The North Pacific Fur Seal Convention of 1911, formally known as the Convention between the United States and Other Powers Providing for the Preservation and Protection of Fur Seals, was an international treaty signed on July 7, 1911, designed to manage the commercial harvest of fur-bearing mammals (such as Northern fur seals and sea otters) in the Pribilof Islands of the Bering Sea. The treaty, signed by the United States, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Empire of Japan, and the Russian Empire, outlawed open-water seal hunting and acknowledged the United States' jurisdiction in managing the on-shore hunting of seals for commercial purposes. It was the first international treaty to address wildlife preservation issues.
The two most significant terms of the treaty were the banning of pelagic seal hunting and the granting of jurisdiction to the United States in managing on-shore hunts. In exchange for granting jurisdiction to the United States, the other signatories to the treaty were guaranteed payments and/or minimum takes of seal furs while the treaty remained in effect, subject to certain conditions.
The treaty also provided an exemption to aboriginal tribes which hunted seals using traditional methods and for non-commercial purposes including food and shelter. Aboriginal tribes specifically mentioned in the treaty include the Aleut and Aino (Ainu) peoples.
The treaty was co-authored by environmentalist Henry Wood Elliott and United States Secretary of State John Hay in 1905, although the treaty was not ratified for another six years.  The treaty was signed at Washington, D.C. on July 7, 1911, with ratifications by each signatory on the following dates:
Ratifications were then exchanged at Washington on December 12, 1911, and the treaty was proclaimed two days later on December 14.
Following ratification, the United States Congress enacted an immediate five-year moratorium on hunting, to allow for recovery of the decimated herds. The treaty remained in effect until hostilities erupted among the signatories in World War II. However, the treaty set precedent for future national and international laws and treaties, including the Fur Seal Act of 1966 and the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972. On the 100th anniversary of the treaty in 2011, the Pribilof Fur Seal Monument was erected.
Events from the year 1911 in Russia1911 in science
The year 1911 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.Bering Island
Bering Island (Russian: о́стров Бе́ринга, ostrov Beringa) is located off the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Bering Sea.Council on Environmental Quality
The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) is a division of the Executive Office of the President that coordinates federal environmental efforts in the United States and works closely with agencies and other White House offices on the development of environmental and energy policies and initiatives.
The first Chair of the Council on Environmental Quality was Russell E. Train, under President Richard Nixon. President Donald Trump nominated the agency's acting head, Mary Neumayr for the position in June 2018. Her nomination was confirmed by the full Senate at the beginning of January 2019.Department of Transportation v. Public Citizen
Department of Transportation v. Public Citizen, 541 U.S. 752 (2004), is a case argued in the Supreme Court of the United States on 21 April 2004. The question the case presented relates to Presidential foreign affairs and foreign trade Actions exempt from environmental-review requirements under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Clean Air Act. Specifically, the question is whether those Actions are subject to those requirements as a result of a rulemaking action concerning motor carrier safety by the federal agency with responsibility for that type of safety.Discharge Monitoring Report
A Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) is a United States regulatory term for a periodic water pollution report prepared by industries, municipalities and other facilities discharging to surface waters. The facilities collect wastewater samples, conduct chemical and/or biological tests of the samples, and submit reports to a state agency or the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). All point source dischargers to ”Waters of the U.S.” must obtain a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit from the appropriate agency, and many permittees are required to file DMRs.Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act
The Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act is a law passed by the 114th United States Congress and signed into law by US President Barack Obama in 2016. Administered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, which regulates the introduction of new or already existing chemicals, the Act amends and updates the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that went into force in 1976.Henry Wood Elliott
Henry Wood Elliott (November 13, 1846 – May 25, 1930) was an American watercolor painter, author, and environmentalist whose work primarily focused on Alaskan subjects. He was the author of the 1911 Hay-Elliott Fur Seal Treaty, the first international treaty on wildlife conservation.A number of his works have an ethnographic bent, displaying aboriginal Alaskans engaging in traditional practices; some of these works are stored in the National Anthropological Archives at the Smithsonian. Elliott also focused on the Alaskan landscape and wildlife.In 1886, Elliott published a book entitled Our Arctic Province: Alaska and the Seal Islands, which contains an in-depth exploration of Alaska's history, geography, people, and wildlife.He became involved in early conservation efforts of the fur seal, in 1905 co-authoring a document with United States Secretary of State John Hay that would eventually become the North Pacific Fur Seal Convention of 1911, the first international treaty dedicated to the conservation of wildlife.Hughes v. Oklahoma
Hughes v. Oklahoma, 441 U.S. 322 (1979), was a United States Supreme Court decision, which held that the United States Congress may enact legislation governing wildlife on federal lands.National Ambient Air Quality Standards
The U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS, pronounced \'naks\) are standards for harmful pollutants. Established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under authority of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.), NAAQS is applied for outdoor air throughout the country.National Environmental Education Act
The National Environmental Education Act of 1990 is an act of Congress of the United States of America to promote environmental education.
