North India

North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India. The dominant geographical features of North India are the Indus-Gangetic Plain and the Himalayas, which demarcate the region from the Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia.

The term North India has varying definitions—the Ministry of Home Affairs in its Northern Zonal Council Administrative division included the states of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab and Rajasthan and Union Territories of Delhi, Chandigarh.[1][4] while the Ministry of Culture in its North Culture Zone includes the state of Uttarakhand but excludes Delhi[2] whereas the Geological Survey of India includes Uttar Pradesh and Delhi but excludes Rajasthan and Chandigarh.[3] Other states sometimes included are Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

North India has been the historical centre of the Mughal, Delhi Sultanate and British Indian Empire. It has a diverse culture, and includes the Hindu pilgrimage centres of Char Dham, Haridwar, Varanasi, Ayodhya, Mathura, Allahabad, Vaishno Devi and Pushkar, the Buddhist pilgrimage centres of Sarnath and Kushinagar, the Sikh Golden Temple as well as world heritage sites such as the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Khajuraho temples, Hill Forts of Rajasthan, Jantar Mantar (Jaipur), Bhimbetka Caves, Sanchi monuments, Qutb Minar, Red Fort, Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri and the Taj Mahal.

The languages that have official status in one or more of the states and union territories located in North India are Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi and English.[12]

North India
North India Zonal Map 14July2013
Country India
States and territories[1][2][3]
Other states sometimes included
Largest cityDelhi
Time zoneIST (UTC+5:30)
Official languages

Definitions

Different authorities and sources define North India differently.

Zonal Councils
States under Northern India Zonal Council in orange

Government of India definitions

The Northern Zonal Council is one of the advisory councils, created in 1956 by the States Reorganisation Act to foster interstate cooperation under the Ministry of Home Affairs, which included the states of Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab and Rajasthan.[1][4]

The Ministry of Culture established the North Culture Zone in Patiala, Punjab on 23 March 1985. It differs from the North Zonal Council in its inclusion of Uttarakhand and the omission of Delhi.[2]

In contrast, the Geological Survey of India (part of the Ministry of Mines) included Uttar Pradesh and Delhi in its Northern Region, but excluded Rajasthan and Chandigarh, with a regional headquarters in Lucknow.[3]

Wider definition

Indian press definition

The Hindu newspaper puts Bihar, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh related articles on its North pages.[5] Articles in the Indian press have included the states of Bihar,[6] Gujarat,[9][8] Madhya Pradesh,[7] and West Bengal[11][10] in North India as well.

Latitude-based definition

The Tropic of Cancer, which divides the temperate zone from the tropical zone in the Northern Hemisphere, runs through India, and could theoretically be regarded as a geographical dividing line in the country.[13] Indian states that are entirely above the Tropic of Cancer are Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar and most of North East Indian states. However that definition would also include major parts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and West Bengal and minor regions of Chhattisgarh and Gujarat.

Anecdotal usage

In Mumbai, the term "North Indian" is sometimes used to describe migrants from eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, often using the term bhaiya (which literally means 'elder brother') along with it in a derogatory sense, however these very people are not considered North Indian by the inhabitants of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Haryana and Rajasthan.[14] In Punjab, people from the same region (Uttar Pradesh and Bihar) are often referred to as Purabias, or Easterners.[15] The Government of Bihar official site places the state in the eastern part of India.[16] Within Uttar Pradesh itself, "the cultural divide between the east and the west is considerable, with the purabiyas (easterners) often being clubbed with Biharis in the perception of the westerners."[17][18]

History

The empires and dynasties that have ruled parts or all of North India include:

The Delhi Sultanate, Mughal and British Indian Empires had Delhi as their capital from time to time.

"North of the Vindhyas"

One demarcation between northern and southern nations has been the Vindhya mountain range.[19] In centuries past this sometimes formed a border during periods of imperial expansion, such as the one ruled by the Gupta emperor Samudragupta.[20] The Vindhyas also find mention in the narrative of Rishi Agastya as a dividing feature between North and South India.[21] The Manusmṛti also describes the southern limit of Aryavarta (i.e. the abode of the Aryans) as being defined by the Vindhya range.[22]

