The North Sea Link (also known as North Sea Network Link or NSN Link, HVDC Norway–Great Britain, and Norway–UK interconnector) is a 1,400 MW subsea high-voltage direct current electricity cable under construction between Norway and the United Kingdom. It is a joint project of the transmission system operators Statnett and National Grid plc and is due to be completed in 2021.
|North Sea Link|
|Passes through||North Sea|
National Grid plc
|Manufacturer of conductor/cable||Prysmian (offshore section)|
Nexans (onshore section)
|Cable layer||C/S Giulio Verne|
C/S Nexans Skagerrak
|Manufacturer of substations||ABB|
|Installer of substations||ABB|
|Type of current||HVDC|
|Total length||730 km (450 mi)|
|Power rating||1,400 MW|
|No. of circuits||2|
The project was first proposed in 2003 when Statnett and National Grid prepared a 1,200 MW interconnector between Suldal in Norway and Easington, County Durham, in the United Kingdom. This project was suspended.
On 6 October 2009, Statnett and National Grid announced they were conducting a feasibility study of the cable. According to the pre-feasibility study the project will be economically and technologically feasible. It will be a commercial cable jointly owned by Statnett and National Grid NSN Link Limited, a subsidiary of National Grid. National Grid quotes various groups in favor of more interconnections. In March 2015, Statnett and National Grid announced a decision to "start the construction phase", a month after announcing the "Nemo link", a similar connection between the United Kingdom and Belgium. Along with Viking Link from Denmark, they would increase the UK's electricity interconnection level (transmission capacity relative to production capacity) from the 6% it was in 2014.
The cable will run from Kvilldal, Suldal, in Norway, to Blyth in the United Kingdom. The route survey of the offshore section was conducted by MMT in 2012. Its converter station in England will be located near to the cable landfall in East Sleekburn village and it will be connected to the National Grid at the Blyth substation.
The cable will be 730 kilometres (450 mi) long. It has a planned capacity of 1,400 MW. It is estimated to cost €2 billion and become operational in 2021. The offshore cable will be supplied by Prysmian. The cable will be manufactured at the Arco Felice factory in Naples, Italy, and it will be installed by the cable-laying vessel Giulio Verne. Cable for the fjord, tunnel and lake sections, and the onshore connection in Norway, will be supplied by Nexans and manufactured at Nexans' plant in Halden, Norway. It will be laid by using Capjet trenching system and the cable-laying vessel Skagerrak. The HVDC converter stations will be built and installed by the ABB Group.
Once completed the North Sea Link will give the UK access to the south Norway bidding area (NO2) of Nord Pool Spot with an annual transmission capacity of 12.3 TWh. According to the analysis by the United Kingdom market regulator Ofgem, in the Base case scenario the cable would contribute around £490 million to the welfare of the United Kingdom and around £330 million to the welfare of Norway. According to the analysis, over the 25-year cap and floor regime (a regulation for how much money a developer can earn once the interconnector is in operation) the benefit of the United Kingdom consumers is expected to be around £3.5 billion under the Base case scenario. Once the cable is completed the average domestic consumer bill in the United Kingdom would be around £2 less.
According to Auke Lont, CEO of Statnett, Norway may use the interconnector to import electricity at times of peak supply in the United Kingdom, which could temporarily reduce hydroelectricity output in Norway and shift Norwegian hydroelectricity production to peak demand times.
In 2014 the Norwegian energy service provider Markedskraft analyzed the impact of two interconnectors under construction from Norway, the North Sea Link and NorGer a submarine cable of identical capacity connecting Norway with Germany. The electricity will at any moment flow towards the country with the highest price and these price differentials generate income for the interconnector whether the electricity flows one way or the other. "Markedskraft" estimated that while the Norwegian import and export via NorGer will zero out in 2020, the annual net export to the UK via North Sea Link is projected to be about the 10 TWh, i.e. almost all of the interconnector's annual capacity. "Markedskraft" go on to estimate that the increased demand for Norwegian electricity via North Sea Link will increase the price of electricity in Norway by 25 NOK/MWh (ca. 2.6 €/MWh). A 2016 study expects the two cables to increase price in South Norway by 2 øre/kWh, less than other factors.