In this act, Congress found that "threats to human health and environmental quality are increasingly complex, involving a wide range of conventional and toxic contaminants in the air and water and on the land" and that "there is growing evidence of international environmental problems, such as global warming, ocean pollution, and declines in species diversity, and that these problems pose serious threats to human health and the environment on a global scale" and declared several other problems that need to be fixed or addressed by improving environmental education.National Priorities List
The National Priorities List (NPL) is the list of hazardous waste sites in the United States eligible for long-term remedial action (cleanup) financed under the federal Superfund program. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations outline a formal process for assessing hazardous waste sites and placing them on the NPL. The NPL is intended primarily to guide EPA in determining which sites warrant further investigation.
The inclusion of a facility in the National Priorities List does not reflect a judgment of its owner or operator or make the owner or operator take any action. It also does not assign any liability to any person or company. It serves as a source of information by identifying facilities or other hazardous substance releases that appear to warrant remedial actions.National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966
The act provided guidelines and directives for administration and management of all areas in National Wildlife Refuge system including "wildlife refuges, areas for the protection and conservation of fish and wildlife that are threatened with extinction, wildlife ranges, game ranges, wildlife management areas, and waterfowl production areas."Noise Control Act
The Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1972 is a statute of the United States initiating a federal program of regulating noise pollution with the intent of protecting human health and minimizing annoyance of noise to the general public.The Act established mechanisms of setting emission standards for virtually every source of noise, including motor vehicles, aircraft, certain types of HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning) equipment and major appliances. It also put local governments on notice as to their responsibilities in land-use planning to address noise mitigation. This noise regulation framework comprised a broad data base detailing the extent of noise health effects.
Congress ended funding of the federal noise control program in 1981, which curtailed development of further national regulations. Since then, starting in 1982, the primary responsibility to addressing noise pollution shifted to state and local governments. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) retains authority to conduct research and publish information on noise and its effects on the public, which is often included nowadays in environmental impact assessments for new urban developments. The initial EPA regulations and programs provided a basis for development of many state and local government noise control laws across the United States. See Noise regulation.Pribilof Fur Seal Monument
The Pribilof Fur Seal Monument is a tribute to the Aleut sealers of the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea of Alaska on the 100th Anniversary of the signing of the North Pacific Fur Seal Convention of 1911.Refuse Act
The Refuse Act is a United States federal statute governing use of waterways. The Act, a section of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, prohibited "dumping of refuse" into navigable waters, except by permit.Seal Island Historic District
The Seal Island Historic District is a National Historic Landmark District located on the islands of St. George and St. Paul in the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea of Alaska. These islands are home to northern fur seal herds which were actively hunted by indigenous populations and later by many nationalities. These islands of the Pribilofs are also the southern end of the range of the polar bear, (Ursus maritimus) The North Pacific Fur Seal Convention of 1911 signed by the United Kingdom, Japan, Russia and the United States limited hunting of the seals on these islands; this international treaty was one of the first conservation treaties, and set the stage for subsequent treaties.Toxicity category rating
In 40 C.F.R. 156.62, the EPA established four Toxicity Categories for acute hazards of pesticide products, with "Category I" being the highest toxicity category (toxicity class). Most human hazard, precautionary statements, and human personal protective equipment statements are based upon the Toxicity Category of the pesticide product as sold or distributed. In addition, toxicity categories may be used for regulatory purposes other than labeling, such as classification for restricted use and requirements for child-resistant packaging.
In certain cases, statements based upon the Toxicity Category of the product as diluted for use are also permitted. A Toxicity Category is assigned for each of five types of acute exposure, as specified in the table below.United States v. Bestfoods
United States v. Bestfoods, 524 U.S. 51 (1998), is a United States corporate law case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the indirect liability of a parent corporation under CERCLA is to be determined by its control over a subsidiary's facility, rather than the relationship between the corporation and subsidiary.