Muslim, Central Asian and Afghan impacts as defining influences

Several sources consider sizable Muslim populations and deep-seated Islamic, Central Asian and Afghan influences to be defining characteristics of North Indian culture, both linguistically and culturally.[23] Some of these influences are pre-Islamic, such as the Bactrian-originated Kushan Empire (modern day Afghanistan) that maintained twin capitals in Mathura (now in Uttar Pradesh) and Peshawar (in the present-day Pakistani Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province), as well as the Hun confederacies that periodically asserted their rule over large parts of North India.[24]

Geography

India-view of shilla
Shilla (7026 m) above the Spiti Valley in Himachal Pradesh
Désert-du-Thar
The Thar desert near Jaisalmer, Rajasthan

North India lies mainly on continental India, north of peninsular India. Towards its north are the Himalayas which define the boundary between the Indian subcontinent and the Tibetan plateau. To its west is the Thar desert, shared between North India and Pakistan and the Aravalli Range, beyond which lies the state of Gujarat. The Vindhya mountains are, in some interpretations, taken to be the southern boundary of North India.

The predominant geographical features of North India are:

  • the Indo-Gangetic plain, which spans the states and union territories of Chandigarh, Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh as well as Bihar, Gujarat and West Bengal;
  • the Himalayas, which lie in the states of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir;
  • the Thar desert, which lies mainly in the state of Rajasthan.

The state of Madhya Pradesh has large areas under forest cover, as do Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Chhattisgarh.[25]

General climate

India and South Asia Köppen climate map with legend
India's Köppen climate classification map[26] is based on native vegetation, temperature, precipitation and their seasonality.(Major categories)

North India lies mainly in the north temperate zone of the Earth.[27] Though cool or cold winters, hot summers and moderate monsoons are the general pattern. North India is one of the most climatically diverse regions on Earth. During summer, the temperature often rises above 35 °C across much of the Indo-Gangetic plain, reaching as high as 50 °C in the Thar desert, Rajasthan and up to 49 in Delhi. During winter, the lowest temperature on the plains dips to below 5 °C, and below the freezing point in some states. Heavy to moderate snowfall occurs in Himachal Pradesh, J&K and Uttarakhand. Much of North India is notorious for heavy fog during winters.

Extreme temperatures among inhabited regions have ranged from −45 °C (−49 °F) in Dras, Jammu and Kashmir[28] to 50.6 °C (123 °F) in Alwar, Rajasthan. Dras is claimed to be the second-coldest inhabited place on the planet (after Siberia), with a recorded low of -60 °C.[29][30][31]

Precipitation

The region receives heavy rain in plains and light snow on Himalayas precipitation through two primary weather patterns: the Indian Monsoon and the Western Disturbances. The Monsoon carries moisture northwards from the Indian Ocean, occurs in late summer and is important to the Kharif or autumn harvest.[32][33] Western Disturbances, on the other hand, are an extratropical weather phenomenon that carry moisture eastwards from the Mediterranean Sea, the Caspian Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.[34][35][36][37] They primarily occur during the winter season and are critically important for the Rabi or spring harvest, which includes the main staple over much of North India, wheat.[35] The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand receive some snowfall in winter months.

Traditional seasons

Northern Indian tradition recognises six distinct seasons in the region: summer (grishma or garmi, May–June), rainy (varsha, July–August), cool (sharad, September–October, sometimes thought of as 'early autumn'), autumn (hemant, November–December, also called patjhar, lit. leaf-fall), winter (shishir or sardi, January–February) and spring (vasant, March–April). The literature, poetry and folklore of the region uses references to these six seasons quite extensively and has done so since ancient times when Sanskrit was prevalent.[38][39][40] In the mountainous areas, sometimes the winter is further divided into "big winter" (e.g. Kashmiri chillai kalaan) and "little winter" (chillai khurd).[41]

Demographics

The people of North India mostly belong to the Indo-Aryan ethno linguistic branch, and include various ethnic groups such as Brahmins, Rajputs, Banias, Jats, Ahirs, Gurjars, Kolis, Khatris, Kambojs and Dalits.[42][43][44] Other minority ethno-linguistic communities such as Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman and Austroasiatic exist throughout the region.

Religion

Hinduism is the dominant religion in North India. Other religions practiced by various ethnic communities include Islam, Sikhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Bahá'í, Christianity, and Buddhism. The states of Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh are overwhelmingly Hindu. The states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal have Hindu majorities with a significantly large minority of Muslims; the combined Muslim population of these three states surpasses many of the biggest Islamic nations. Jammu and Kashmir is a Muslim majority state while Punjab has a Sikh majority population.