Icelink is a proposed electricity interconnector between Iceland and Great Britain. As of 2017, the project is still at the feasibility stage. According to current plans, IceLink may become operational in 2027.At 1000–1200 km, the 1000 MW HVDC link would be the longest sub-sea power interconnector in the world.The project partners are National Grid plc in the UK, and Landsvirkjun, the state-owned generator in Iceland, and Landsnet, the Icelandic Transmission System Operator (TSO).Nordic energy market
Nordic electricity market is a common market for electricity in the Nordic countries. It is one of the first free electric-energy markets in Europe and is traded in NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe and Nord Pool Spot. In 2003, the largest market shares were as follows: Vattenfall 17%, Fortum 14.1%, Statkraft 8.9%, E.on 7.5%, Elsam 5%, Pohjolan Voima 5%. Other producers had 42.5% market share.Renewable energy in Norway
Norway is a heavy producer of renewable energy because of hydropower. Over 99% of the electricity production in mainland Norway is from hydropower plants. The total production of electricity from hydropower plants amounted to 135.3 TWh in 2007 There is also a large potential in wind power, offshore wind power and wave power, as well as production of bio-energy from wood. Norway has limited resources in solar energy, but is one of the world's largest producers of solar grade silicon and silicon solar cells.
The system for Guarantees of Origin was implemented by the EU Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC. In 2010 the average electricity consumption mix of a Norwegian household was 36% renewable.As per the European Union's 2009 Renewables Directive (later added in the EEA Agreement), Norway has established a national goal for renewable energy - 67.5% of gross final consumption of energy supplied by renewable sources by 2020.Short Stirling
The Short Stirling was a British four-engined heavy bomber of the Second World War. It has the distinction of being the first four-engined bomber to be introduced into service with the Royal Air Force (RAF).
The Stirling was designed during the late 1930s by Short Brothers to conform with the requirements laid out in Air Ministry Specification B.12/36. Prior to this, the RAF had been primarily interested in developing increasingly capable twin-engined bombers but had been persuaded to investigate a prospective four-engined bomber as a result of promising foreign developments in the field. Out of the submissions made to the specification, Supermarine proposed the Type 317 which was viewed as the favourite, while Short's submission, named the S.29, was selected as an alternative. When the preferred Type 317 had to be abandoned, the S.29, which later received the name Stirling, proceeded to production.
During early 1941, the Stirling entered squadron service. During its use as a bomber, pilots praised the type for its ability to out-turn enemy night fighters and its favourable handling characteristics, while the altitude ceiling was often a subject of criticism. The Stirling had a relatively brief operational career as a bomber before being relegated to second line duties from late 1943. This was due to the increasing availability of the more capable Handley Page Halifax and Avro Lancaster, which took over the strategic bombing of Germany. Decisions by the Air Ministry on certain performance requirements, such as to restrict the wingspan of the aircraft to 100 feet, had played a role in limiting the Stirling's performance; these restrictive demands had not been placed upon the Halifax and Lancaster bombers.
During its later service, the Stirling was used for mining German ports; new and converted aircraft also flew as glider tugs and supply aircraft during the Allied invasion of Europe during 1944–1945. In the aftermath of the Second World War, the type was rapidly withdrawn from RAF service, having been replaced in the transport role by the Avro York, a derivative of the Lancaster that had previously displaced it from the bomber role. A handful of ex-military Stirlings were rebuilt for the civil market.Statnett
Statnett is a Norwegian state owned enterprise responsible for owning, operating and constructing the stem power grid in Norway. The company has its headquarters in Oslo, Norway.
Statnett also owns 30% of the Nord Pool Spot along with other Nordic transmission system operators.Viking Link
Viking Link is a planned 1,400 MW HVDC submarine power cable between Bicker Fen in Lincolnshire, the United Kingdom and Revsing in southern Jutland, Denmark.The project is a cooperation between British National Grid and Danish Energinet. and is similar in capacity, completion date and length to the UK-Norway North Sea Link.