of North Wales is about 6,172 square kilometres, making it slightly larger than the country of Brunei, or the island of Bali.
The highest mountain in Wales, England and Ireland, is Snowdon in northwest Wales.
North Wales has a very diverse and complex geology with Precambrian schists along the Menai Strait and the great Cambrian dome behind Harlech and underlying much of western Snowdonia. In the Ordovician period much volcanism deposited a range of minerals and rocks over the north western parts of Gwynedd whilst to the east of the River Conwy lies a large area of upland rolling hills underlain by the Silurian mudstones and grits comprising the Denbigh and Migneint Moors. To the east, around Llangollen, to the north on Halkyn Mountain and the Great Orme and in eastern Anglesey are beds of limestone from which metals have been mined since pre-Roman times. Added to all this are the complexities posed by Parys Mountain and the outcrops of unusual minerals such as Jasper and Mona Marble which make the area of special interest to geologists.
North Wales has a distinct regional identity. Its dialect of the Welsh language differs from that of other regions, such as South Wales, in some ways: for example llefrith is used in most of the North instead of llaeth for "milk"; a simple sentence such as go upstairs now might be Dos i fyny'r grisiau rŵan in North Wales, and Cer lan y stâr nawr in South Wales. Colloquially, a person from North Wales (especially one who speaks with this dialect or accent) is known as a North Walian, or a Gog (from the Welsh gogledd, meaning "north"). There are Welsh medium schools scattered all across North Wales, ranging from primary to secondary schools.
In 2016 the UK Government invited North Wales to submit a Growth Deal Bid, to "create thousands of jobs, boost the economy, improve transport and communication links, focus on renewable energy, support tourism and more". A bid was prepared by the North Wales Business Council, which consists of the Leaders and Chief Executives of the 6 councils, the Vice Chancellors of Wrexham Glyndŵr University and Bangor University the Chief Executives of Coleg Cambria and Grwp Llandrillo Menai, and North Wales Mersey Dee Business Council.  In the 2018 budget Philip Hammond announced that £120M would be made available by the UK Government to support the Growth Deal. In December 2018, Ken Skates confirmed that the Welsh Government would match the UK Government funding, and also offered to match any additional funding support which the UK Government might make available. 
Two daily newspapers are published in the region. The region-wide "North Wales edition" of the Daily Post, based at Bryn Eirias on Colwyn Bay’s Abergele Road,  is distributed from Monday to Saturday, whilst The Leader (formerly the Evening Leader) publishes two editions for Wrexham and Flintshire and is based at the headquarters of Newsquest in Mold after NWN Media Ltd dissolved after existing since 1920 
Additionally, nine weekly newspapers provide local and community news:
Reach PLC titles
The weekly Aberystwyth-based Cambrian News covers southern Gwynedd and publishes separate editions for the Arfon/Dwyfor and Meirionydd districts.
A weekly Welsh-language newspaper, Y Cymro is published each week by the Cambrian News from its Porthmadog office alongside two localised Welsh titles, Y Cyfnod (Bala) and Y Dydd (Dolgellau). Yr Herald Gymraeg is distributed by Trinity Mirror as a pull-out section in the Wednesday edition of the Daily Post. There are also 24 Papurau Bro (area papers) providing community news and generally published each month.
A number of hyper-local websites in the area provide locally sourced news online. In Conwy county, BaeColwyn.com gives Welsh language coverage of the Colwyn Bay area since 2011 and AbergelePost.com has been serving the Abergele area since 2010. Wrexham.com is a full-time operation covering Wrexham and the surrounding area, and is based at offices in Wrexham town centre. A full-time citizen led online news site Deeside.com started in early 2013 and covers Connah's Quay, Mancot, Pentre, Shotton, Queensferry, Sealand, Broughton, Hawarden, Ewloe, Sandycroft and parts of Saltney.