Languages

Indoarische Sprachen
Distribution of Indo-Aryan languages.

Linguistically, North India is dominated by Indo-Aryan languages. It is in this region, or its proximity, that Sanskrit and the various Prakrits are thought to have evolved. The most widely spoken language in this region is Hindi. It has official status in the states of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh as well as in the union territory of Delhi. Punjabi has predominance in the state of Punjab where it is the official language. It also has significant presence in the nearby regions. Urdu enjoys official status in Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir and Uttar Pradesh. Further north in Jammu and Kashmir, major languages are Dogri and Kashmiri. Languages like Bengali, Bhili and Nepali are also spoken in notable numbers throughout the region.[12] A large part of North India is taken up by the so-called Hindi Belt, which here subsumes most of the Rajasthani languages, dialects of Western Hindi, Bhojpuri, Awadhi, Garhwali and Kumaoni.

Several Sino-Tibetan languages are spoken in the Himalayan region like Kinnauri,[12] Ladakhi and Lahuli–Spiti languages. Austro-Asiatic languages like Korwa/Kodaku is also spoken in some parts of this region.[45][46]

Culture

Dance

Dance of North India too has diverse folk and classical forms. Among the well-known folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab, Ghoomar of Rajasthan and rouf and bhand pather of Kashmir. Main dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama such as kathak of Uttar Pradesh.

Clothing

Each state of North India has its own regional forms of clothing:

  1. Uttar Pradesh: Chikan Suit, Pathani Salwar, Kurta Paijama, Sari .
  2. Jammu: Kurta/Dogri suthan and kurta/churidar pajama and kurta.
  3. Kashmir: Phiran and poots.
  4. Himachal Pradesh: Shalwar kameez, Kurta, Churidar, Dhoti and angarkha.
  5. Punjab/Haryana: Salwar (Punjabi) Suit, Patiala salwar, Punjabi Tamba and Kurta, Sikh Dastar, Phulkari, Punjabi Ghagra
  6. Uttarakhand: Rangwali Phichora

Flora and fauna

North Indian vegetation is predominantly Tropical evergreen and Montane . Of the evergreen trees Hollong Gurjan, sal, teak, Mahogany, sheesham (Indian rosewood) and poplar are some which are important commercially.[47] The Western Himalayan region abounds in chir, pine, deodar (Himalayan cedar), blue pine, spruce, various firs, birch and junipers.[48][49][50][51] The birch, especially, has historical significance in Indian culture due to the extensive use of birch paper (Sanskrit: bhurja patra) as parchment for many ancient Indian texts.[52][53] The Eastern Himalayan region consists of oaks, laurels, maples, rhododendrons, alder, birch and dwarf willows. Reflecting the diverse climatic zones and terrain contained in the region, the floral variety is extensive and ranges from Alpine to Cloud forests, coniferous to evergreen, and thick tropical rainforests to cool temperate woods.[48][54]

There are around 500 varieties of mammals, 2000 species of birds, 30,000 types of insects and a wide variety of fish, amphibians and reptiles in the region. Animal species in North India include elephant, bengal tiger, indian leopard, snow leopard, sambar (Asiatic stag), chital (spotted deer), hangul (red deer), hog deer, chinkara (Indian gazelle), blackbuck, nilgai (blue bull antelope), porcupine, wild boar, Indian fox, Tibetan sand fox, rhesus monkey, langur, jungle cat, striped hyena, golden jackal, black bear, Himalayan brown bear, sloth bear, and the endangered caracal.

Reptiles are represented by a large number of snake and lizard species, as well as the ghariyal and crocodiles.[55] Venomous snakes found in the region include king cobra and krait. Various scorpion, spider and insect species include the commercially useful honeybees, silkworms and lac insects. The strikingly coloured bir bahuti is also found in this region.[56]

The region has a wide variety of birds, including peafowl, parrots, and thousands of immigrant birds, such as the Siberian crane. Other birds include pheasants, geese, ducks, mynahs, parakeets, pigeons, cranes (including the celebrated sarus crane), and hornbills. great pied hornbill, Pallas's fishing eagle, grey-headed fishing eagle, red-thighed falconet are found in the Himalayan areas. Other birds found here are tawny fish owl, scale-bellied woodpecker, red-breasted parakeet, Himalayan swiftlet, stork-billed kingfisher and Himalayan or white-tailed rubythroat.[57][58]

Wildlife parks and reserves

Important national parks and tiger reserves of North India include:

Corbett National Park: It was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park[59] along the banks of the Ramganga River. It is India's first National Park, and was designated a Project Tiger Reserve in 1973. Situated in Nainital district of Uttarakhand, the park acts as a protected area for the critically endangered Bengal tiger of India. Cradled in the foothills of the Himalayas, it comprises a total area of 500 km2 out of which 350 km2 is core reserve. This park is known not only for its rich and varied wildlife but also for its scenic beauty.

Nanda Devi National Park and Valley of Flowers National Park: Located in West Himalaya, in the state of Uttarakhand, these two national parks constitute a biosphere reserve that is in the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves since 2004. The Valley of Flowers is known for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and the variety of flora, this richly diverse area is also home to rare and endangered animals.

Dachigam National Park: Dachigam is a higher altitude national reserve in the state of Jammu and Kashmir that ranges from 5,500 to 14,000 feet above sea level. It is home to the hangul (a red deer species, also called the Kashmir stag).

Great Himalayan National Park: This park is located in Himachal Pradesh and ranges in altitude from 5,000 to 17,500 feet. Wildlife resident here includes the snow leopard, the Himalayan brown bear and the musk deer.

Desert National Park: Located in Rajasthan, this national reserve features extensive sand dunes and dry salt lakes. Wildlife unique to the region includes the desert fox and the great Indian bustard.

Kanha National Park: The sal and bamboo forests, grassy meadows and ravines of Kanha were the setting for Rudyard Kipling's collection of stories, "The Jungle Book". The Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh came into being in 1955 and forms the core of the Kanha Tiger Reserve, created in 1974 under Project Tiger.

Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary: Located in the state of Bihar, it is the only protected zone for the endangered Ganges and Indus river dolphin.

Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary: It is one of the finest bird parks in the world, it is a reserve that offers protection to faunal species as well. Nesting indigenous water birds as well as migratory water birds and waterside birds, this sanctuary is also inhabited by sambar, chital, nilgai and boar.

Dudhwa National Park: It covers an area of 500 km2 along the Indo-Nepal border in Lakhimpur Kheri district of Uttar Pradesh, is best known for the barasingha or swamp deer. The grasslands and woodlands of this park, consist mainly of sal forests. The barasingha is found in the southwest and southeast regions of the park. Among the big cats, tigers abound at Dudhwa. There are also a few leopards. The other animals found in large numbers, are the Indian rhinoceros, elephant, jungle cats, leopard cats, fishing cats, jackals, civets, sloth bears, sambar, otters, crocodiles and chital.

Ranthambhore National Park: It spans an area of 400 km2 with an estimated head count of thirty two tigers is perhaps India's finest example of Project Tiger, a conservation effort started by the government in an attempt to save the dwindling number of tigers in India. Situated near the small town of Sawai Madhopur it boasts of variety of plant and animal species of North India.

Kalesar National Park: Kalesar is a sal forest in the Shivalik Hills of eastern Haryana state. Primarily known for birds, it also contains a small number of tigers and panthers.

Places of interest

Akshardham Delhi
Akshardham Temple, Delhi

Nature

The Indian Himalayas, the Thar desert and the Indo-Gangetic plain dominate the natural scenery of North India. The region encompasses several of the most highly regarded hill destinations of India such as Srinagar, Shimla, Manali, Nainital, Mussoorie, Kausani and Mount Abu. Several spots in the states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh provide panoramic views of the snow-clad Himalayan range. The Himalayan region also provides ample opportunity for adventure sports such as mountaineering, trekking, river rafting and skiing. Camel or jeep safaris of the Thar desert are also popular in the state of Rajasthan. North India includes several national parks such as the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Jim Corbett National Park, Keoladeo National Park and Ranthambore National Park.