Although no BBC local radio stations exist in Wales, the Corporation's national services BBC Radio Wales and BBC Radio Cymru cover the region from their broadcasting centres in Bangor, and Wrexham. The Bangor studios produce a large number of Radio Cymru programmes with some music and feature output for Radio Wales originating from Wrexham.
Three commercial radio stations serve the area — Capital North West and Wales broadcasts local breakfast and drivetime programming for Wrexham, Flintshire, Denbighshire and Conwy county as well as Cheshire and the Wirral with a Welsh language opt-out service for the former Coast FM area on 96.3 FM. Capital Cymru airs an extended local programming service, predominantly in the Welsh language, for Gwynedd and Anglesey. Across the entire region, Heart North Wales also airs local peak-time programming in English, including an extended news programme on weeknights. All three stations broadcast from studios in Gwersyllt on the outskirts of Wrexham.
Three community radio stations broadcast on FM — Calon FM serving Wrexham County Borough and parts of southern Flintshire, Tudno FM broadcasting to Llandudno & surrounding areas and Môn FM across the Isle of Anglesey and parts of Gwynedd. Radio Glan Clwyd - an extension of hospital service Radio Ysbyty Glan Clwyd - broadcasts on 1287 AM in the Bodelwyddan, St Asaph, Rhuddlan, Towyn and Kinmel Bay areas.
Towards the western side of North Wales, local hills mean national BBC FM coverage can be quite poor, often suffering interference from Irish stations from the west.
News coverage of North Wales is generally provided within the BBC's Wales Today, Newyddion and Ffeil programmes (the latter two broadcast on S4C) and on ITV's ITV News Cymru Wales. BBC Cymru Wales news teams are based at the Corporation's Bangor and Wrexham studios while ITV Cymru Wales runs a newsroom in Colwyn Bay.
S4C has an administrative office in Caernarfon, where a cluster of independent production companies are also based or partly based including Rondo Media, Cwmni Da, Antena, Owain Roberts Animations and Tinopolis.
Wrexham A.F.C. play in the English football league system; having been a member of the Football League for over 80 years, in 2008 they were relegated into the Conference National for the first time in their existence. They now play in the Vanarama National League. They remain the highest ranked team in the region, and play at the Racecourse Ground in Wrexham and train at Colliers Park, Gresford. Colwyn Bay F.C. also play in the English pyramid at Northern Premier level.
Wales was represented in the Super League by the Crusaders RL, they re-located to Wrexham for the 2010 season from south Wales. They played at the Racecourse Ground and trained at Stansty Park both in Wrexham before folding in 2011. They have now been replaced by the Championship 1 side, North Wales Crusaders.
North Wales has its own amateur league, the North Wales Championship.
In September 2008 it was announced by the Welsh Rugby Union that a development team based in North Wales would be created, with a long-term goal of becoming the fifth Welsh team in the Celtic League. It was envisaged that this would both help the growth of the game in the area, and provide a larger pool of players for the Welsh national team to be selected from. The team was named RGC 1404.
Bangor University (Welsh: Prifysgol Bangor) is a university in Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales. It received its Royal Charter in 1885 and was one of the founding institutions of the federal University of Wales. Officially known as University College of North Wales (UCNW), and later University of Wales, Bangor (UWB) (Welsh: Prifysgol Cymru, Bangor), in 2007 it became Bangor University, independent from the University of Wales.Clwyd
Clwyd (Welsh pronunciation: [ˈklʊɨd]) is a preserved county of Wales, situated in the north-east corner of the country; it is named after the River Clwyd, which runs through the county. To the north lies the Irish Sea, with the English counties of Cheshire to the east and Shropshire to the south-east. The Welsh counties of Powys and Gwynedd lie to the south and west respectively. Clwyd also shares a maritime boundary with the English county of Merseyside along the River Dee. Between 1974 and 1996, it was a county with a county council, one of the eight counties into which Wales was divided, and was subdivided into six districts. In 1996, the county of Clwyd was abolished, and the new unitary authorities of Wrexham, Conwy County Borough, Denbighshire, and Flintshire were created; under this reorganisation, "Clwyd" became a preserved county, with the name being retained for certain ceremonial functions.
This area of north-eastern Wales has been settled since prehistoric times; the Romans built a fort beside a ford on the River Conwy, and the Normans and Welsh disputed the territory. They built their castles at strategic locations as they advanced and retreated, but in the end England prevailed, and Edward I conquered the country in 1282. The Act of Union in 1535 incorporated Wales under the English Crown and made it subject to English law.
Traditionally, agriculture was the mainstay of the economy of this part of Wales, but with the Industrial Revolution, the North Wales Coalfield was developed and parts of eastern Clwyd around the Dee estuary and Wrexham became industrialised. The advent of the railway running from Chester along the North Wales coast in the mid-19th century made it easy for urban dwellers from Lancashire and Cheshire to visit the seaside towns of North Wales, and nowadays, tourism is the main source of income in Clwyd.Colwyn Bay F.C.
Colwyn Bay Football Club (Welsh: Clwb Pel-Droed Bae Colwyn) is a football club based in Old Colwyn in north Wales. Despite being a Welsh club, they currently play in the English leagues and are members of the Northern Premier League Division One West. Nicknamed the Seagulls, but also known as 'The Bay', their home ground is Llanelian Road in Old Colwyn.Daily Post (North Wales)
The Daily Post is a daily newspaper for the North Wales region and Wales' best-selling regional newspaper.
The newspaper gained independence from the Liverpool Daily Post in 2003 which later ceased production in December 2013.ABC data from 2019 notes the paper has a circulation of 18,007 with 4,861 of those for the 'east' edition It was based on Vale Road, Llandudno Junction, from 2001–2017. In May 2017, it moved to its new and current base at Bryn Eirias on Colwyn Bay’s Abergele Road.List of museums in Wales
This list of museums in Wales contains museums which are defined for this context as institutions (including nonprofit organizations, government entities, and private businesses) that collect and care for objects of cultural, artistic, scientific, or historical interest and make their collections or related exhibits available for public viewing. Also included are non-profit art galleries and university art galleries. Museums that exist only in cyberspace (i.e., virtual museums) are not included. Those marked 'NMW' are part of the network of National Museum Wales.
To use the sortable table, click on the icons at the top of each column to sort that column in alphabetical order; click again for reverse alphabetical order.Liverpool Daily Post
The Liverpool Post was a newspaper published by Trinity Mirror in Liverpool, Merseyside, England. The newspaper and its website ceased publication on 19 December 2013.
Until 13 January 2012 it was a daily morning newspaper, with the title The Liverpool Daily Post. It retained the name Liverpool Daily Post for its website, which continued to offer a daily service of news, business and sport to the people of Merseyside until the closure of the publication. The Liverpool Daily Post split from its sister North Wales title, The Daily Post, which still publishes six days a week, in 2003. The newspaper has been published since 1855. Historically the newspaper was published by the Liverpool Daily Post & Echo Ltd.
The Liverpool Daily Post was first published in 1855 by Michael James Whitty. Whitty, a former Chief Constable for Liverpool, had campaigned for the abolition of the Stamp Act under which newspapers were taxed. When the abolition took place, Whitty began publishing the Daily Post at one penny per copy, undercutting the incumbent best-selling Liverpudlian newspaper, the Liverpool Mercury.
In 1904 the Liverpool Daily Post merged with the Liverpool Mercury but its title was retained. The limited company expanded internationally and in 1985 was restructured as Trinity Holdings Plc. The two original newspapers had just previously been re-launched in tabloid format. In 1999 Trinity merged with Mirror Group Newspapers to become Trinity Mirror, the largest stable of newspapers in the UK.