Pilgrimage

North India encompasses several of the holiest pilgrimage centres of Hinduism (Varanasi, Haridwar, Allahabad, Char Dham, Vaishno Devi, Rishikesh, Ayodhya, Mathura/Vrindavan, Pushkar, Prayag and seven of the twelve Jyotirlinga sites), the most sacred destinations of Buddhism (Bodh Gaya, Sarnath and Kushinagar), the most regarded pilgrimage centres of Sikhism (Amritsar and Hemkund) and some of the highly regarded destinations in Sufi Islam (Ajmer and Delhi). The largest Hindu temple, Akshardham Temple, the largest Buddhist temple in India, Mahabodhi, the largest mosque in India, Jama Masjid, and the largest Sikh shrine, Golden Temple, are all in this region.[60][61]

Historical

North India includes some highly regarded historical, architectural and archaeological treasures of India. The Taj Mahal, an immense mausoleum of white marble in Agra, is one of the universally admired buildings of world heritage.[62] Besides Agra, Fatehpur Sikri and Delhi also carry some great exhibits from the Mughal architecture. In Punjab, Patiala is known for being the city of royalty while Amritsar is a city known for its Sikh Architecture and the Golden Temple. Lucknow has the famous Awadhi Nawab culture while Kanpur reflects excellent British architecture with monuments like Edward Hall, Police Quarters, Cutchery Cemetery etc. Khajuraho temples constitute another famous world heritage site. The state of Rajasthan is known for exquisite palaces and forts of the Rajput clans. Historical sites and architecture from the ancient and medieval Hindu and Buddhist periods of Indian history, such as Jageshwar, Deogarh and Sanchi, as well as sites from the bronze age Indus Valley Civilization, such as Manda and Alamgirpur, can be found scattered throughout northern India. Varanasi, on the banks of the River Ganga, is considered one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world and the second oldest in India after Nalanda. Bhimbetka is an archaeological site of the Paleolithic era, exhibiting the earliest traces of human life on the Indian subcontinent.

Universities

North India has several universities, including

and many more. The Indian Institute of Technology, National Institute of Technology and Indian Institute of Management have campuses in several cities of North India such as Delhi, Kanpur, Roorkee, Sonipat, Varanasi, Lucknow, Kashipur, Indore and Patna. One of the first great universities in recorded history, the Nalanda University, is in the state of Bihar. There has been plans for revival of this ancient university, including an effort by a multinational consortium led by Singapore, China, India and Japan.

Economy

The economy of North India is predominantly agrarian, but is changing fast with rapid economic growth that has ranged above 8% annually. Several parts of North India have prospered as a consequence of the Green Revolution, including Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh, and have experienced both economic and social development.[64][65][66] The eastern areas of East Uttar Pradesh, however, have lagged[67][68] and the resulting disparity has contributed to a demand for separate statehood in West Uttar Pradesh (the Harit Pradesh movement).[69][70]

A large number of unskilled and skilled workers have moved to Southern India and other nations because of the unavailability of jobs locally.[71] The technology boom that occurred in the past three decades in Southern India has helped many Indians from the north to find jobs and live prosperous lives in Southern cities. An analysis by Multidimensional Poverty Index creators reveals that Acute poverty prevails in eight Indian states.[72]

In 2004, the state with the highest GDP per capita in North India was Punjab followed by Haryana.[73] Chandigarh has the highest per-capita State Domestic Product (SDP) of any Indian union territory.[74] The National Capital Region of Delhi has emerged as an economic power house with rapid industrial growth along with adjoining areas of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan.

See also

References and bibliography

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External links

2005 Kashmir earthquake

The 2005 Kashmir earthquake occurred at 08:50:39 Pakistan Standard Time on 8 October in Pakistan-administered Azad Kashmir. It was centered near the city of Muzaffarabad, and also affected Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province and Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir. It registered a moment magnitude of 7.6 and had a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe). The earthquake also affected countries in the surrounding region where tremors were felt in Afghanistan, Tajikistan and Chinese Xinjiang. The severity of the damage caused by the earthquake is attributed to severe upthrust. It is considered the deadliest earthquake to hit South Asia since the 1935 Quetta earthquake.

2013 North India floods

In June 2013, a multi-day cloudburst centered on the North Indian state of Uttarakhand caused devastating floods and landslides becoming the country's worst natural disaster since the 2004 tsunami. The reason the floods occurred was that the rainfall received was on a larger scale than the regular rainfall the state usually received. The debris blocked up the rivers, causing major overflow. The main day of the flood was June 16, 2013. Though some parts of Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh in India experienced the heavy rainfall, some regions of Western Nepal, and some parts of Western Tibet also experienced heavy rainfall, over 89% of the casualties occurred in Uttarakhand. As of 16 July 2013, according to figures provided by the Government of Uttarakhand, more than 5,700 people were "presumed dead." This total included 934 local residents.Destruction of bridges and roads left about 300,000 pilgrims and tourists trapped in the valleys leading to three of the four Hindu Chota Char Dham pilgrimage sites. The Indian Air Force, the Indian Army, and paramilitary troops evacuated more than 110,000 people from the flood ravaged area.

Balatkara Gana

Balatkara Gana is an ancient Jain monastic order. It is a section of the Mula Sangh. It is often termed Balatkara Gana Sarasvati Gachchha. Until the beginning of the 20th century it was present in a number of places in India. However all its seats in North India became vacant in early 20th century. It survives only at Humbaj in Karnataka, which is its ancient seat.

The Bhattaraka seat at Humcha was founded in the 8th century AD, during the reign of Jinadatta Rai, founder of the ruling dynasty of Santar. In 1048 AD, the Mahamandaleshwara Chandarayarus made a donation to a Bhattaraka of Balagara-gana at Balligame near Banavasi in present-day Karnataka. Thus, the Bhattaraka seat at Humcha (or Humbaj) may be one of the oldest of its kind. The current Bhattaraka Srimad Devendrakeerthi Bhattaraka Maharaj has supervised 31 pratishthas outside India.

Balatkara Gana arrived in North India in the 13th century as attested by inscriptions at Un (Vikram 1218), Ahar (Vikram 1228) and Hoshangabad (Vikram 1271.There exists a chronology (Pattavali) of the northern Indian tradition the early part of which was composed during the time of Bhataraka Prabhachandra II. Early part of the chronology is supported by a 13th-century inscription associated with the building of the Kirti Stambh of Chittore.

The disciples of Bhattaraka Prabhachandra founded several branches and sub-branches in several regions of India.

Baptist Union of North India

Baptist Union of North India (Regd.) is a Protestant denomination of India. The number of its congregations exceeds 100. The number of its members exceeds 50,000.

The Baptist Union of North India (Regd.) is a society consisting of Churches and Institutions some of which are more than 100 years old. The BUNI (Regd.) as it is generally addressed works in the states of Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan and Bihar. It further comprises District Unions and other Church bodies for optimal management. BUNI (Regd.) is basically oriented towards running Public service institutions such as schools and Hostels, mainly for the upliftment of society at large. It is driven by the tenets of Christianity and its ethos of "Love thy neighbour (fellow man)".

The office bearers of Baptist Union of North India (Regd.) are as under:-

Mr. Nirmal Kumar - President

Rev. S.P. David - Elderman

Mr. S.K. Raj - Vice President

Rev. Solomon David - Secretary & Treasurer

Mr. Sumeet Nath - Administrator Institutions

The registered office / Headquarters are located at 13 Raj Niwas Marg, Delhi -54

BUNI (Regd.) is a provincial Union of Baptist Churches operating under the aegis of BCTA (Baptist Church Trust Association) which in turn is affiliated to BMS (Baptist Missionary Society), London.

The office bearers of BCTA are as under:-

Mr. K.A. Sangtam - President

Mr. Nirmal Kumar - Vice President

Mr. Sumeet Nath - Secretary & Treasurer

The registered office / Headquarters are located at 19-E Raj Niwas Marg, Delhi -54.

William Carey is considered the father of the Baptist Mission in India. He came to India in the year 1793 and his famous words are " Expect Great things from God, Attempt Great things for God".

Church of North India

The Church of North India (CNI), the dominant United denomination in northern India, is a united church established on 29 November 1970 by bringing together the Anglican and Protestant churches working in northern India; it is a province of the worldwide Anglican Communion. It is the successor of the Church of England in India along with the Church of Pakistan and the Church of South India. The merger, which had been in discussions since 1929, came eventually between the Churches of India, Pakistan, Burma and the Ceylon (Anglican), the United Church of Northern India (Congregationalist and Presbyterian), the Baptist Churches of Northern India (British Baptists), the Church of the Brethren in India, which withdrew in 2006, the Methodist Church (British and Australian Conferences) and the Disciples of Christ denominations.

The CNI's jurisdiction covers all states of the Indian Union with the exception of the four states in the south (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu) and has approximately 1,250,000 members (0.1% of India's population) in 3,000 pastorates.