On 31 January 2009 the Daily Post published its final Saturday edition, and from then only published Monday-Friday. The Daily Post's final appearance was on 13 January 2012, after which it became a weekly paper simply known as The Liverpool Post published every Thursday.
In the period December 2010 – June 2011, the Liverpool Daily Post had an average daily circulation of 8,217 while the North Wales Daily Post edition had an average daily circulation of 31,802, bringing the total to just over 40,000.On 10 December 2013, the Liverpool Post announced it was to cease publishing after more than 158 years. The final edition was printed on 19 December 2013.
Its sister publication, the Liverpool Echo, is now the sole daily newspaper in Liverpool.North Wales, Pennsylvania
North Wales is a borough in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. It is a suburb of Philadelphia, and is one of the three historic population centers that make up the North Penn Valley, which is centered around the borough of Lansdale. The population was 3,229 at the 2010 census.
Like many small boroughs in Pennsylvania, North Wales is at "build out", meaning that its boundaries have not kept up with population growth. Summarily, many businesses and residences with North Wales addresses are located in outlying townships that were never annexed by the borough, such as the Montgomery Mall in Montgomery Township. North Wales is in the North Penn School District.North Wales Coast League
The North Wales Coast League was a North Walian association football league that existed from 1893 until 1921. After the Welsh Senior League, which started in 1890, it was the second association football league formed in North Wales. There was an attempt to restart the league in 1930, which failed, followed by another restart in 1933, which lasted for two seasons. Seven teams from across the North Wales coast contested in the first season, with the number of clubs increasing to 26 in 1920, playing over two divisions.North Wales Coast Line
The North Wales Coast Line (Welsh: Rheilffordd Arfordir Gogledd Cymru), also known as the North Wales Main Line, is the railway line from Crewe to Holyhead. Virgin Trains consider their services along it to be a spur of the West Coast Main Line.
In April 2006, Network Rail organised its maintenance and train control operations into "26 Routes". The main line through Crewe forms part of Route 18 (The West Coast Main Line). The North Wales Coast Line from Crewe (North Junction) to Chester and North Wales has been designated Route 22 (North Wales and Borders) and this includes the line to Chester from Acton Grange Junction, south of Warrington. The line from Shrewsbury to Chester via Wrexham is Route 14 (South and Central Wales and Borders) (until Saltney Junction).
The line is not currently electrified, so Virgin Trains, the current operator of the InterCity West Coast franchise, currently uses its diesel Super Voyagers, which they have done since December 2007, on routes to Holyhead. There are no official plans to electrify the line, but both the Welsh government and former Chancellor George Osborne have indicated that there is a strong case for electrification in the future.
The line contains several notable engineering structures, namely Conwy railway bridge across the River Conwy, and Britannia Bridge across the Menai Strait.North Wales Conference
The North Wales Conference is a summer rugby league competition for teams in North Wales and Mid Wales.North Wales Crusaders
The North Wales Crusaders (Welsh: Croesgadwyr Gogledd Cymru Rygbi'r Gynghrair) is a professional rugby league club based in Wrexham, Wales. They are the successors to the former Super League club Crusaders Rugby League. Crusaders compete in Betfred League 1, the third tier of European rugby league (behind the Super League and Betfred Championship). Until the end of 2016 they played their home games at the Racecourse Ground in Wrexham. From 2017 they are based at the Queensway Stadium (also in Wrexham) but will also play several games at Hare Lane in Chester.North Wales Fire and Rescue Service
The North Wales Fire and Rescue Service (Welsh: Gwasanaeth Tân ac Achub Gogledd Cymru) is the fire and rescue service covering the predominantly rural principal areas of Anglesey, Conwy, Denbighshire, Flintshire, Gwynedd and Wrexham in the north of Wales.