Culture of Himachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh, the North Indian state, was one of the few states that had remained largely untouched by external customs, largely due to its difficult terrain. With the technological advancements, the state has changed very rapidly. Himachal Pradesh is a multireligional, multicultural as well as multilingual state like other Indian states. Some of the most commonly spoken languages are Hindi and the various Pahari languages. The Hindu communities residing in Himachal include the Brahmins, Rajputs, Kannets, Rathis and Kolis. There are also tribal population in the state which mainly comprise Gaddis, Kinnarms, Gujjars, Pangawals and Lahaulis.Himachal is well known for its handicrafts. The carpets, leather works, shawls, paintings, metalware, woodwork and paintings are worth appreciating. Pashmina shawl is one of the products which is highly in demand not only in Himachal but all over the country. Himachali caps are also famous art work of the people.

Local music and dance reflects the cultural identity of the state. Through their dance and music, they entreat their gods during local festivals and other special occasions.

Apart from the fairs and festivals that are celebrated all over India, there are number of other fairs and festivals, including the temple fairs in nearly every region that are of great significance to Himachal Pradesh.

The day to day food of Himachalis is very similar to the rest of the north India. They too have lentil, broth, rice, vegetables and bread. As compared to other states in north India non-vegetarian cuisine is more preferred. Some of the specialities of Himachal include Manee,Madeera,Pateer, Chouck, Bhagjery and chutney of Til.

Diocese of Calcutta (Church of North India)

The Diocese of Calcutta, Church of North India was established in 1813 as part of the Church of England. It is led by the Bishop of Calcutta and the first bishop was Thomas Middleton (1814–1822) and the second Reginald Heber (1823–1826). Under the sixth bishop Daniel Wilson (1832–1858) the see was made Metropolitan (though not made an Archbishopric) when two more dioceses in India came into being (Madras, 1835, and Bombay, 1837).

Calcutta was made a metropolitan see by letters patent on 10 October 1835 and in 1930 was included in the Church of India, Burma and Ceylon (from 1948 the Church of India, Pakistan, Burma, and Ceylon) until 1970. In 1970, the Church of the Province of Myanmar, Church of Ceylon and the Church of Pakistan were separated from the province.

The Anglican dioceses in Northern India merged with the United Church of Northern India (Congregationalist and Presbyterian), the Methodist Church (British and Australian Conferences), the Council of Baptist Churches in Northern India, the Church of the Brethren in India, and the Disciples of Christ to form the Church of North India in the same year.

The diocese currently has jurisdiction over the corporation limits of Kolkata and the Districts of Hooghly & Howrah in the state of West Bengal. The bishop's seat (cathedra) is located in the city of Kolkata at St. Paul's Cathedral. The current bishop is Probal Kanto Dutta.

Diocese of Mumbai (Church of North India)

The Diocese of Mumbai of the Church of North India is the Anglican diocese covering metropolitan Mumbai and the state of Maharashtra. The cathedra seat of the Bishop of Mumbai is St. Thomas Cathedral, Mumbai.

Historically known as the Diocese of Bombay from its inception in 1837, it was a diocese of Church of India, Burma and Ceylon, which was renamed the Church of India, Pakistan, Burma and Ceylon in 1947; since then it has been one of its most prominent Dioceses in the Indian subcontinent. It is headed by the Anglican Bishop of Bombay.

Ghosi tribe

The Ghosi are a Muslim community found mainly in North India.

Harsha

Harsha (c. 590–647 CE), also known as Harshavardhana, was an Indian emperor who ruled North India from 606 to 647 CE. He was a member of the Vardhana dynasty; and was the son of Prabhakarvardhana who defeated the Alchon Huna invaders, and the younger brother of Rajyavardhana, a king of Thanesar, present-day Haryana. At the height of Harsha's power, his Empire covered much of North and Northwestern India, extended East till Kamarupa, and South until Narmada River; and eventually made Kannauj (in present Uttar Pradesh state) his capital, and ruled till 647 CE. Harsha was halted by the south Indian Emperor Pulakeshin II of the Chalukya dynasty, when Harsha tried to expand his Empire into the southern peninsula of India.The peace and prosperity that prevailed made his court a centre of cosmopolitanism, attracting scholars, artists and religious visitors from far and wide. The Chinese traveller Xuanzang visited the court of Harsha and wrote a very favourable account of him, praising his justice and generosity. His biography Harshacharita ("Deeds of Harsha") written by Sanskrit poet Banabhatta, describes his association with Thanesar, besides mentioning the defence wall, a moat and the palace with a two-storied Dhavalagriha (white mansion).