The service was created in 1996 by the Local Government (Wales) Act 1994 which reformed Welsh local government, by a merger of the previous Clwyd and Gwynedd fire services. It covers an area of 2,400 square miles (6,200 km2) with around 670,000 people. The Service employs over 1000 staff in operational and support roles.The fire authority which administers the service is a joint-board made up of councillors from Anglesey, Conwy, Denbighshire, Flintshire, Gwynedd and Wrexham councils.North Wales Narrow Gauge Railways
The North Wales Narrow Gauge Railways (NWNGR) was a railway company that planned to build a number of inter-connected 1 ft 11 1⁄2 in (597 mm) narrow-gauge railways across North Wales. The first two of these lines - jointly known as the "Moel Tryfan Undertaking" - were authorised by Act of Parliament 1872 and were built and opened in the 1870s. The original main line ran from Dinas Junction to Bryngwyn and opened in 1877. The second line was a branch from Tryfan Junction to South Snowdon, though shortly after opening, the company designated the Tryfan Junction to Bryngwyn section as the branch, and the Dinas Junction to South Snowdon section as the main line.North Wales Police
North Wales Police (Welsh: Heddlu Gogledd Cymru) is the territorial police force responsible for policing North Wales. The headquarters are in Colwyn Bay, with divisional headquarters in St Asaph, Caernarfon and Wrexham.North Wales and Liverpool Railway
The North Wales and Liverpool Railway (NWLR), was the name given to the joint committee formed to construct a railway between Bidston, on the Wirral Railway and Hawarden on the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway's (MSLR) Chester & Connah's Quay Railway from Chester to its link with the Wrexham, Mold and Connah's Quay Railway (WMCQR): the committee was between the two latter Railways. When the WMCQR went into receivership in 1897 the MSLR (by then known as the Great Central Railway) bought the combined WMCQR and the Bidston extension. The Committee was dissolved in 1904.The line now forms the Northern part of the Borderlands LineRGC 1404
RGC 1404, formerly Gogledd Cymru (Welsh: [ˈgɔglɛð ˈkəmrɨ], "North Wales"), is a rugby union team founded in 2008 and based in Colwyn Bay, Conwy. They currently play in the Welsh Premier Division; after winning Division 1 East at the first attempt in 2012–13, they spent three seasons in the Welsh Championship before earning promotion to the Premier Division in 2015–16. They finished fourth in their first season in the top flight, but also won the WRU Challenge Cup for the first time.Racecourse Ground
The Racecourse Ground (Welsh: Y Cae Ras) is a stadium located in Wrexham, north Wales. It is the home of Wrexham AFC. As of August 2016, the stadium has been known as My Racecourse.The stadium is recognised by Guinness World Records as the world's oldest international football stadium that still hosts international matches, having hosted Wales' first home international match in 1877, and has hosted more Wales international matches than any other ground (91). The record attendance at the ground was set in 1957, when Wrexham hosted a match against Manchester United in front of 34,445 spectators.The Racecourse Ground is the largest stadium in north Wales and the fifth largest in Wales. The ground is sometimes used by the FAW for Wales' home international games. The ground has also been used by North Wales Crusaders rugby league club, Scarlets rugby union club and Liverpool Reserves. In the early days, the ground was used for cricket and horse racing. Music concerts returned to the Racecourse in 2016 when the Stereophonics performed.Snowdonia
Snowdonia (Welsh: Eryri) is a mountainous region in northwestern Wales and a national park of 823 square miles (2,130 km2) in area. It was the first to be designated of the three national parks in Wales, in 1951. It contains the highest peaks in the United Kingdom outside of Scotland.Wrexham
Wrexham ( REKS-əm; Welsh: Wrecsam; Welsh pronunciation: [ˈwrɛksam]) is the largest town in the north of Wales and an administrative, commercial, retail and educational centre. Wrexham is situated between the Welsh mountains and the lower Dee Valley alongside the border with England. Historically part of Denbighshire, the town became part of Clwyd in 1974 and since 1996 has been the centre of the Wrexham County Borough.
At the 2011 Census, Wrexham had a population of 61,603, the fourth largest urban area in Wales.