Kaithi

Kaithi, also called "Kayathi" or "Kayasthi", is a historical script used widely in parts of North India, primarily in the former Awadh and Bihar. It was used for writing legal, administrative, and private records. This script is similar to the Gujarati script, or Devanagari.

Kamangar

The Kamangar is a Muslim community, found in North India, Dist. Chiniot, South Punjab, North Sindh and South Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan.

La Martiniere Calcutta

La Martinière Calcutta (informally known as LMC) is an independent private day school located in Kolkata (Calcutta), West Bengal. It comprises two single-gender boys and girls schools. It was established in 1836 in accordance with the will of the French soldier of fortune and philanthropist, Major General Claude Martin. They are Christian schools, controlled by the Protestant Church of North India and independent from the Government, with English as the primary language of instruction.La Martiniere Calcutta is often ranked among the best day schools in the country, and has produced a distinguished list of alumni in all walks of Indian and British society. It has an annual meet with La Martiniere Lucknow hosted in September, as well as occasional meets with its sister school La Martiniere Lyon in France.

Madari

The Madari are a Muslim community found in a North India. They are a community of Muslim Faqirs.

Momin Ansari

The Momin Ansari (Urdu: مومن أنصاري ) or Ansari, are a Muslim community, found mainly in West and North India, and the province of Sindh in Pakistan. A small number of Ansaris are also found in the Terai region of Nepal. In North India, the community are known as Ansari or shiekh, while in Maharashtra the community is known as Momin. The name or title of Ansari ("supporters") originated in Arabia at the time of the prophet Mohammed.

The community are found throughout West and North India, but Varanasi District, in Uttar Pradesh, is always regarded by most Momin as the centre of their community. In that city, the Ansari are said to make up a third of the city's population. Important Ansari neighbourhoods in the city include Madanpura, Adampura and Jaitpura.

Mughal tribe

The Mughals (Persian: مغول‎; Urdu: مغل‎; Arabic: مغول‎, also spelled Moghul or Mogul) are a number of culturally related clans of the Indian subcontinent. They are descended from the various Central Asian Mongolic tribes that settled in the region. The term Mughal (or Mughul in Persian) literally means Mongolian.

National Capital Region (India)

The National Capital Region (NCR) is a central planning region centred upon the National Capital Territory in India. It encompasses the entire NCT of Delhi and several districts surrounding it from the states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. The NCR and the associated National Capital Region Planning Board were created in 1985 to plan the development of the region and to evolve harmonized policies for the control of land-uses and development of infrastructure in the region. Prominent cities of NCR include Delhi, Gurugram, Noida, Faridabad and Ghaziabad.

The NCR is a rural-urban region, with a population of over 46,069,000 and an urbanization level of 62.6%. As well as the cities and towns the NCR contains ecologically sensitive areas like the Aravalli ridge, forests, wildlife and bird sanctuaries. The Delhi Extended Urban Agglomeration, a part of the NCR, contributed $370 billion or roughly 4% to the Indian economy (measured in terms of GDP PPP) in 2015-16.

Sheermal

Sheermal or Shirmal (Persian-Urdu: شیرمال, Hindi: शीरमल), is a saffron-flavored traditional flatbread from Greater Iran. The word sheermal is derived from the Persian words شیر (translit. sheer) meaning milk, and مالیدن (translit. malidan) meaning to rub. In a literal translation, sheermal means milk rubbed. After being introduced to North India by the Persianate Mughal emperors. It became a delicacy of Lucknow and Hyderabad. It is also part of the Awadhi cuisine and is enjoyed in Old Bhopal.

St. Stephen's College, Delhi

St. Stephen's College is a constituent college of the University of Delhi. Widely regarded as one of the oldest and most prestigious colleges for arts and sciences in India, the institution has produced a line of distinguished alumni. It was established by the Cambridge Mission to Delhi. The college admits both undergraduates and post-graduates, and awards degrees in liberal arts and sciences under the purview of the University of Delhi. As of 2017, the Governing Body of the College has unilaterally initiated a move towards making it an autonomous institution.

Places adjacent to North India
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